Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

World mythology and folklore: thematic classification and areal distribution of motifs.

Analytical catalogue

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›ÚŪÓŮŻ Ť ŗūŚŗŽŻ

a1. The old sun. Another sun, usually less benevolent and/or powerful, existed before the present one.

a2a. Several suns burn the earth. The world was or will be (almost) burned when several suns had (will) appear(ed) simultaneously. (Texts with "Moon was equal to Sun" without "the burned earth" motif not mentioned).

a2b. Extra suns and moons annihilated. Other suns or moons besides present ones had been in the sky and were later annihilated.

a2b1. The last sun. Two or more suns shine in the sky. When the extra suns had been annihilated, there was a risk of the last one being destroyed too.

a2c. Extra suns are children of the present one. Extra suns who almost burned or could burn the world are children of the present one.

a2d. Suns of the other worlds. Different suns illuminate different worlds or will appear successively in the future.

a3. Male sun and female moon. The Moon is female or bisexual, the Sun is male.

a4. Female sun. The Sun is female, the Moon is male or (much more rare) also female.

a4a. The Sun dazzles eyes. Modest Sun-woman dazzles (usually pricks with needles, i.e. the sun rays) eyes of those who look at her.

a4b. The Sun is afraid of the night. Being afraid of the night, the Sun decided to travel across the sky only at the day time.

a5. The Sun and the Moon are males. The Moon is male, the Sun is also male or (much more rare) asexual.

a5a. The Sun created from the Moonís swaddling clothes. The younger brother (usually the Sun) is created from urine and swaddling clothes of the elder brother (usually the Moon)..

a6. The Sun and the Moon are females. Both the Sun and the Moon are considered to be females (incl. cases when the gender is not directly specified but both emerge from parts of the body of a female person).

a7a. Torches in hands of celestial bodies. Light of the Sun (Moon, Venus) is a torch in hands of the celestial body.

a7. The sun pursues the moon. The Sun and the Moon are persons of different sex. The man pursues the woman or vice versa. Details of pursuit usually explain why the luminaries are not equally bright and/or why there are stains on the lunar disc.

a8. The Sun, the Moon and the Star are three siblings. The Sun, the Moon and the star (stars) are three sisters or three brothers.

a8a. The Sun, the Moon and the Star: released by the hero . The Sun, the Moon and the star (stars) are three objects/persons that were abducted by demon and then released by the hero.

a9. The moon defends people. Female moon does not permit her husband or son to destroy people.

a10. The sun finds its eyes. The sun gets his bright eye or eyes from an animal.

a11a. Eyes of the Sun and the Moon: coolness and night. Visible sun and/or moon are the Sun's and/or the Moon's eyes. If these eyes were not injured, light and heat would be more intense.

a11b. One-eyed luminaries. The Sun or the Moon have only one eye (the Mundurucu: they are blind).

a11c. The Sun, the Moon and monsterís eyes. The Sun and the Moon kill a monster whose eyes are unequally bright. The Moon takes the brighter eye but gives it back to the Sun.

a12. Eclipses: a monsterís attack. Some creature or creatures regularly (sunrise and sunset, summer and winter, lunar phases) or irregularly (solar and lunar eclipses, eschatological events) attack the luminaries or shade their light.

a12a. Eclipses: a predator animal. During an eclipse or at the sunset the Sun or the Moon are attacked by a predator animal (a bear, a feline, a canine, a racoon).

a12b. Eclipses: a frog or toad. During an eclipse or at the sunset the Sun or the Moon are attacked by a frog or toad.

a12c. Eclipses: reptiles and fish. During an eclipse or at the sunset the Sun or the Moon are attacked by a reptile (a snake, a lizard, a dragon, a crocodile) or a fish.

a12d. Eclipses: birds. A bird or birds attack or shade the Sun or the Moon during an eclipse or at the sunrise and sunset.

a12e. Eclipses: spider. A spider produces the lunar eclipses.

a12f. Eclipses: creditor. A creditor comes from time to time to the Sun or the Moon to claim back his money producing eclipses.

a13a. Raven steals the Sun. Raven steals (hides) the Sun or tries to do it.

a13a1. Raven obtains the Sun. Raven obtains the hidden or stolen Sun.

a13b. Ants shade the Sun. During an eclipse or during the first night ants shade or shaded the Sun.

a14. Eclipses: relations between the Sun and the Moon. Coming together of the Sun and the Moon is the reason of their eclipses.

a15. Eclipses: crossing of the paths. An eclipse happens when the Sun or the Moon turns to a wrong path or when their paths cross.

a16. Dangers along the Sunís way. Every night the Sun and/or the Moon passes by creatures or objects which try to destroy them.

a17. The Sunís relax at the midday. After passing half of the its way across the sky (in the day time) or in the underworld (in the night time), the Sun stops to have a rest.

a18. The sky boats. The Sun and/or the Moon regularly travel across the sky or the underworld in a boat. (Voyages by boat of the mythical persons who eventually become the Sun or the Moon not included).

a19a. By horse in the morning, by ox in the evening. During its everyday travel across the sky, the Sun changes its draught animals (usually in the morning the Sun rides a slow animal and in the evening a quick one).

a19b. By snail in summer, by bird in winter. For its sky voyage, the Sun chooses draught animals according to the season, riding a slow one in the summer time and a quick one in the winter time. Or a young man carries the Sun in the winter time and the old man in the summer time.

a20. Childhood of the Sun and Moon. The Sun and Moon are two siblings who live on earth and then ascend to the sky. Their (birth and) childhood are described.

a21. Luminaries thrown up into the sky. The sun and/or the moon are inanimate objects thrown up or put into the sky.

a22. To the sky from a bonfire. After getting into the fire or boiling water, one or two persons ascend to the sky and turn into the Sun and/or Moon.

a22a. The hot Sun and its cold companion. After two persons burn up, one turns into the present Sun and another into a less important sky object.

a22b. Hot fire and cold ashes. Person who becomes the Sun burned up in a hot fire while his companion burned up in the less hot fire or threw himself into the ashes. He (she) turns into the Moon or a star which gives no warmth.

a22c. Person sacrificed to the Sun. To make the Sun rise above the horizon, to send him to the right distance from the earth, to make him move across the sky, etc. a person has to be sacrificed.

a22d. The burned up persons turn into constellation. The burned up persons turn into a constellation or into the dark spot on the Milky Way.

a23. Elections of the Sun to be. The primeval ancestors come together to choose the best candidate to become the Sun and/or to send the Sun to the sky or to see how the Sun rises to the sky for the first time.

a23a. Who will see the Sun first?. Two persons or animals argue about who of them will be the first to see the rising sun. One who seemed to have less chances wins.

a23b. First beams on the tree tops. Two persons or animals argue who will see the rising sun first. One who got to see not the sun itself but its reflection or the first beams on trees or mountain tops wins.

a23c. Who will fly higher?. Birds argue who of them will fly higher. One who seemed to have less chances wins (he hides himself in feathers of a strong bird using it as a vehicle) .

a24. The first sunrise. In the beginning it is dark. When the Sun first appears on the sky, primeval beings or part of them perish or turn into animals or spirits.

a24a. The first day or night: transformed into spirits. At the moment when the first day or the first night come, (some) people turn into supernatural beings.

a25. Getting accustomed to the light. When people see light of day for the first time, they are prohibited to look at it immediately. Those who break this taboo are ruined.

a26. The Sun-bird. A bird incorporates the Sun or the day light. It can be caught, let free, killed.

a27. Crowns of the Sun and Moon. Light and/or heat of the Sun and/or Moon originate from their crowns, necklaces or clothes (of feathers, of animal teeth).

a29. The Sun and a demon compete for the hero. Two persons one of whom is connected with the upper and another with the lower or middle world, both are eager to possess another person and pull him or her to his or her side. One or both rivals are female. Person connected with the upper world and/or the object of the competition are luminaries Ė the Sun, the Moon, or Venus.

a29a. Torn in half by two wives. The sky wife and the wife from the earth each pull the man to her side tearing him in half.

a29b. The Moon torn in half. Person, connected with the upper world and another person connected with the lower world or the earth both are eager to possess a hero or heroin who is associated with the Moon.

a30. The Moon eats the dead. Moon descends to earth to eat children, corpses or bones of the dead.

a31. The incestuous Moon . As a result of some intimate contacts and/or love affair, the Moon acquires its present appearance (often, the stains on his face) and/or ascends to the sky.

a31a. The cut off breast. When a woman gets know that her husband or lover did something against accepted rules of behavior, she cuts off her breast and shows it to him.

a32. Figure on lunar disc. A figure or an imprint of some being or object are seen in the Moon. (For statistical analysis motifs A32A Ė A32J are also included into A32).

a32a. The Moon rabbit. Rabbit or hare are seen in the moon.

a32b. The Moon toad. Frog or toad are seen in the moon or the Moon is associated with them.

a32c. A man and a dog in the Moon. A human being and a dog together are seen in the moon.

a32c1. Predator animal in the Moon. A predator animal (fox, wolf, dog, coyote, jaguar, lion) or its imprint is seen in the Moon.

a32d. Man in the Moon. Human being or imprint of human being is seen in the moon.

a32d1. Cain and Abel in the Moon. Cain and Abel are related to the Moon, usually are seen (borth or Cain only) in the shadows of the lunar disc.

a32dd. Firewood-carrier in the moon. Person who carries a bundle of brushwood or firewood is seen in the moon..

a32e. Person with an object in hands. Person who holds some object in his or her hands is seen in the moon.

a32f. Water-carrier in the Moon. Person who went to fetch water and/or holds in hands a container for liquid is seen in the moon.

a32g. Holding a bush. Person who had been carried up to the moon took hold of a bush or a small tree and is seen now on the lunar disc together with this bush.

a32h. The Moon plant. A tree or bush is seen in the moon.

a32i. A shepherd in the moon. A shepherd or herdsman (alone or with a girl, with his herd, dogs) is seen in the moon.

a32j. A shaman in the moon. A shaman with his drum ascends to the moon and remains there, his figure is seen in the moon.

a32k. First to the Sun, then to the Moob. Person seen in the Moon initially had to get to the Sun or the Sun and the Moon argue who of them should get the person.

a33. The Sun ram. The Sun has appearance of a big terrestrial mammal (bull, ram, antilope, pig, rhinocero, etc.) or rides such an animal.

a34. The fox and the Moon. Jackal, coyote, or fox are connected with the Moon (usually with the origin of spots on the lunar disc).

a35. Spots on the lunar disc. Dark spots on the lunar disc are dirt, blood, paint, traces of beating, burning, scratching, etc. on the Moon person's body or face (Kiliwa: spots on the Sun) and do not form any particular figure.

a35a. Dirt into the Moonís face. Spots on the lunar disc are dirt thrown into the Moon's face by his/her sister/brother or mother.

a35b. To smear the Moon with pitch. To make the Moon less bright, some person tried to smear it with pitch .

a35c. Scars and wounds on the Moonís face. Dark spots on the Moon are scars and wounds on her face.

a36. The immortal Moon. Moon, unlike people, revives or rejuvenates every month; or those who live in the Moon are immortal; or the Moon makes decision if people should die forever or regularly revive.

a37. The Sun is attacked. Person attacks the Sun (or several suns if they were many) with weapon.

a37a. Shooter hides underground. Small animal (marmot, rabbit, mole, toad, frog) or person who turns into this animal tried to hit the Sun with arrows and since then has been hiding from the Sun in underground holes or in the water.

a37b. Shooterís thumb cut off. A small animal (marmot, rabbit, mole, toad, frog) or person who turns into this animal tried to hit with his arrow an aim in the sky (the Sun or a bird) but remains without thumb as a result.

a38. The Sun caught in snare. Person prepares a snare, loop, noose, etc. to catch the Sun and/or the Sun is caught in a snare, tied by a rope, etc..

a38a. Snare of pubic hair. The Sun is caught into snare made of the pubic hair of hero's female relative.

a38b. Mouse gnaws snare open. After the Sun is caught into snare only mouse, shrew or other small animal is able to cut it open.

a38c. The Sunís cloak. A boy or a girl has a cloak. The Sun spoils it or gives instead a better one.

a38d. The Sun ruins cloak. Because the Sun does damage to a person or animal (spoils, burns his cloak, skin, etc.), the person or animal kills him or catches him in a snare.

a39. The new sun every day. Suns are born and die every day.

a40. The Sun or Moon marry toad. Frog or Toad is a wife of the Sun or Moon.

a41. The Sun swallows her children. Two persons have children (younger siblings, mothers). One of them proposes to another that they should kill (eat, bake, etc.) their children (mothers, etc.) but hides his or her own. The opponent actually kills his or her own kin. One of the persons or/and the only survived child is the Sun.

a42. Phaethon: false Sun fails to fulfill his duty. Person comes to the sun, attempts to fulfill the sun's duty but intentionally or because of a lack of skill does it wrong and the earth suffers from heat etc..

a43. The Moon in one moccasin . The Moon-person runs out of the lodge and flies up. He forgets to put his footwear on one foot, or somebody attempts to seize him grasping his foot or cuts the foot off. Now the Moon-person lacks one foot or footwear on one of his (or her) feet (or has his mitten only on one hand).

a43a. Person with a shoe on one foot. While being transformed into a bird or ascending to the sky a person was in a hurry and put a footwear only on one foot, or somebody attempted to seize him grasping his foot. Now the corresponding bird or a sky-person is believed to have different feet.

a44. Moon the protector. A person pursued by an enemy or tyrannized by others asks the Moon to take her or him to the sky. The request is granted and the person is now seen in the Moon.

a45. The insulted Moon. Person who teases or insults the Moon is punished.

a46. The Sun and Moon from eyes of a being. The Sun and Moon (Rig-Veda: the Sun only) appear from eyes of a person or creature.

a47. Three horseman (the Sun, the Moon and the night). On her way to a demonic person, a woman meets horsemen who represent different luminaries or different periods of the day cycle.

b1. Two male creators. In the beginning of times two companions or brothers compete in producing things. Usually one of them is or becomes master of the underworld.

b1a. Three worlds: the universe divided between gods. Anthropomorphic persons agree to divide between them levels of universe (upper world, earth, lower world).

b1b. Two female creators. In the beginning of times two supernatural females compete in producing things. One has positive, another negative characteristics.

b1c. One creator deceives another. Two creators agree that whose object will be found in a certain condition (usually: whose tree or flower will grow or blossom first) should be recognized as a senior one. While one of the creators sleeps or is absent, another replaces the objects and so achieves the priority by deceit.

b1d. Good and bad workers. Two persons are creating the world, one is a good and and another a bad worker, thatís because separate parts of the world look differently.

b2a. The female earth. The earth is a female being or associated with a woman.

b2b. The earth eats the dead. The earth devours bodies of the people when they die and are buried.

b2c. The earth is a human body, is born by woman. The earth, elements of the landscape or the fertile soil are the transformed body of a person or the earth (islands) were born by a woman.

b2d. Marriage of the sky and the earth. The male Sky (the Sun, the Thunder, the creator of the sky) marries the female Earth (or its female creator) or the female Sky marries the male Earth.

b2e. The male earth. The earth or the world as a whole is a male person.

b2f. Buried in a head. (While the earth is still absent or liquid), a bird buries its relative (usually the mother) in its own head or flies carrying the dead body or the coffin.

b2g. Chameleon walked while the earth was still soft. Chaeleon is a premordial animal and walked on the earth while its was not still solid.

b3. A primeval swamp. Initially the earth is a swamp, water and dry land are not separated from each other.

b3a. Primeval waters. Water is the original element, the dry earth appears later.

b3b. Earth grows big. Original earth was small and later increased in size or the fertile soil grew from a small amount of original substance.

b3c. An attempt to drown God. When dry land is created, Creator takes a rest and sleeps. His antagonist decides to drown him and drags him to the edge of the earth. The dry land grows in size as long as the antagonist drags the Creator's body, the edge never reached.

b3d. Earth from wormís excrements. A worm obtains the earth (from the underworld), it emerges from the worm's excrements, is extracted from inside of the worm.

b3e. Earth falls on waters. In the beginning there are only air and water. 1) Person descends from the sky, creates the dry land or a hard support created for her or him grows into the earth. 2) The earth is sent or dropped from the sky, put on the surface of the water. 3) The earth is brought from somewhere (not from the underworld) and put on the water.

b4. The fished out earth. Islands or continent are fished out of the ocean or pulled to their present place by rope.

b5a. Two creators: a dialogue. In the beginning of time, a male and a female persons meet each other and become engaged into the dialogue.

b5b. The universal mother. Woman (alone or with her companion) gives birth to or creates not only people but also different creatures and objects.

b5c. Primeval mother and daughter. There are two women in the beginning of time, an old and a young one. The young woman conceives in a supernatural way and gives birth to a son or twins who establish natural order and social rules.

b6. First man and woman meets each other. The first or the only survived man and woman walk or run to each other around a post, a hill, etc. When they come together they marry each other.

b6a. One egg was thrown away. Female ancestor gives birth to several eggs. One or two of them do not hatch for a long time, thought to be rotten are thrown into the river. However just from them emerge (or had to emerge) high status characters .

b7a. The spit out water. Somebody is the only possessor of water or certain beverage. Another person drinks it, escapes and spits out making it available for the people.

b7b. Waters from broken pot. Sea, river, waters of flood flow out of a small container.

b7c. Water splashed out. Person or creature possesses all the fresh water. Another person splashes it out of a container or pond making it available for everybody.

b7d. Water flows from broken bone. Water flows from a broken bone (of a bird) producing a flood.

b8. Frog hides the water. Frog hides all the water but other person makes it available for everybody.

b9. Water in the tree trunk. There is enormous amount of water inside a trunk of a tree or a tree turns into water.

b10. Drunk out water. Person drinks a lake or all the water in the world or all the water is originally inside person's belly. When a hole is made in it, the water pours out.

b11a. Mammoth creates the landscape. Mammoth described as an underground creature moves across the earth while it is still wet creating the present landscape.

b13a. Stream follows person. A stream of water (with a monster in it) pursues person who tries to escape from it.

b14. The river rapids. Person creates river rapids.

b15. River from womanís body. A river flows from the body of a female person.

b16a. Sea from the urine. The sea is produced from urine or blood.

b16b. Wolverine makes the sea salty. The sea is salty because the wolverine or the fox bathed in it or urinated into it.

b16c. Salt-grinding mill. Magic mill is ordered to grind salt but not ordered to stop. It sinks into ocean and continues to work making the water salty.

b17. Night in container. Darkness is a particular object that can be carried (usually brought from its original owner in a container).

b18. Day in container. Day light (also warmth, the sun, the moon) is kept as a particular object in a container, under a cover, etc..

b19. The night and the married life. People had trouble making love before night came into being.

b20. Expedition to the upper world. People regularly ascend to the sky for hunting, fishing or gathering; do not give honey, fish or proper meat to the old person remained below; she or he makes their return impossible, they remain in the sky.

b21. Destruction of the world tree. People ascend the tree to hunt, fish, or gather food in the sky. The tree is destroyed, people fall to earth or remain in the upper world.

b22. Offended person destroys the tree. People who have climbed up a tree do not share food with a person who remained below. He or she revenges on them destroying the tree. The events have cosmic dimensions.

b22a. Lads and tapir. Boys climb a tree to eat fruits. Tapir asks them to give some fruits to him, they refuse to do so. Tapir tries to kill the boys.

b23. Prohibited fire and smoke. God prohibits making fire for cooking and punishes breakers of this taboo.

b24. Transformation into wild pigs. After being engaged into a conflict or breaking a tabou, people are transformed into wild pigs or peccaries.

b24a. Circle of feathers. Person makes a circle of bird feathers around a group of people or throws feathers into their dwelling, people turn into wild pigs.

b25. Pigs fall from a tree. Persons climb a tree or liana and fall turning into wild pigs and other game animals.

b26. Man joins wild animals. Person who follows the wild animals turns into one of them or into their master.

b27. Variants of transformations. Persons ponders over what object, feature, or creature it would be appropriate for him or her to turn into. When the choice is made, the persons transforms himself or herself.

b28. Travelling transformer. The transformer walks along coming across different persons, transforming them into birds, animals, stones, shrines, etc. and introducing cultural norms, landscape features, etc..

b28a. Pierced to the ground. Person who have been transforming people into animals or stones is pierced to the ground with a pole.

b28b. Pacification of things. Hero comes to a country where inhabitants are afraid of objects or plants who attack them. He easily overcomes these objects and transforms them in what they are now.

b28c. Lice grasp a man and pull him into the sea. Lice grasp a man and pull him into the sea.

b28d. Unrecognized Transformer. Persons do not understand with whom they are talking and tell the Transformer that they are making weapons to kill such and such a person or thinking about how to hide from him. The Transformer kills them of transforms them into animals.

b28d1. Man transformed into deer, his knives into antlers. Unrecognized Transformer meets a man who tells him that he prepares knives (a spear) to kill Transformer. The latter transforms him into deer, his knives or spear into deer antlers.

b28e. The Moon organizes the world. The Moon (alone or together with the Sun) transforms the original abnormal world establishing present day norms and forms.

b29. Eschatological feast. People turn into animals, birds or stones at a feast, after the feast, after performing a ritual or after a victory over dangerous enemy.

b30a. Murdered person turns into fish. Fish emerges from remains of a killed person or creature.

b30b. Murdered person turns into game animals. Different game animals emerge from remains of a murdered person.

b31. Woman turns into water mammal. After a conflict with a man or remaining alone, a woman turns into water mammal.

b32. Women turn into fish. After a conflict with their husbands women turn into fish.

b33. Mother of the wind. Female person is incarnation of wind, mother of winds, etc..

b33a. One dies of cold in the spring. When it becomes warm, a person or animal (bird) decides that the winter is over (most often an old woman goes to graze her animals) but dies of cold.

b33a1. The offended March. Person teases, offends March or other month and is punished.

b33b. A bird of March. In the late winter or early spring a bird (usually a thrush) flies out before time and dies of cold or her nestlings die of cold.

b33c. The borrowed days. When the winter ends and the spring begins certain month (usually March) borrows several days from a neighbor month to produce a short period of a very cold weather.

b33d. Old woman of the winter. Old woman is incarnation of winter or there are several cold days between winter and spring (or fall) associated with a certain old woman.

b33e. If February were like January. The last cold month wishes he were longer or would come earlier. In such a case he would freeze everybody to death.

b33f. Night that unwinds her yarn. Thanks to activity of a person (usually the old woman who winds or unwinds yarn, threads, etc.), the night and the day alternate with each other.

b33g. There horsemen (the Sun, the Moon, the Night). Three horsemen embody luminaries or parts of the day cycle.

b34. Overtaken by the first night. When night escapes from container where it was originally preserved, men surprised by the darkness turn into birds or animals.

b35. Waddling bear. Being in a hurry, the bear puts his left shoe on his right foot and vice versa. Now is lumbering.

b35a. Tree fulfills wishes and then transforms into bear. Tree grants a man the fulfillment of his wishes but ultimately transforms him into a bear.

b36. Color, voice, form: one divided between many. Because the integrity of some creature or (rare) object is ruined, different beings get their present colors, voices and other anatomical traits.

b36a. Bathing in blood. Birds or fish obtain their colors after smearing themselves with liquids extracted from the body of some being or dividing among themselves its bright skin or dress.

b36b. Birds obtain their voices. Birds obtain their voices after pecking big reptile and smearing themselves with liquids from its body.

b36c. Fat animals. Animals get meat and fat extracted from some original creature or created otherwise. Some get a lot, some remain lean.

b37. Color of birds. Person paints two or more different birds (rare: fish) or they paint each other, smear themselves with paint, decorate their bodies with pieces of bright skin or fabric. Since then feathers, beaks and feet of the birds (skin and scales of fish) are of different colors.

b38. The ruined painting. Person paints birds or animals or they paint each other. It is made not according to the original plan.

b38a. Two birds paint each other. Two birds paint each other, one becomes worse than it was before.

b38b. Raven and loon paint each other. Raven and loon paint each other.

b38c. Tail base of the loon. Person kicks loon or other water bird. Since then this bird has flat tail base and it walks on dry land with difficulty.

b38d. Raven and owl paint each other. Raven and owl paint each other.

b38e. Swan marries crow. A bird with white or bright feathers marries a bird with black feathers but flies away after getting know that his or her marriage partner eats carrion or excrements.

b39. Narrow waist of an insect. Insect-person knows the source of food (cultivated plants) and water but does not share his knowledge. To make him speak, ancestors tie a rope around his waist and pull it till the waist becomes narrow (origin of narrow place between breast and belly of insects).

b40. Rabbit as deerís proxy. Hare or rabbit is a false deer or it was deer in the past or a close kin of the deer or had horns or antlers or missed opportunity to get them, its ears are the false horns.

b40a. Missed opportunity to have horns. Animal who has no horns now had them before or missed opportunity to get them.

b40b. Horse exchanges features with cow. The horse exchanges some parts of his body with the cow, usually gives her horns and/or obtains teeth.

b41. The talking dog. Dogs could speak. To prevent them to spread information, the dog is deprived of this ability or the dog rejects it itself.

b41a. Animal reveals masterís secrets. The dog or other domestic animal speaks aloud about those details of its masters' life that they would prefer to conceal. He is punished by depriving his ability to speak.

b42. Cosmic hunt. Certain stars or constellations are interpreted as hunters, their dogs and game which the hunters pursue.

b42a. Blood or fat drops to earth. Hunters pursue a bear across the sky, kill it in August Ė October. Its blood or fat drops to earth as a dew or painting leaves of the trees in red.

b42b. Sky hunters pursue an ungulate. In the cosmic hunt tale the game pursued by the hunters is an ungulate (elk, deer, mountain sheep, etc.).

b42c. Sky hunters pursue a bear. In the cosmic hunt tale the game pursued by the hunters is a bear.

b42d. Sky hunters pursue a tapir. In the cosmic hunt tale the game pursued by the hunters is a tapir.

b42e. Sky hunters pursue a rhea. In the cosmic hunt tale the game pursued by the hunters is a rhea bird (Rhea americana).

b42f. Ursa major is an ungulate. Ursa major (seven stars or only four stars of a dipper) is identified with an ungulate (elk, deer, mountain sheep, etc.).

b42g. Ursa major is a game animal(s). Ursa major (seven stars or only four stars of a dipper) is identified with the animal or anmials pursued by the hunter.

b42h. The Belt of Orion is the game, other star is the hunter. The Belt of Orion is the animal or three animals, other star (of the Orion or outside of this constellation) is the hunter.

b42h1. Hunterís arrow hit Śūů animal. In context of the Cosmic Hunt myth one of the stars (group of stars) is an arrow or a bullet which hit the animal or three animals identified with the Belt of Orion.

b42i. The object of cosmic hunt is the Lady in the Chair. The object of hunt in the cosmic hunt tale is identified with the Lady in the Chair.

b42k. Cosmic hunt and the Pleiades. In the cosmic hunt tale either hunters or game is identified with the Pleiades.

b42l. Animal is the dipper, hunters are the handle. Stars of the handle of the Big Dipper are identified with the hunters, the dipper itself with the game (bear or elk).

b42m. Second hunterís cooking pot. Hunter identified with Mizar (the second star of the handle of the Big Dipper) carries a cooking pot identified with Alcor (weak star near Mizar).

b42m1. Yurak, Selkup and Tungus. Every one of three (rare: four) hunters who pursuing an elk get to the sky and become stars is identified with a person of particular nationality.

b42m2. The boaster and the hurried one. Stars of the handle of the Big Dipper are three hunters who pursue an animal and demonstrate particular psychological characteristics (one is a boaster, another is a hurried one, etc.). In Siberia the hunters belong to different ethnic groups and in the North American Northeast they are different species of birds.

b42mn. One hunter chases the sky-elk. In the cosmic hunt tale only one hunter (not many) pursues an animal (elk or bear) associated with a circumpolar constellation but not with Orion or the Pleiades. (In Kalevalaic tradition the association with particular sideral objects is absent.

b42n. Orion is one person. Constellation of Orion or the Belt of Orion is identified with only one male person, usually with a warrior or hunter.

b42o. Broken back constellation. Certain constellation is a male person whose back is broken or wounded.

b42o1. Ursa major is a fisher. Ursa major is identified with a fisher (mustela pennati).

b42p. Ursa major is a bear. Ursa major is identified with a bear.

b42q. Ursa major is a carriage. Ursa major is identified with a carriage, a cart.

b42r. The Belt of Orion: one runs after another. Three stars of the Belt of Orion are three persons or animals who pursue each other.

b42s. Hit with a projectile. Ursa major or Polaris are identified with a middle size animal (ermine, fisher, woodchuck) or with a basically anthropomorphic person (with some animal characteristics) hit with a dart or an arrow.

b42t. Ursa major is a big mammal. Seven main stars of Ursa major are interpreted as a figure of a mammal: bear, deer, mountain sheep, camel, dog.

b43. Purusha. Parts of the body of the primeval person or creature are transformed into different elements of the landscape and parts of the universe.

b44a. Council on seasons: units of time. Animals (Melanesia: persons) discuss the number of discrete units of time that should be in a certain calendar period or in the night.

b44b. Council on seasons: toes, claws, hairs, feathers. Toes, claws, feathers, hairs, color stripes, etc. are counted and compared to establish the number of period of time or particular way of alternation of periods.

b44c. Should warmth and light exist?. It is discussed if darkness or light, cold or warm periods should exist.

b44d. Black-an-white animal is night and day. There are both night and day because spotted (or otherwise black and white) animal has been killed.

b44e. Dispute of animals. Participants of the discussion concerning number of the units of time, etc. are animals (rare: animals and elements, in particular Wind).

b44f. Fox stands for day. In a dispute about should it be dark or light, Fox stands for light.

b45. Marriage of winter and summer. A coming of warm (light, abundant, etc.) or cold (dark, barren, etc.) time is related to the marriage of certain person.

b45b. The bull of cold. Bull or cow are related to winter and cold, responsible for existence of the cold season.

b46. Ursa major as seven men. Every star of the Ursa mayor is a separate person. Usually the constellation represents seven men, rare it is seven women or seven persons and animals.

b46a. Stolen star of the Pleiades. One of the stars of the Pleiades was separated from others (usually abducted) by stars of Big Dipper and now is seen among them).

b46a1. Stars of Bid Dipper are robbers. Stars of Big Dipper are thieves or robbers.

b46c. Ursa major is seven persons or animals. Every star of the Ursa mayor is a separate person or animal.

b46d. Extraordinary companions turn into stars. Several men each of whom is an expert in a particular sphere turn into stars.

b47. The Pleiades bring cold. In former times or regularly the Pleiades or other group of stars produced or produce till now severe cold. (The heliacal set of the Pleiades is in May-June while in the Northern Hemisphere they are seen best of all in the winter time).

b47a. Split hood of cow. Cow steps on the stars of the Pleiades which were dangerous being and lived on earth. Some of these stars slipped through its split hoof.

b48. Predators become herbivorous . Weak or herbivorous animals were dangerous predators but have been transformed.

b48a. Other creaturesí flesh. Particular pieces of flesh or inner organs in the bodies of animals, birds, or fish originally belonged to other creatures.

b48b. Human flesh in the animals. Some game animals have a piece of human flesh in their body that remained since the time when these animals were anthropomorphic.

b48c. Artifacts (tools) in pikeís head. In the pikeís head are (seen) tool used by people.

b48d. Pike swallows people. Creatures or objects swallowed by pike become part of its body (usually turn into bones of the pikeís head).

b49. Muddled request. Animals of particular species do not hear well the instructions concerning their way of life or the ask God for some benefit but muddle their request. Thanks to this they acquire their present habits. (In the Toraja tale the motif is used to explain the mortal nature of human beings).

b49a. How many cubs in a year. Mighty animals lost opportunity to have many children and now give birth only once in several years.

b49b. Teats of the cow. Initially cow had more teats than now.

b50. Bloodsuckserís lie. An insect feeds on human blood (flesh). Dangerous person asks it where it got to suck blood or whose blood (flesh) is the most delicious. The insect lies or cannot answer (its tongue is cut off). Thanks to this dangerous person attacks certain plants or animals and not people.

b51. Mosquito and thunder. Bloodsucking insect does not tell thunder that it has sucked human blood.

b51a. The snake is an enemy of the swallow. The snake is an enemy of the swallow (usually because swallow does not let snake to destroy people; the snake sends mosquito or other bloodsucking insect to get know whose blood is the most delicious; the insect flies back to report that human blood is the sweetest; swallow bites its tongue off and the snake gets to pull off feathers from the swallow's tail).

b51b. The snake and the Noahís ark (snake or eel thrust its tale into the hole). During the flood the snake (eel) saved the ark thrusting its tail into the hole in the arkís bottom.

b52a. Vulture creates the landscape. Flying above the earth and flapping its wings, a bird (usually a vulture) makes it dry after the flood or otherwise creates present landscape.

b52b. Some earth is concealed. Person spits out earth that he swallowed or concealed otherwise. This way the broken landscape is created.

b52c. Earth bigger than sky. When the earth and the sky were created, they p[roved to be of unequal size. The earth was squeezed, this way mountains appeared.

b53. Creatures or objects from cut off genitals. Supernaturally big genitals are cut off and turn into snakes or other creatures and objects.

b54. Chips turn into fish. Chips of wood, branches or pieces of bark thrown or fallen into the water turn into fish and/or aquatic animals.

b55. Leaves are fish. Fish grows on branches of a tree or leaves of a tree turn into fish.

b56. Fire tongue of crocodile. After the crocodile or caiman swallows or loses fire (that he possessed before), he remains without his tongue; or the crocodile's tongue is cut off to make something related to celestial fire (thunderbolt, sun beams, etc..

b57. Blood reddens world. When some person or animal is killed, blood paints the sky or vegetation (origin of the sunrise or sunset, of reddish colors of Aurora borealis or of the red color of the autumn leaves).

b57a. Red sunset contains a message. When person gets to see that the sky becomes red he or she understands that another person's blood is shed or that another person spilled a red liquid.

b58. Wild turkeyís red neck. After the original fire is stolen by the ancestors, a partridge size forest bird (Penelope sp.; Anhima cornuta; etc.; jacu, paujil) swallows burning coal and (besides the Andoque) its neck becomes red.

b59. A groups of dancers ascend to the sky. A group of people (usually children, brothers or sisters) play, dance, ascend to the sky and turn into Pleiades or other compact constellation.

b60. Offended children abandon parents. Children conflict with their parents who do not pay them enough attention, condemn their sexual behavior, do not give them enough food, clothes, etc.; the children abandon their parents and become birds, bats, atmospheric phenomena, or stars (usually the Pleiades).

b61. The moleís paw. Mole had to support the sky or the Sun that had fallen down. Usually its paw (hand) remained crooked after this.

b62. Buzzard husband. Man thinks that buzzard or hawk has better life than he. They exchange clothes. The bird lives with the man's wife as her husband, the man usually does not enjoy his bird life.

b63. Transformation of lazy boys. Young people, usually siblings, tell other person, usually their mother, that they have been doing agricultural work though it is not the case. When the deceit is discovered, they turn into atmospheric phenomena.

b64. The bony fish. Bones of fresh-water fish are result of a fighting or military expedition. The bones are arrows that have pierced the fish bodies (gill openings are pierced by arrows) or the small bones are fragments of originally big ones.

b64a. Small bones: war between fish and birds. Fish and birds shoot arrows into each other. Since then there are many small bones inside the fish.

b64b. Small bones: war between different fish. Fish of two species shoot arrows into each other. Since then there are many small bones in the fish or some bones are forked.

b64c. Small bones: fish fall from the sky. Fish in company of other earth dwellers ascend to fight with the sky dwellers. They fall to earth and break their bones. Since then there are many small bones in the fish.

b64d. Bones are arrows. Certain bones in the body of living creatures (usually birds and fish) are arrows that were shot into them.

b65. Intestines turn into creepers. Person plays imitating other animal person. His belly is cut open as a result and intestines turn into vines.

b66. Rope turns into creepers. Persons climb to the sky up a rope or an arrow ladder; fallen down rope turns into forest vines.

b67. Tree turns to rocks. People fell giant tree. The fallen tree and/or its stump turns into mountain(s) or rocks.

b68. The giant grouse. Hazel-grouse was big and dangerous. He is torn to pieces which are shared between other birds and animals. What remains is the present grouse.

b69. Chipmunk's back scratched: hence his stripes. To thank or to punish a small mammal like chipmunk or (ground) squirrel, animal or person scratches or paints it producing stripes on its back.

b69a. Council on seasons, chipmunk participates. Chipmunk or an animal of similar size (weasel, pika) is engaged into argument with another animal person (bear, elk, puma, snake) if it should be warm and light or cold and dark.

b69b. Frogís back scratched: hence its stripes. To thank or to punish a frog, animal or person scratches it producing stripes on its back.

b70. Ears of hare. Person beats hares, foxes or other medium size animals who became helpless (usually closed in his house). Tale explains why tips of the animals' ears or tails have a particular color.

b71. Aurora borealis. Aurora borealis is spirits (of the dead) who run holding burning torches, play or fight with each other.

b72. The thirsty cuckoo. Children do not give water to their mother or mother to her child. The offended person turns into a bird, usually a cuckoo.

b72a. Mother, child and swans. (Step)parent does not share his or her food with a child. The child (usually a small girl) asks the migratory birds (swans, geese, etc.) to take her or him with them. The birds give the child feathers (wings, etc.) and the girl (boy) flies away with the birds.

b72b. A girl flies away as a bird. A girl (rare: boy) turns into bird and flies away when her mother (father or other adult person in whose house she lives) does not give her food, water or makes her feel offended in other way.

b73. The cuchoo: different legs. Person turns into the cuckoo so quickly that one of his or her legs remains bare or one of her braids not plaited. Now it is believed that the cuckoo has different legs or wings.

b73a. The cuchoo: in search of lost horse. A girl (with her brother; two small brothers) is (are) in search of the horse or cattle or the girl is in search of her lost brother. She (alone or with her brother; both brothers) turns into a bird (usually a cuckoo; or both siblings turn into birds) that cries in specific way.

b73b. The cuckoo: in search of lost sibling. Two teenagers or young people are in search of each other, call each other (or one of them call another): a girl in search of her lost (or dead) brother or brotherís wife, a boy in search of his brother or sister. One or both of them into birds with specific cry.

b74. The red-eyed wood-grouse. Eyes of wood-grouse became red because it shed tears.

b74a. Red rags on eyelids. After they sew red rags or threads to personís eylids or paint them in red (or he does it himself), he sees everything in red color or his eye become red forever.

b74b. The marriage of the owl and the Moon. Owl had to separate with the Moon and since then cries when the Moon shines. Usually the (proposed) marriage of the owl and the Moon broke up.

b75a. Sounds of the time of creation: a woman's voice (echo). A certain woman lived in primeval time but her voice is still heard (usually she turns into echo).

b75b. Sounds of the time of creation: a creaking of trees. Man pushes his mother-in-law or his wife into a tree hollow, she turns into the creaking of trees or into echo.

b75c. Sounds of the time of creation: a sound of the surf. The sound of the surf or of the river rapids is heard from the time of creation.

b75d. Sounds of the time of creation: a murmur of the forest . The murmur of the forest is heard from the time of creation.

b76. Waves turn into mountains. Waves of the sea petrified and turned into dry land with mountain chains.

b77. Primeval sky close to earth. Originally the sky was close to the earth, then it has risen up.

b77a. Giant pushed the sky up. One or several (animal)-persons push sky up to its present height.

b77b. Sky touched with a long object. The sky rose to its present height and/or the direct relations of the sky deity with the people were broken off when the sky or the deity was touched or struck with a long object (a pestle, a broom, etc.).

b77b1. Sky touched with a pestle. The sky rose to its present height and/or the direct relations of the sky deity with the people were broken off when the sky or the deity was pushed up, touched or struck with a pestle or with a ladle during the preparation of food.

b77b2. Sky touched with a broom. The sky rose to its present height and/or the direct relations of the sky deity with the people were broken off when the sky or the deity was pushed up, touched or struck with a broom.

b77c. Serpent pushes sky up. Serpent-like creature pushes the sky far away from the earth.

b78. Shaking bed makes snowfall. When person or creature shakes himself or itself, shakes his or her bed, clothes, plucks birds, etc., snow falls down to earth.

b79. Cosmic egg. From the primeval egg, eggs, or egg-like ball emerge the earth, the sky, sky bodies, different animals (all or part of the items of this list).

b79a. A bird laid an egg. In the beginning of time a bird flies, lays an egg or eggs, different objects and creatures emerge from them.

b79a1. A bird dropped hard substance on water. In the beginning of time a bird flies and drops some solid substance on the waters and the dry land or an island appear.

b80. Measuring of the world. The process of world creation includes the measuring of its size.

b81. Rifle for dog. Creator and his opponent ponder upon should the dog be able to use a bow or fire-arms.

b82. The white raven. Raven or other carrion-eating bird of dark color and a similar size was originally white.

b83. Bag too heavy to be lifted up. Person tries to pick up a small object or creature but it proves to be of enormous weight (and size).

b84. Fungi and excrescences (ogress transformed). When a demonic person (usually an ogress pursuing a man) dies, her or his flesh turns into objects that are found on trees, like fungi, pitch, fruits or nuts.

b85. Wind pacified. Wind is too strong and is pacified.

b85a. Wind regulated. Wind blows in a wrong way, people can get no game or fish. When a hero overcomes it, it initially becomes too calm but the hero creates the desirable balance.

b85b. Bag of winds. Wind was or is in a particular enclosure (bag, cave, etc.). It was released from it or comes out from time to time.

b86. Babylonian tower. To reach the sky (the Sun, Moon, particular star), people build a ladder or tower that consists of separate modules (bricks, logs, sticks, etc.). This construction collapses.

b87. Alcor. Alcor (a weak star near the second star of the handle of the Big Dipper) is selected as a particular sky object.

b87a. Alcor is a dog. Alcor is interpreted as a dog.

b87b. A harnessed wolf. Big Dipper is a cart with a harnessed wolf or bear. Usually it is explained that the handle of the Big Dipper is not straight because a wolf or a bear (identified with Alcor or with the last star of the handle, ?) attacked an ox that was dragging a cart and was harnessed instead of it.

b87c. Alcor is a rider. Alcor (a weak star near Mizar, the second star of the Big Dipperís handle) is a rider, a driver.

b88. Job. All person's children die. He or she addresses God and asks him why he or she suffers so much.

b89. Owl as a king of birds. Owl was or wanted to be king of birds or it behaved itself in a wrong way during the elections of the king. Now it avoids other birds and/or other birds chase it.

b90. Master of wolves. There is an anthropomorphic patron or patroness of wolves. Usually he or she gives instructions to wolves on particular day of the year.

b91. Sharp-eyed snail. Snail had (the) sharp(est) eyes. Another animal person borrows them and never returns.

b92. Flint turns into flints. Person who embodies flint or other hard stone is broken, stones disperse in the world.

b93. Meeting in the sky once a year. Once a year or once in several years sky dwellers or messegers of the deity who are seen among the stars meet each other.

b93a. The bird bridge over the sky river. Once a year birds make a chain of their bodies to serve as a bridge ýžůÍ the celestial river. Usually feathers on their heads are worn down as a result.

b94. Talking trees. Trees and (domestic) animals could talk and asked people not to cut or kill them.

b95. Burned bottom parts. Human posterior looks in particular way because certain person burned it.

b96. Pursuer turns into surgeon . Pursuing heroes, a monster falls into water, turns into a big fish or a water mammal.

b97. Grateful person makes the bird pretty . Person decorates (rare: punishes) a bird who lives near water (kingfisher, loon, goose), thence its appearance (crest, beak, feathers).

b97a. The necklace of bird or animal. A strip of light or dark feathers or hair on the neck of a bird or animal is its necklace.

b98. Bat between birds and animals. Bat becomes outcast among other creatures usually after it makes attempts to join first animals and then birds or vice versa.

b98a. Bat and funerals. Bat is in conflict with other creatures because of the incident related to somebody's death or funerals.

b99. Turned into nest of insects. Person abandoned in a tree turns into a nest of insects.

b100. Getting a sleep. Formerly or in a particular country the sleep was not known; particular person possesses sleep or is the incarnation of the sleep; the sleep is a particular substance.

b101. Slashes on birch bark. Angry against the birch, person beats or cuts it, whence scratches and slashes on its bark.

b102. Clouds from smoke. Clouds are formed from smoke that ascends from the earth.

b103. Cornel-tree fruits. Person (a devil or a bear) thinks that because the Cornus mas tree (European cornel, male cornel) blossoms before all other fruit trees do, it also brings its fruits early. The cornel fruits become ripe very late, so the person is disappointed and gets no fruits.

b104. Chicken turns into tortoise. When a guest comes, a host hides from him a cooked chicken. When the host is going to eat it himself, he finds the chicken transformed into the tortoise (origin of tortoises) or a toad.

b104a. Meat springs as toad on the face of an ungrateful son. A couple (son) intends to eat a roasted chicken (meat). When the manís old father passes by unexpectedly, they hide the chicken in order not to share it with him. When the old man continues on his way and they replace the chicken on the table, it has turned into a toad (snake) and humps onto the sonís face where it stays until his death.

b105. She daughter-in-law is transformed. Father- or mother-in-law gets to see his or her daughter-in-law in an improper situation (combing her hair, taking a bath, etc.). She is ashamed in turns into a bird (usually a hoopoe) or a turtle.

b106. The sky cock. When the sky cock cries, all the cocks on earth cry after him, not before.

b107. The black oyster. During a (world) fire oyster was burned, nor now oyster shells are black.

b108. Person turns into snow. Anthropomorphic person broken into small particles turns into the snow that shines under the sun.

b109. Person turns into bear. Person turns into bear (origin of bears).

b109a. Bear from the sky. Initially the bear(-person) lived in the sky and then descended to the earth (and turned into the bear).

b110. If by back, the ravines, if by head, the red flowers. Person dragged on the ground or running disintegrates or touches the ground with different parts of her or his body producing particular features of landscape, different plants, etc..

b110a. Falling person turns into snow and wind. Being dragged on the ground or falling from the sky, peprson turns into atmospheric phenomena.

b111. Bees emerge from the bull. Bees fly out of the corpse of a big animal (lion, bull) (origines of bees).

b112. Bird helps to return property and is decorated. Person suggests to do some work (usually to ferry people's property across river) but carries away the property that he was entrusted to control, A woodpecker or tit helps to return the property. The owner decorates the bird, thence the color of its plumage.

b113. Bottoms of women and knees of men. Because of certain events of the time of creation, the womenís bottom and the menís knees (or vice versa) are cold.

b114. Old person turns into anteater. A man or a woman (usually they are old) turns into anteaters (origin of anteaters).

b115. Evergreen trees. Coniferous or some other trees or shrubs (subshrubs) became evergree when the life elixir was spilled on them by chance.

b115A. Knots put in wood. Person (St. Peter), angry at carpents, wants another (Christ) to make wood (trees) with iron knots (branches, nails) but the latter makes the branches only of hard wood.

b116. The first book eaten up. An animal or a person eats up the first book (writing, important document). (In some of European traditions the eating up of the book is not directly described but is reconstructable from the context).

b116a. Knowledge preserved in the stomach. Person or animal swallows sacred book or its remains. During rituals this knowledge is actualized in the oral text, in sounds of musical instruments made of the animal body parts or in animal body parts used for divination.

b116b. Sacred book gets wet. Becasue sacred book gets wet or sinks when people were crossing a river, it is lost or the text becomes unreadable. Or it is destroyed when people try to dry it or when they go to bath and let it lie on a shore .

b117. The dogsí certificate. The animals (usually dogs) got a certificate which was lost because of the cat (is swallowed by the cat, burned, eaten by mice). Since them dogs and cats are enemies, usually also cats and mice.

b118. One who remained on earth turns into owl. Person who was unable to ascend to the sky or had returned from the sky to the earth turned into the owl.

c1. Reversal of cosmic levels. The present earth or the underworld is the former sky that has fallen down, or the earth turned in the past upside down, or the layers of the universe collapsed in the past one after another, or they will change their place during the future cataclysm.

c2. Deluge and conflagration combined. World is destroyed once with fire or draught, another time with a flood or it is destroyed with a flood of fire or boiling water.

c2a. Conflagration of the woodpecker. Two persons meet a woodpecker and as a consequence, the earth burns. The strong and smart person survives, the weak and stupid is burned.

c2b. The burned Moon. The Sun and Moon get into conflagration. The Sun survives, the Moon is burned.

c3. Snakes stops up a hole in the Noahís arch. When a hole is opened in the arch, a snake (eel, frog) stops it up with its own body.

c4. The flood: fruits fall from a tree. During the flood or in the beginning of times fruits, seeds or other objects are dropped into water one by one, usually by a person who has climbed a tree. As far as the objects fall, water recedes and the dry land appears.

c5a. Bird-scouts. Birds or humans later changed to birds are sent to explore the earth (is it dry, are any survivals, to investigate why smoke rises to the sky, etc.) or to bring some soil to make the land that would be good for living.

c5b. Animal-scouts. During the creation of the world or after the world cataclysm animals run around making the earth big, reporting about its condition or they are sent to report the size of the growing earth.

c6. The diver. Persons or animals dive to get something from the bottom of the water body.

c6a. The diver is turtle or frog. A turtle, a frog, a toad, or an armadillo brings the desired object from the bottom of the water body or from the lower world.

c6b. The diver is muskrat or beaver. A muskrat, a beaver or a nutria brings the desired object from under the water.

c6c. The diver is a bird. An aquatic bird brings the desired object from under the water.

c6c1. Birds: successful and unsuccessful divers. Two or more different birds (often a loon and a duck) dive one after another to get earth from under the ocean. Only one of them is successful.

c6d. The earth-diver. Persons or creatures get from the bottom of the ocean or from the lower world small amount of solid substance which turns into the earth.

c6e. The diver is a crustacean. A crustacean brings the earth from the bottom of the ocean or from the lower world.

c6f. Diving for drowned person. Persons or animals dive to get from under the water a drowned person or creature or part of its body.

c6g. The diver is a wild boar. A wild boar brings the earth from under the water and/or spills it over the water.

c6h. An insect brings the earth. An insect brings the earth (from under the water, from a lower world or from a far-away place).

c6i. Dirt stuck to body turns into the earth. Bird or animal returns from the lower world smeared with dirt. It shakes itself or the dirt is scraped off. The dirt turns into the earth.

c7. The flood: breaking the dam. In the beginning of times or after the flood a dam of earth, person or creature does not let water to recede. The dam is broken or opened, waters withdraw.

c8. The primeval couple of siblings. In the beginning of time or after the world catastrophe brother and sister or mother and son are the only humans. They marry each other and the present day people descend from them.

c8a. Grinding stones match. Being alone and having no other marriage partners, brother and sister agree to marry each other if a highly improbable event or a series of events will take place. Among the events that take place (alternatively or one after the other) are 1) the siblings let two grinding stones roll from two mountains, the brother's stone falls on the sister's one; 2) brother and sister throw two swords from two mountains, both swords get into one sheath; 3) they throw some objects up, the objects get together; 4) they kindle two fires, columns of smoke get together; 5) they put to grow two stems of bamboo, tops of the stems get together.

c8a1. Thread should enter the needleís eye. Being alone and having no other marriage partners, brother and sister agree to marry each other if a highly improbable event will take place: a thread that is far from a needle has to enter the needleís eye. .

c8b. Siblings change their looks and marry. In the beginning of time or after the world catastrophe brother and sister or mother and son are the only humans. They reject marriage or only the man does not want to marry his sister or mother. After their looks are changed (or only the sister or mother changes her face) they take each other for strangers, marry and beget the new race.

c8c. Mother and son produce people. After the world cataclysm, in the beginning of time or coming to a new land a woman marries her son and produce people.

c9a. The flood: people turn into toads. During a flood or when crossing a river those people who drown (or those who survive) turn into toads.

c10. The flood: the wet tails. During the flood birds or animals escape to some place (mountain, tree, boat, sky). Tips of their tails or other body parts get covered with water or foam and acquire their present color and form.

c10a. The flood: birds cling to the sky. During the flood some birds survive clinging to the sky with their beaks.

c11. Father avenges his son. Person uses his supernatural powers to destroy a large group of people who have offended or insulted his son.

c12a. The dog and the world cataclysm. A dog warns people about approaching flood or world conflagration, instructs them what should be done.

c12b. People descend from a dog. In the beginning of time or after the flood man marries a bitch. Present people descend from them..

c13. The objectsí revolt. During or before the world cataclysm (deluge, darkness) or (Surui) in particular place at night, household objects and/or stones, trees, domestic animals turn into wild beasts and monsters.

c14. Monsters destroy people. During or before the world catastrophe (deluge, darkness) wild beasts and monsters attack and destroy people.

c15. The imprisoned feline. Monstrous puma or jaguar is imprisoned in a cave or tree trunk.

c16. Processed objects turn into animals. Against person's will, butchered, dried or cooked meat, tanned hides, etc. turn back into animals or fish and escape..

c16a. The offended mistress of animals. Mistress of animals or fish revives them after being offended.

c17. Fire pit for the people. The men of primeval community destroy most of the people and/or themselves in a fire pit or on the bonfire.

c18. Dance for the hidden Sun. Certain person hides valuables or the impersonator of the valuables hides himself or herself from the people. To get valuables, the interest of their owner or imperso¨nator is attracted or diverted by way of singing, dancing, playing music, provocative behavior, offering of unusual gifts, sex or alcohol.

c19. Acquisition of the sun. The primeval ancestors acquire with difficulty the hidden or stolen sun or daylight. (for computing all cases for motif C19A are included into C19).

c19a. Child plays with the sun. Persons (usually Raven) turns into child, asks and receives to play luminaries or comes to play with a small daughter of the owner of the luminaries.

c22. Toad in search of thunder. In time of severe drought or the world conflagration birds and animals are sent to bring rain from Thunders who live at the end of the world. Some fail, the last one succeeds. Toad takes important part in the action.

c23. Tree eclipses sky-light. Growth and falling of giant tree defines the condition of the sky with luminaries on it (tree eclipses the light of the sun, can destroy the sky, tears the sun off the sky, etc.).

c24. The world in danger of falling down. A tree or pillar supports the sky or the earth. If it collapses, people perish.

c25a. Cooking soup in the Moon. The destiny of creation depends on a person (usually an old woman) who is cooking soup somewhere outside of our world (in the sky, in the Moon, etc.).

c25b. A spinner in the Moon. Somewhere outside of our world (in the sky, on the Moon, etc.) certain person is spinning, weaving, plaiting, or embroidering.

c25c. The Big Dipper and the end of the world. Change in configuration of the stars of certain constellation (usually Big Dipper) or its disappearance from the sky will be a signal of approaching world cataclysm.

c26. Guardian at the border of the non0human world. Monsters or ghosts try to invade our world. Powerful person or creature is on guard and prevents the invasion.

c27. A horn in the ice. A horned monster breaks ice on river or lake. Usually people walk across frozen body of water, get to see a horn protruding from the ice and try to cut it off. The monster breaks the ice, many people drown.

c28. Unconsidered promise . A demon obtains valuables essential for another person's (and for all the people) survival but is tricked to return the valuables.

c29. A listened in secret. People or God get know a secret thanks to listening in its possessor when he speaks aloud with himself or with his relations. The received knowledge is related to cosmogony or acquisition of cultural values.

c30. Impracticable condition. To get rid of his obligations, person puts for others an impracticable condition.

c30b. To clean traces off the field. When an animal or a spirit claims certain field to be his own or suggests an impossible task for a person, the person asks him to delete from the ground traces of his feet or to walk not leaving any traces. The spirit cannot do it.

c30c. To swallow the ocean. Person promises to drink all the water in the sea at once but at last moment asks his opponent to separate the ocean from water of all the rivers that flow into it.

c30a. A pound of flesh. A contract entitles the lender of a sum of money to cut a certain amount of flesh (or eye, head, limb, etc.) from the debtorís body if the load is not repaid in time. The lender cannot cut out the flesh being unable to fulfill a condition that looks logical but is practically absurd .

c31. The wise hedgehog (cosmology). A hedgehog proves to be smarter than gods and than other animals; he possesses the knowledge that is of crucial importance for survival of humans.

c31a. Sun and Moon promised to Devil . According to an agreement or promise, the master of the underworld receives or is going to receive the Sun and the Moon. Nevertheless, thanks to a trick or a chance, they are not given to him (her) or returned back.

c32. Beware of cut off nails. The cut off nails (and hair) have special significance for the fate of the soul in the beyond or for the future of the entire world.

c33. Prometeus (the chained strong man). A strong man who ventured to confront God is for a long time (for eternity) chained to a mountain or to a post.

c33a. The restored chain. During a year somebody tries to break, to make thinner a chain or rope with which the person himself or somebody else is tied. In a certain day when the chain is almost broken it is restored or a post to which the person is tied sinks into the ground again.

c33b. The primordial stillness. The primordial race perishes when the wind blows for the first time.

c34a. Buried in sand. A supernatural person comes to people who fish. They bury him on the beach or throw him into river or marsh. Somebody saves him. He or his father sends the flood.

c35. Cosmic marriage cancelled . It becomes known that if the Sun or the Sky marry, great calamity is inevitable. The marriage plans are given up.

c35a. Wise adviser punished. A zoomorphic person gives wise advise concerning the ways that the Sun should follow. His advise is accepted but he himself is punished by the Sun.

c36. The final battle. Gods fight with their powerful adversaries at the decisive battle that changes fate of the world.

c37. World catastrophe and the sloth. A sloth produces the world catastrophe or saves people from it.

c38. People will come soon. Those who inhabited the world in the time of creation were saying that real people were to come and so they had to do this and that.

c39. The repaired sky. When part of the sky was broken, the hole was filled up with stones or pieces of ice.

d1. Female spirit of fire. Fire is personified as an (elder) woman, alone or with her husband, master of fire.

d1a. Mother-in-law is the Fire. Girl marries man whose mother is Fire.

d1a1. Mistress of fire carries away womanís baby. Because a woman offended the fire, its mistress carries the womanís baby away.

d1a3. Wife is the fire. A man marries a woman who is the incarnation of fire. She is offended or does not fit the man, their marriage is ruined.

d1a2. The borrowed object is not burned. House of a person who insulted the fire is destroyed but an object or a child of another person who was nice to the fire has not been burned though it was in the house of the first person.

d1b. Male spirit of fire. The fire is personified as an elder man (alone or with his wife, mistress of fire).

d2. Woman gives birth to the fire. A woman gives birth to a son who is very hot (usually the fire or Sun).

d2a. Woman dies giving birth to the Sun or the fire. A woman gives birth to the Sun or the fire and dies because of burns.

d4a. Theft of fire. Fire is stolen from its original owner or brought back to the people from somebody who had stolen it before.

d4aa. Moth tries to steal fire from people. Moths try to steal fire which the people posess.

d4b. Retribution for using fire. Person or people who have stolen fire or asked its owner to share the fire are punished by God.

d4c. Acquisition of summer. Warm season is obtained from its original owners.

d4c1. Swimming elk diverts attention. Animal-people come to steal summer from its owner. One of them in guise of an elk or caribou diverts the owners' attention or puts to float a log that the owner takes for an elk and pursues. The summer is successfully stolen and brought to the people.

d4d. Opossum steals fire. Opossum steals fire for people.

d4e. Coyote or fox obtain fire. Coyote or fox bring people the fire, the daylight or the Sun.

d4e1. Dog and fire. Dog obtains fire, daylight or the Sun or steals them.

d4f. Beaver or fish let themselves to be roasted. Beaver (in North American) or a small fish (in South America) lets fire owners catch and roast it, then revives and carries the fire away.

d4g. Hummingbird obtains fire. Hummingbird steals for people, discovers or spreads the fire.

d4h. Swallow obtains fire. Swallow steals fire for people.

d4i. Beaver obtains fire. Beaver steals fire for people.

d4j. Rabbit obtains fire. Fire owner, stealer, or stealer's companion is a rabbit, a hare or (among the Ofaie) a guinea pig.

d4k. Deer obtains fire. Dear steals fire for people.

d4l. Fire from the sky. First fire is sent to earth from the sky or the ancestors ascend to the sky and bring from there fire or warmth.

d4m. Fire owners dance. Person comes to the owners of fire or light. They feast and dance. He joins them and in a proper moment carries away the valuables.

d4n. Person weeps asking for summer. A boy or (among the Kutenai) a woman weeps, asking for an element that is absent, i.e. for summer, fire, or rain.

d4o. Fire stealer pretends to be wet and cold. To steal fire from its owner, person pretends to be wet or cold and is granted permission to sit near the fireplace. In a proper moment the stealer carries the fire away and brings it to people.

d4p. Parrot or parakeet obtains fire . Parrot or parakeet steals fire for people. (Australian data not computed because historically definitely unrelated to the Tropical American data).

d4q. Fly obtains fire. Fly(-woman) obtains fire by ďwashingĒ her hands like a fire-drill twirler.

d5. Woman as the owner of the fire. Female person is the owner or inventor (but not the personification) of the fire.

d5a. Fire in womanís genitals. First fire was hidden in genitals or anus of a woman.

d6a. Fire and crocodile. Crocodile or cayman is an original or temporary owner of fire or lighting.

d6b. Burned person becomes a caiman. Badly burned person turns into caiman or crocodile.

d7. Fire and toad. Frog or toad possesses the fire, steals it from original owner, tries to extinguish or to save it.

d8. Fire and a predator animal. Fire or summer is stolen from a big predator: a lion (in Africa), a tiger (in Asia), a bear (in Siberia and North America) or a jaguar (in South America).

d9. Fire and vulture. Raven or other big dark-feathered bird scavenger is the owner, personification, spouse, obtainer or stealer of fire, daylight, or the Sun.

d10. Fire0sticks are two persons. A male and a female persons personify fire-sticks.

d11. Food baked in armpits. Before fire became known, people prepared food using warmth of their bodies (usually putting food in their armpits); or a person keeps fire in his or her armpits.

d12. Food baked in the sun. First people or inhabitants of a distant country cook food in the sun; or fire owner lies that he or she cooks food in the sun.

d12a. Heat of the sun is enough for cooking. To cook their food, people use heat of the sun because they live close to its origin.

d13c. Trickster makes his brotherís wife laugh. Two companions or brothers live together. The elder conceals his wife from the younger. In his absence, the younger tries to make the woman laugh and this way to get know her hiding place.

d13d. To make hidden woman laugh. Woman is hidden somewhere inside the house. Man makes her laugh to discover her.

d13e. Hunters laugh at killed animals. Hunters perish because they were laughing at the killed (and revived) animal.

d13f. Laughter and fire. Laughter triggers emergence or spread of fire. Usually fire is obtained from a creature when it bursts out laughing.

d13g. Meet seen on teeth. When person laughs, people see his or her monstrous mouth (many teeth, human meat on teeth). They kill the monster or escape from it.

d13h. The dead should not laugh. Person should not laugh in the world of the dead.

d13hh. Not to laugh visiting the dead. Person who visits the other world should not laugh or demonstrate his surprise seeing strange and funny things.

d13i. Broken tooth. Person knows that the deceiver and trickster has one of his teeth broken. To identify him, person makes others laugh and thus open their mouths.

d13i1. Showing his teeth, person betrays himself. Personís (demonic) nature becomes clear when he or she laughs and shows his or her teeth.

e1a. First people of unstable materials. First human beings are made of unstable materials (mud, wax, fire, honey, etc.) and unviable.

e1b. Person of unfit materials. Certain person is made of improper material and proves to be short-lived or unfit for fulfilling his functions.

e1b1. Forbidden work for daughter-in-law. A man who had married an unusual girl was warned that she should avoid certain kinds of works. Some other members of his household insist that the woman must do everything that is expected from a young wife. She dies.

e1c. Person of excrements. Certain person is made of human excrement or carrion.

e1d. Canoes of clay. First canoes were made of unfit materials.

e2. People made for a test. Making people, creator does not reach perfection immediately. First variants of creation are rejected, then proper form and material found.

e3. New people from bones. After destruction of previous world, new people (rare: new earth) are made from the bones of the perished race.

e4. Creation from cuticle. Supernatural person rubs his or her skin, creates the entire earth, human or other beings of dirt and cuticle.

e5. Half-made man attempts to stand up. God makes the first man of clay. The man must wait till he is dried up but makes attempts to stand up before time.

e5a. Mankind ascends from the underworld. First people (or only first men or first women) are not created but come to earth from the underworld or from a small enclosure under the earth or on its surface (tree trunk, rock, gourd, etc.). Many people of both sexes and of different age or people and different species of animals come out together.

e5aa. People grew like a grass. The first people grew or crawled out of the earth like a grass, mushrooms, worms, etc..

e5b. First couple from the underworld. First man or first human couple come out from the underworld or from a small enclosure on its surface (tussock, reed, tree, rock, gourd).

e5c. People from the sky. The first people or first anthropomorphic divine beings descend to earth from the sky..

e5d. Predator devours emerging people. People live underground or in a small enclosure. When they come out they are attacked by monster or dangerous animal. Monster is killed or transformed.

e5e. The two-headed one is not allowed to come to the earth. First people or animals ascend or descend to earth. The two-headed monster attempts to follow them but is prevented from coming to the earth.

e6. Because of a woman worlds become isolated. When a woman of the child-bearing age tries to come from one world to another (e.g. from sky to earth), the communication between the worlds is blocked or broken forever.

e6a. Way across waters. To reach their present country, people had to pass (frozen) water body. Part of the migrants remain on the opposite side or is drowned.

e7. Person stuck in a cosmic hole. To descend from the sky, ascend from the underworld or come out of the cave, people must pass through narrow hole. A person is stuck in the hole blocking forever communication between different parts of the universe.

e8. People of wood. The first people or (the first) woman (wife of a primeval ancestor) are made of wood.

e8a. Women from coconuts. Coconuts picked off a palm or fallen to the ground (rare: leaves picked off a tree) turn into women or into both women and men.

e9. The mysterious housekeeper. A man (rare, a woman) lives alone. In his or her absence, somebody puts his or her house in order, prepares his or her meals or (rare) eats food up, makes a disorder. He or she discovers that a woman (a young man) lives unrecognized (in animal form, hiding in an object) in or near the house or comes during his or her absence.

e9a. Fox-wife. Man maries fox-woman.

e9aa. Fox-wife in animalsí den. In search of his lost fox-wife man comes to a den. Different animal- or bird-women come out and ask him if he would mary them. He refuses and they let him in.

e9b. Turtle-wife or snail-wife. The mysterious housekeeper is a water creature (turtle, snail, shellfish).

e9c. Elephant-, buffalo-, elk-wife. Man marries a woman who has a nature of a big non-predatory animal or comes out of its body (elephant, buffalo, doe, elk, etc.).

e9d. Dog-wife. Man marries a girl who initially has guise of a dog.

e9e. Puppy as a reward. Youth gets to supernatural beings, rejects any treasure, asks for a puppy, a dog's skin, a fruit, etc. When he returns home, the puppy (skin, etc.) turn into magic wife.

e9f. Parrot-wife. Man maries parrot- or parakeet-woman.

e9g. Vulture-wife. Man marries vulture-woman.

e9h. Dove-wife. A man marries dove-woman or a woman marries dove-man; supernatural woman or man takes form of a dove.

e9i. Swan-wife. Supernatural woman who is a swan, goose, duck, or crane marries the hero and/or helps him.

e9j. Monkey-wife. Man marries monkey-woman; supernatural woman takes form of a monkey or the man pretends that the house-keeper is a monkey.

e9k. Spouse is honey (bee). A man or a woman is incarnation of the honey or a bee-person.

e10. Pets turn into children. A lonely woman or married couple surprises birds or animals who live in their house and take their skins off when nobody looks at them. Birds or animals (usually pups) become children.

e11. The animated drawing. Person draws an object or creature and it becomes alive.

e12. The burned skin. Magic person reveals his true nature and/or remains with the real people after the object responsible for preserving the non-human appearance (usually an animal skin) is destroyed (usually burned).

e13a. Ritual objects from under the water. People obtain ritual objects from under the water or brings them back to the underwater world.

e14. Rituals from the dead. Rituals are obtains from ghosts.

e14a. Masks represent the killed demons. People prepare ritual costumes and masks coping the features from the real demons whom they have killed.

e15. Ducks and canoes. People learn from aquatic birds how to make canoes or how to paddle; or the first canoe is a transformed bird or is made of bird bones.

e15a. Breast bone as a canoe model. Frame of canoe is made according to breast bone of a bird.

e15b. Birds sew canoe covering. While man is asleep, birds turn into girls and sew covering of his canoe.

e16. Paddles edgewise. Riding in canoe, people first turn paddles edgewise, then learn the correct way to use them.

e17. Origin of design. Humans acquire (the idea of) ornamentation of the vessels, baskets, body, etc. or the idea of the system of signs after somebody gets to see the pattern on the body of zoomorphic and/or supernatural creature.

e18. Snakes and containers. People learn how to decorate ceramics or baskets (usually learn decorated patterns) thanks to a water creature.

e19. Origin of drugs: person torn to pieces. Narcotic plants emerge from the body parts of a person who was torn to pieces by others.

e20. Fish poison person. Entering water, certain person makes fish die. From parts of his body or from his grave grows plant used to prepare fish poison (timbo).

e21. Avenged victim of water creatures. Child fishes with poison or his or her body produces fish poison. Fish or water snake kills him or her. The perished child is avenged.

e22. Swallowed person obtains knowledge. Getting into the body of certain being, person obtain knowledge of rituals, songs, ornaments, poison or drugs and then brings it to people.

e23. Fleas make person move. A handful of fleas or lice is thrown into people or into particular person. It was the only way to make him, her or them move and live.

e24. Origin of elbows and knees. Human arms and legs become pliant (get joints) when a primeval ancestor(s) fall from height and break his arms and legs.

e25. Arachne (the spider-weaver). The art of weaving people get from a spider or from a person who turns into spider afterwards; a spider is weaving for people.

e26. Fished out people. Man fishes with a hook. Thrown on the ground, the fish turn into the first humans or into the women. (Stories about fishing of women in human guise not included)..

e27. People from drops of blood. People emerge from drops of blood that fall from the sky.

e28. Moonís blood drops to earth. People shoot into the Moon person, his blood drops to earth.

e29. Lizard gives proper hands. Two persons (usually Coyote and Lizard) argue if people's hand has to be like a paw or people should have fingers.

e30. The make-believe spouse of wood. Person does not have a spouse, uses wooden fakes for his wife or her husband.

e30a. Make-believe spouse replaced with alive person. Person does not have a spouse, uses wooden fakes for his wife or her husband till alive person comes to replace it.

e31. Pygmalion. Man makes a wooden doll, makes believe that it is alive. Really it is not or it is half-alive. Usually a real woman takes place of a doll, marries the master.

e31a. Creators and rescuers of a girl. Several men take part in creation or reanimation of a girl (rare: a bird) or several women take part in the reanimation of a dead man or they differetly express their grief. It is asked whose role was crucial (who behavior more noble) and/or who should be the spouse of the reanimated person. Or three men make something valuable and it is asked whose role in the corresponding enterprise was more important.

e31a1. Three men construct a woman which becomes alive: to whom does she belong?. Three (rare two or four) men take part in creation of a girl: one cuts her body of wood, another puts clothes on her, the third one makes her alive. To whom does she belong?.

e31a2. That one is like her father, another is like her brother but this one is her husband. Only one of several men can marry a girl. The girl herself or somebody else explains that somebody among suiters is like a father to her, somebody else is like her brother and only one of the men suits the role of the girlís husband.

e31b. Rescuers of a man. Several women take part in the reanimation of a dead man. They argue whose role was crucial and/or who of them should be the spouse of the reanimated person.

e31c. Rescuers of an abducted girl. Every one of several men had learned a unique skill thanks to which they save a girl abducted by demon or animal.

e32. People born from trees. First people are born by trees or come out of a tree, flower, reed.

e33. People from seeds. People emerge from grains, seeds.

e34. Sacred flutes from ogreís remains. Ogre is killed. Musical instruments used in male rituals and taboo for women emerge from his remains.

e35. Webbed fingers. First people or people made by Creator's rival were imperfect, not completely anthropomorphic (often: had webbed fingers).

e36. Hard covering of the body. Human body was protected with a hard layer now preserved only on fingers and toes as nails.

e37. Peoples from sticks. Creator takes many small sticks, transforms them into people of both sexes and all ages.

e38a. Woman gives birth to many embryos. Woman gives birth to a gourd, a bag (with eggs), a piece of meat. The flesh is cut into pieces which turn into people or many people come out of the gourd or bag.

e38b. People from gourd. After the world cataclysm or in the beginning of times a gourd survives or appears, new people come out of it.

e38c. First people are dumb. First people are dumb but begin to speak when they hear something unusual, are made to laugh, etc..

e39. Pig ancestor. A pig is an ancestor of a particular group of people.

e40. Nostrils upside. First people have noses with nostrils upside and are in trouble when it rains.

f1. First woman is a transformed man. Woman or female supernatural is created by changing the sex of a man.

f2. Pregnant limb. Child is born from a tumor or swelling on person's body (on thigh, knee, finger, etc.) or is temporarily placed there or child grows from blood that flew out from a cut.

f3. The man gives birth after eating his wifeís pregnency medicine. The man gives birth to a daughter after accidentally eating his wifeís pregnency medicine. (The child appears from his swallowed leg or otherwise but the man remains alive).

f4. Child born in jug. In the beginning of times, a particular person or children in general was or were conceived and grown up in pots, heaps of mud, etc. and not in a womb.

f5. Brides for first men. Person cannot or do not want to give his daughters in marriage to all the men who claim them for wives and transforms animals into girls. (Usually in the beginning of times or after the flood many men come to marry the only daughter of God or patriarch).

f5a. Woman created from a tail. When God intends to create Eve from Adamís rib, an animal (dof, cat, monkey, fox, snake) or a devil steals it. God (or his angel) pursues it and catches its tail. The tail tears off, God creates Eve from it. Or God made Eve from edible material and a dog devoured it, so God had to make Eve from Adamís rib. Or God cut off Adamís tail and made Eve from it..

f5b. Artificial bride. Person has to give his daughter or sister in marriage. Having no woman to suggest or not wanting to give her, he makes artificial girl (of wood, snow, etc.), sends servant girl instead daughter, turns into woman himself, or recognizes his fault when he feels that it is save to do so.

f6. Gouged our vagina. Woman has no vagina and it is later made by bird or animal.

f7. The water-maiden. Man takes or attempts to take a wife who is connected with the underwater world (fish, crab, snake, water animal and the like).

f8. Women and men come together. Initially women and men live apart from each other. Later they meet each other and become to live together.

f9. A dangerous woman. For different reasons, sexual contact with a woman is deadly dangerous for a man.

f9a. Vagina dentata. There are teeth or sharp stones in vagina, vagina is a toothed mouth.

f9a1. The pikeís mouth. To frighten away an undesired suitor or a demon, a girl (young woman) pretends that her vagina has teeth. {Unlike versions from circum-Pacific region, it is not sugessted that womenís genitals are really dangerous}.

f9b. Piranha in vagina. Biting piranha is in woman's genitals.

f9c. Snake in vagina. Snake or (in Polynesia: eel) is in vagina, vagina is a mouth of a snake$ or a woman with toothed vagina is associated with a snake$ or a snake crawls out of woman's mouth to bite a man during the copulation.

f9d. Scorpions in vagina. There are dangerous insects in woman's genitals.

f9e. Mice in vagina. There are small mammals with sharp teeth in woman's genitals..

f9f. Asmodeus. Demon (snake) regularly kills womanís husbands during the first night, the woman herself being ignorant about the reason of their death.

f9f1. Snake inside woman. Poisonous snake (snakes, scorpions) comes out of the mouth of a woman {Motif F9f1 and K100c are almost identical but F9f1 links to a cluster of etiological/cosmological motifs related to the idea of a dangerous woman while K100c is related to adventures}.

f9f2. Hood of cobra in wifeís bag. Womanís snake paramour is killed. She puts part of his body into her bag and gets a right to kill her husband if he woulod not guess what is inside. At the last moment the husband gets to know the secret and kills the woman.

f9g. Brunhilde. A strong woman overcomes and kills suitors. Hero or his helper tames her (usually whips in the wedding night). The hero marries her.

f10. Teeth knocked out. Woman has another toothed mouth (usually in vagina) or biting animals in vagina. Man inserts there a stone, bone, stick, etc. breaking or knocking out the teeth or extracting from there dangerous animals.

f11. Biting penis. Penis is biting, stinging, eats food.

f12. Man kills his wife with her loverís penis. Man kills his wive inserting into her body the cut off penis of her lover .

f13. Red penis of primates. Human or monkey's genitals becomes red after being injured during copulation with the girl who had toothed vagina or had not any vagina.

f14. Son of a rock. Male person copulates with a rock and it gives birth to a hero.

f15. Tricksterís penis masked as a plant. Rape of a girl is misled into sitting down on a plant which in reality is a penis.

f16. Men and women: exchange of anatomical characteristics. Initially men possessed women's biological traits and vice versa (beard, menses, breasts, bearing children).

f17. Misplaced genitalia. Women or men originally had or had to have their genitals not on the place where they are now.

f18a. Long penis after prohibited sex. After contact with a non-human or prohibited partner (close kin, animal, spirit) man's penis becomes so long that he had to carry it in a basket, etc. {Only texts considered to describe real events and beings and not anecdotes are included}.

f18b. Penis crawls to women. Man's penis is so long that he can turn it round his waist or send into a woman who is at a long distance from him.

f18c. Girls at the opposite bank. Seeing a girl on the opposite bank of a river, person uses tricks to have sex with her: sends his long penis, a stream of his seed or some object across the river into her vagina; transforms his penis into a bridge or a dam; dives and copulates with a girl from under the water.

f18d. Long clitoris. Female genitals are as long as a big snake.

f19. Dangerous frog paramour. After copulation with a frog, man's penis is injured.

f20. A strong embrace. Man and woman embrace each other forever or for a long time.

f21. Woman turns into a tree, penis captured. Man copulates with a woman who turns into tree or rock, his penis is captured in it.

f22. Study of partnerís body. Person asks another person of the opposite sex about destination or place of her or his genitals. Usually it is made after putting questions about function of other body parts; or person tries to use for sex different parts of the partner's body or tests them before reaching the best place where the genitals should be put.

f23. Origin of menses: sexual act. Women menstruate because they bled in primeval time after the first defloration.

f24. Origin of menses: a bite. Women bleed because fish or snake bites them. Usually it is invisible fish inside their body.

f25. Origin of menses: girl smeared with blood. Woman is smeared with blood or red paint. Since then women menstruate.

f26. Origin of menses: sacred objects lost. The transition of sacred sound instruments (bull-roarers, big trumpets, etc.) from women to men is connected with beginning of menses among the women.

f27. Girls and the water spirits. For girls and young women it is dangerous to come near water. Water creatures swallow them or drag away; a girl can die or become pregnant from a spirit; she can trigger a flood (rare: other cataclysm). Water spirits can come themselves to a girl who has her periods.

f28a. Primeval penis. There is only one monstrous penis, a husband of primeval women or the amazons, usually growing out of earth or out of water in a lake.

f28a1. Jumping penis. Alive penis exists as a separate being able to move and attack people.

f28b. Penis of wax. Certain woman masturbates with a penis made of wax, gourd, wood, radish, etc. Usually her husband or male relative smears it with chile; the woman is hurt or killed.

f28c. Bear penis in hands of old woman. Woman masturbates with penis of a big animal killed by a man of her household.

f28d. Artificial conception. Woman conceives after masturbating with an artificial penis.

f29. Girl sits on the ground. A girl or young woman who is usually occupied with domestic work (is cooking, weaving, etc.) sits on the ground and copulates with a penis-like creature that crawls from below into her vagina.

f29a. Worm killed with boiling water. To kill snake or worm paramour of a woman or girl, person pours on it boiling water, resin or spills live coals.

f30. Snake paramour. Woman or girl takes eel, snake, lizard, or worm for paramour. People kill or badly injure the paramour, the woman and/or her progeny or the woman herself is transformed into snake.

f30a. Worm-baby. Woman is nursing a worm, caterpillar or reptile as her baby. People kill the monster.

f31. The broken egg. Girl or woman is imperceptibly impregnated by snake when the content of a broken egg of a snake flows into her vagina or when she touches a dead snake.

f32. Tree fruits for a woman. Baby child or children who come out of mother's womb and turn themselves into adult men or a snake who lives in her womb climb up a tree and help the woman to gather fruits, bark, edible fungi, etc. Usually the child who is a snake returns to his mother's womb and adult man turns back into a baby; or the girl's love affair with a snake is discovered when her father climbs a tree to gather fruits for her.

f33. Water creature paramour. Certain woman or a group of women take for paramour a big water animal (caiman, otter, sea-lion, whale, anaconda; rare: water bird, crab), water spirit or monster. Husbands, brothers or (adoptive) children kill or maim paramour and/or (sometimes) the woman.

f34. Land animal paramour. Certain woman or a group of women takes for a paramour a big land animal. Husbands, brothers or (adoptive) children kill or maim paramour and (sometimes) the woman.

f35. Paramour mutilated. Person (usually a woman, rarely a man) has a monster or animal paramour or married woman has human lover. Legal marriage partner or close relative kills or maims paramour and serves his or her meat to the person (usually husband or brother serves paramour's penis to his wife or sister).

f36. Sons kill paramour. The (adoptive) children or grandchildren and not person's spouse or brother kill the paramour of their (step)mother or father.

f37. Gourd vessel put on the surface of water. Person knocks the gourd vessel that floats above the water to call water monster or serpent. Usually a woman calls this way her monstrous paramour.

f38. Women and sacred knowledge. Women were possessors of the sacred knowledge, sanctuaries or ritual objects which are now taboo for them or they made attempts to acquire such a knowledge or objects.

f39. The epoch of women. The women dominated over the men in the past or in a far away land, were the active part in marriage relations, practiced activities which now are reserved of the men only.

f40a. Husband of the first women. An anthropomorphic male or an androgyne is the only possessor or leader of women.

f40b. A man in a village of women. A man gets into the village of women. Usually he has to satisfy every woman against his will or every woman claims him for herself.

f40c. Patriarch kills the boys. A powerful man kills every baby boy born by his wives or by his sister.

f41. The men kill the women. The men of primeval community kill the women because of their unsocial behavior.

f42. The men abandon the women. The men feel themselves offended by the women and abandon them.

f42a. Men turn into birds. Young men and boys turn into birds or bats, fly away.

f43. First women disappear. The women of the ancestral community kill or abandon the men.

f43a. The women kill the men. The women of the ancestral community kill, try to kill or transform the men.

f43b. Women disappear under the ground. When women of the ancestral community abandon the men, they disappear in the opening that leads underground.

f43c. Bat-husbands. Marriage partners of the primeval women, the amazons or a solitary woman are small animals (usually flying foxes).

f44. Women and men separate. The women and the men of the primeval community quarrel and abandon each other.

f45. The amazons. There are (or were) women who live apart from men in their own village or villages.

f45a. Conception from wind. A woman or a female animal is impregnated exposing her genitals to the wind.

f46. One for all. In the beginning of time two or more men (animal people) have only one woman.

f46a. Woman in a tree. Men (animal people) discover a woman in a tree and copulate with her there.

f47. Pieces of flesh turn to persons. The body of the of a living creature (woman or snake) is cut into pieces. Every man gets his piece, new women emerge from them.

f47a. Men use pieces of womanís flesh. Every man uses for copulation certain part of an only woman or takes a part of her body after it was cut into pieces.

f47b. New people on the old place. To create the new people (new women) instead of those who were destructed, person puts down in every empty hut (hearth, hammock) something (feathers, pieces of flesh) from which new people (new women) emerge.

f48. Why women are different. Different women are not similar physically because pieces of the first woman's flesh distributed between men were of unequal quality or because males who copulated with her had different nature.

f49. The abnormal birth. Cesarean operation upon a woman at childbirth as a custom.

f49a. Animal explains how to give birth. A small animal (mouse, rat, rabbit, opossum, a bird) explains a woman how she can deliver her child in a natural way.

f50. The often-born children. Child or children come out of mother's womb and return back.

f51. Clandestine lover. Person who conceals his or her identity comes to his or her lover at night. Next time, the lover puts a mark on the stranger's face, body or clothes doing this intentionally (to recognize him or her) or by chance (that leads to the identification).

f51a. Aggressive sister. When incest relations with her brother come to light, the sister openly claims her brother for a husband, turns into monster, kills people.

f51b. Following thread. To get know the nature or locality of a person, another fastens a thread to his body and follows it.

f51c. Provocative behavior after incest. When a girl gets to know that her night visitor was her own brother, she demonstrates him her genitals or her bake breasts and suggests to take what he had been desired so much. After this she runs away and he pursues her.

f51d. The ginseng-child. The ginseng roots are boys or girls who help the hero.

f52. Pubic hair for a birdís crest. A bird person gets his crest putting on his head a pubic hair of a woman or part of her genitals.

f53. Ugly husband. An ugly man marries a girl but conceals his face. Marriage is ruined after his face is seen.

f53a. Bat or owl hides his face. A man hides his face from his wife because she does not know that he is a nocturnal being (a bat or an owl).

f54. Oedipus. A youth unintentionally (kills his father and) marries his mother.

f54a. Imperceptible scar (husband proves to be son). After a rather long marriage, wife discovers some minor traits in her husband guise that help her understand that he is not a proper marriage partner but her close kin (brother or son) or a transformed animal; or a man getting to notice a scar on his wifeís head understands that she is his sister.

f54b. Traces of feathers. A youth or boy decorated with feathers and paint copulates incognito with his mother or sister. They discover his identity noticing on his body traces of feathers or paint.

f54c. Recognized by imprints of finger-nails. Husband notices imprints of finger-nails on his wifeís face and assembles all the men to recongize the culprit.

f54d. Conception from urine. Woman gives birth to a boy after unwittingly drinking urine of a he-animal or she-animal gives birth to a boy drinking urine of a man.

f55. What do you want?. A woman cannot understand what does her partner want. She points at, names or suggests different things. At last she points at, names or exposes her genitals. This is the right answer.

f56. Watching vagina triggers incest. A man or boy thinks about incest when he gets to see his daughter(-in-law)'s, sister's, or mother(in-law)'s vagina.

f56a. Shavings into the fire. To create opportunity to see female genitals, a man throws something combustible into the fire which makes the woman fall on her back and expose her vagina.

f58. Trickster and women. A man cohabits with a group of women (or with several women in succession) concealing his identity and/or intentions. He is either eventually exposed and punished by women or escapes to continue his tricks.

f59. Man to woman: modified body. To make believe that he is a female, a trickster transforms particular objects or creatures into female body parts or into a baby child.

f60. Trickster cures maiden. A girl gets sick. A man comes to cure her but only copulates with her or makes an attempt to do so.

f61. Trickster rapes a woman who carries him on her back. A man pretends to be weak, ill or injured, asks a woman to carry him on her back. When she agrees, he makes attempt to copulate with her.

f62. Incognito at the dancing party. An (ostensibly) sick person remains at home when other go to the dancing party. The person comes by himself or herself looking like a handsome man or beautiful girl. The man (woman) does not recognize him (her) and suggests to make love.

f63. Trickster poses as woman and marries man. A male person turns into woman and marries a man. He is either unmasked or abandons his "husband" by his own will.

f64. The lecherous parent. Person changes his or (rare) her guise to marry his or her close relative in descending or (rare) ascending line.

f64a. Describes future husband. Going away or pretending to die, a person bids his or her relative to marry another person who resembles him (her) or has some special traits; or he describes a man who should be met as a dear guest; person comes himself unrecognized and is taken for one whom he had described.

f64b. Incestuous woman. A woman pretends to be a stranger to have sexual relations with her (grand)son, daughter or brother.

f65. The false burial. To realize his or her secret desire (illicit sex, refusal to share food with relations), person pretends to die and is abandoned at a burial place.

f65a. Death feigned to meet paramour. Person pretends to die. His or her wife or husband abandons him or her on a burial place. He or she marries his or her paramour.

f65b. Death feigned to eat burial food. Man pretends to die because he does not want to share food with the others and eats it alone at his burial place.

f65c. The feigned burial: boy exposes deceit . A man feigns death to marry his daughter or to eat burial food. One of the younger children recognizes the (adoptive) father or gets to see that the false dead is alive (escapes from the burial pyre, laughs, etc.).

f65d. The feigned burial: wife does not believe. A man feigns death and is abandoned at the burial place. His wife (mother, aunt) gets to know about the deceit and provokes the man to show that he is alive.

f66. The false house. Personís father, grandson, brother, or sister pretends to be a stranger to commit incest (accordingly with the daughter, grandmother, sister, or brother), or a husband shams to be his wifeís brother because he wants to be taken by her as her blood relative. To realize his or her stratagem, the hero imperceptibly runs to another house where the object of his or her interest later comes and takes him or her for a stranger.

f67. Old woman pretends to be man. An old woman makes herself false penis and testicles, marries or attempts to marry her (step)daughter.

f68. Death feigned: woman dresses up as a man. A woman pretends to die or really dies. Her (former) paramour comes to her grave. She revives and goes with him. Not to be recognized, she dresses up as a man.

f69. Obscene invitation . A woman's husband or male relative asks her (grand)children to invite her to make love with him. The invitation is expressed in an allegoric form. She understands, comes to him.

f70. Potiphar's wife: false accusation of sexual abuse. Woman makes vain overtures to young man and/or falsely accuses him of sexual abuse. Her husband believes that the young man is guilty, kills or tries to kill him.

f70a. Disordered clothes as evidence against innocent man. To accuse a man or boy of (sexual) abbuse, a woman tears her clothes, smears or scratches her body pretending to be attacked.

f70b. Revenge of a rejected woman. A woman revenges on a man who rejected her love.

f70c. The castrated youth becomes a man again. A young man falls victim of an intrigue and is mutilated (usually castrated). His members are restored by magic, he marries happily.

f70d. A disgraced informer. A castrate or girl pretends to be a man or a cripple girl conceles her injury or a man pretends to be a girl. Some person gets to know about it and plans to expose the deception. At the last moment the hero or heroine magically becomes a real man (or girl; gets back the lost members) and the informer is disgraced.

f70e. A girl turns into a man. A girl poses as a man, her sex is magically transformed and the man is happily married .

f70e1. Daughter instead of son. An old man needs a son to accomplish a manís work or service. (Only the youngest) daughter sets to do it (successfully passing her fatherís test and) guised as a man.

f70e2. Father tests his daughters or sons. Father sends his daughters or sons to carry out a difficult task and tests how well their are fit to the task (usually attacks them in guise of an enemy or a predator animal). Only the youngest son or the youngest daughter passes the test successfully (usually takes up the struggle and is praised by the father). .

f71. Susan and the old men (the innocent slandered maiden). An innocent girl or young woman rejects a man who attempts to seduce her. The man accuses her of loose conduct, ultimately the truth comes to light.

f72. Imitated violence. A woman asks a man to tie her before copulation in such a way that a watcher would think she is raped.

f73a. Vulva is or thought to be wound. Vulva is a unhealed wound on the body of the primeval women or the primval people had no sex mistaking vulva for a wound.

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f74. Naked person shams dead. When a person sees a dangerous enemy, he or she shams dead taking his or her clothes off, or the enemy takes off them himself. After examining and sniffing the false corpe, the enemy finds sign of the putrefaction or a wound and goes away.

f75. A siren and a tapir. A hunter watches tapir who calls a water woman from the river or lake and copulates with her. Hunter does the same, becomes the woman's lover.

f76. Animals teach to make love. People learn to copulate after they see birds, fish or animals doing it.

f77a. Penis bridge. Huge penis is used as a bridge across water body.

f78. Toothed anus. Person or creature has toothed anus or second head in place of the anus.

f79. Animal wives. Person marries several non-human wives in succession, every time (besides the last one) is disappointed.

f80. Primeval people have no genitals. The first men and/or women have no genitals.

f80a. Genitals apart from the body. Genitals exist by themselves as separate beings, they can be stuck to the human body, remove, etc..

f81. Bride in a river. A man mistakes his own reflection in river for a beautiful woman and makes attempts to marry her.

f82. Incest with mother-in-law. A man uses a trick to have opportunity to make love to his mother-in-law or woman uses a trick to make love to her son-in-law. Usually a man takes with him on a hunt not his wife but her mother.

f82a. What owl cries about. To lure prohibited sexual partner into his or her hammock, person imitates or interpretes in a certain way voices of birds and animals.

f83. News precede man. Person commits something shameful, obscene. Presumably, nobody could see him doing it. When he asks people, "What's the news?", they answer that so-and-so (this person) has done such a thing.

f83a. Indecent proposal made through children. Animal person comes to children of a big predator and tells them that he will copulate with their mother (or that he will beat her).

f84. Prolonged celibacy imitated. Person has sex with the wife of his host or brother. Trying to conceal his deed, he puts ashes or juice of a fruit on his glans that has to prove his long celibacy.

f85. The Moon: contra men and pro women. The Moon (female or male) is the leader of women in their struggle against the men or leads the women away from the men.

f86. Signal for paramour to come out. Person summons with a certain signal his or her sexual partner or ward who is of non-human nature. Another person spies, uses the same signal or pronounces the same words, kills those who come to him or uses them sexually himself.

f86a. An eaten up pet. Person take care for a fish, crab or other small creature. Another person spies on him or her, kills the pet and eats it up or try to do it.

f87. Transformed children of serpentís wife. A girl marries snake, comes with her children to visit her relation. Her close kin (father, mother, brother) tries to get know from her children how their mother calls her husband. A girl tells the secret, mother (father, etc.) of the woman calls the snake with the same signal, kills him. Seeing her husband dead, the woman transforms her children (and herself) into birds or trees.

f88. Odor of women. Initially women's genitals were fragrant or had no smell. Because of a bad chance they acquire unpleasant odor or do not acquire fragrant odor.

f89. A smart sister. Sister and brother live alone. The brother rejects the incest. The sister makes him take her for unknown girl, marries him.

f90. A tragic incest. Brother and sister marry each other. When their children get to know about the incest, they kill their parents, or father kills children, or parents suicide, or wife/sister suicides when her husband/brother has died.

f91. A worm-breeder. A man lets his wife to be eaten up by worms. She either dies or has a narrow escape.

f92. Homosexual play. A male person is tricked into being used sexually by another man.

f93. The talking penis. A man's member speaks and can be silenced only by his mother-in-law.

f94. Rival wives in the sky. A man gets to the sky where he has a choice to marry one of two women, one of them being connected with life and another with death.

f95. Wife of one of two brothers. Two companions or brothers live together. One has a wife which he conceals. Another suspects her existence, destroys her or tries to get a wife also for himself.

f96. Ugly man becomes handsome. A girl rejects an ugly youth, men also do not like him. A powerful supernatural makes him handsome while those who were evil to him are punished.

f97. The prohibited fruit: origin of sex. After eating certain fruit, berry, tuber, etc. people become sexually aware.

f98. God and a cow. Anthropomorphic god descends from the sky and copulates with a cow.

f99. Baby copulates with his mother. A baby son turns into an adult man, copulates with his mother, then acquires his baby guise.

f100. Test of chastity (a queen and a servant girl) . A magic medicine demonstrates that the only chaste woman is a servant girl, orphan, etc. King chooses the chaste one.

g1. A kidnapped child. Valuables (earth, soil, sun, crops, fire, sacred knowledge, hunting luck) are got or returned when son or daughter is stolen from his or her parent.

g3. A rock of crops. Cultivated plants or fertile soil to plant them are hidden inside a rock. Birds or Thunders get them destroying the rock.

g4. A food mountain. Cultivated plants are found above or inside a mountain.

g5. Food tree. Fruits and shoots of different cultivated plants grow on the branches of one tree or certain plant has a tree form that is alien to it in nature.

g6. Primeval tree. One of the trees is the principal, original one (emerged before all the other; ancestor of wild or cultivated plants; ocean or rivers inside it; world axis; higher than all the others; overshadows sky).

g6a. Tree of the year. Year is described as a tree with the number of branches, twigs, leaves etc. corresponding to the number of seasons, months, days, etc..

g7. Blunt axes. Ancestors need to fell a gigantic tree or a vertical rock. Their axes become blunt or break and/or they are in search of a proper axe to cope with their work. Usually they are cutting the tree with different cultivated plants on its branches.

g8. Restored tree. A deep notch in the tree (or in the sky support) is magically restored as soon as persons or creatures who cut or gnaw it stop working.

g8a. Cutting tree to make a canoe. To make some object (usually a canoe), person cuts a tree, goes away, returns, finds the tree intact. Usually another person who was restoring the tree by magic fells it down himself and makes a canoe for the hero.

g8b. Cutting tree to get a person. Person hides in a tree. Somebody tries to fell it but the notch disappears and the tree becomes intact.

g8c. Cutting tree to get valuables. (Animal-)people try to fell a tree that contains water and fish or has cultivated plants on its branches. The notch disappears and the tree becomes intact.

g8d. Falling or growing up of a tree is dangerous to the world. To save the world (gods, king, etc.) certain persons or creatures try to cut or gnaw a tree (post, mountain) or do not permit the others to do. The notch disappears and the tree (post, etc.) becomes intact.

g8e. Cutting the Moon tree. Person tries to cut down the tree in the Moon but the notch disappears and the tree becomes intact.

g8f. Chips destroyed. A deep notch in the tree is magically restored when persons or creatures who cut it go away to take a rest. They get to fell the tree after they begin to burn the cut off chips or to carry them far way.

g9. Restored forest. People break ground or fell trees. In the morning, the ground or forest are intact again.

g9a. Restored forest and flood. A man fells trees to clear ground for a garden. Certain person or animal revives vegetation and after being surprised by the man, warns him about the coming flood, tells to prepare a boat.

g10. The hanging tree. A tree which trunk is cut through do not fall because it is hold from above.

g11. Squirrel the woodcutter. A squirrel plays crucial role in felling the gigantic tree.

g12. Tree is a person. A giant tree (often with water inside it or with different cultivated plants on its branches) grows out of the human body or is transformed person.

g12a. Plants from drops of blood. Cultivated plants emerge from drops of blood or spill from cuts on the body of a person or animal.

g12b. Star-person gives plants. Star-person is a giver of cultivated plants.

g12c. Fox brings plants from the sky. Fox or coyote returns from the sky and disperses seeds or shoots unknown on earth before.

g13. People ate rotten wood. Before acquisition of cultivated plants people ate rotten or soft (Ceiba L., Ochroma Sw.) wood; some people eat rotten wood.

g13a. People ate dirt. Before acquisition of cultivated plants people ate dirt, mud or stones.

g13b. People ate fungi. Before acquisition of cultivated plants people ate fungi.

g14. Swallowed man returns with plants. A man is swallowed by a water monster and comes out from its belly in the land of the supernatural beings. He receives from them cultivated plants and brings them to people.

g15. Plant maidens. In the other world or in the time of the ancestors food products or materials used by people looked as persons.

g16. Ants find cultivated plants. Ants are the first who find cultivated plants (corn or manioc) which are concealed from the others in particular place.

g17. Gift of a reptile. Serpent or alligator is the original possessor or the source of cultivated plants or wild staples.

g18. Person wants to be killed. A boy, woman or (more rare) man asks other people to abandon him or her in the forest, to burn or drag her or him on or around the future garden plot, to burn her in her house, etc. A woman usually asks to kill her when she understands that people know her way of producing food which she extracts from her own body. People fulfill person's wish and find cultivated plants on the place.

g19. Burned men bring plants. After a conflict in primeval community, a group of men or youths (Paresi: a boy and a girl) burned themselves in a bonfire (or leap over it, etc.). As a result, people acquire cultivated plants, especially corn.

g20. Woman turns into plants. Food crops emerge from remains of a woman or girl.

g21. Coconut palm from a human head. Coconut palm grows out of the human head.

g22. Frog or toad and plants. Frog or toad is related to acquisition of cultivated plants.

g23. Alive being turns into many objects. Person or creature is transformed. Separate parts of its (his, her) body give origin to different objects or creatures (only etiological narratives are considered).

g23a. Alive being turns into plants. Person or creature is transformed. Separate parts of its (his, her) body give origin to different plants, mostly edible or cultivated.

g23b. Alive being turns into nations. Different body parts of a huge being turn into people of different ethnic affiliation or such people receive their names and characteristics according to body parts that they got.

g25. Cereals spilled over the earth. Seeds of cereals have been spilled over the earth, now people cultivate them.

g26. Swallowed food: saved for people. Food products were swallowed or hidden in person's mouth. Thanks to this people got them.

g27. Plants from urine. Person urinates producing the first cultivated plants.

g28. The fish tree. Tree contains fish in its trunk.

g29. Demon made of artifacts. Demonic person turns into or consists of different household objects or tools (and into elements of a landscape).

g30. Chopped penis turns into plants. A cut off long penis turns into many edible plants or different trees.

g31. Trees tied up with a rope. To clear a garden plot, persons put a rope around many trees, pull it, all the trees fall.

h1a. The originator of death the first sufferer. One person wants man to live forever, another wants man to be mortal. When somebody dear to the latter one dies, he or she is eager to accept the suggestion of his or her opponent but the original decision cannot be changed.

h1b. Death of a neighborís child. Person does something that results in originating of death because death of some alive being deer to another person is indifferent or desirable for him or her.

h1bb. The not revived dog. Person refuses to revive a dog which is dear to another person, and this conflict is related to the missed opportunity to revive people.

h1c. Stamped down grave. People do not come back to life (or do not come anymore to their relatives after death) when somebody buries the dead in a grave or stamps down the earth on the grave.

h1d. The first dead is rejected by the alive people. Person dies and returns soon but people send him or her back, refuse to accept as a member of their community or bury again. Since then death becomes permanent.

h2. The selfish animal. Animals ask God to make people mortal because people would be too numerous and step on the animals, deprive them of their food and habitat, or because the animals want to feast on the human corpses.

h3. Sham funerals bring death. People become mortal because they imitated real funerals burying an animal.

h4. The shed skin. Those who change their skin become young again. In many cases, people are contrasted to snakes, invertebrates or some trees who shed their skin or bark and rejuvenate.

h4a. Process of rejuvenation is broken. People do not become young (usually do not shed their skin) anymore because certain person was bothered during rejuvenation or was not recognized by his family in his new guise.

h5. People and snakes. Reptiles or invertebrates are contrasted with men as immortal with mortals and/or are responsible for originating of death; or a snake's bite inflicts the first death.

h6a. People and plants. Mortal humans are contrasted with (almost) immortal trees that shed their bark, become green again after winter sleep or propagate by sprouts.

h6b. The life-medicine spilled on plants. The life-medicine is accidentally spilled not on men but on plants which become evergreen, capable for regeneration or producing fruits.

h6bb. The lost objects. Animal person is sent to pass to the people certain objects or substance but loses or replaces them. Because of this people miss possibility to become immortal or their life becomes difficult.

h6c. The immortal raven. Raven is contrasted with people as an immortal with mortals (usually is sent to bring water of immortality or drinks itself water of immortality).

h6d. Stolen immortality. Person brings a remedy that gets immortality. While he is asleep, somebody else steals the remedy.

h7. The personified Death. Death (alone or with Old Age, Disease, etc.) is a particular personage not identical with the Master of the Dead. Death comes and kills people.

h7a. The Death and a doctor. Man receives from Death (Fortune, some spirit) knowledge will the patient recover or die. He becomes a doctor and receives rich rewards. Usually he gets the ability to see Death near the bed of a patient and considering a particular place where Death stands, gets to know perspectives of recovering.

h7b. The Death in a tree. A man has a tree from which nobody can climb down without his will. He lures there Death or Devil who came after him.

h7c. Not finished prayer. Death promises to take a man after he has finished a prayer. The man begins to pray but does not finish his prayer and the Death cannot take him.

h7d. The old man asks Death to help him to carry a load. An old man has to carry a heavy load of wood. Tired and exhausted, he wishes for death. When Death appears he asks her to help him with the load.

h7e. Humans knew the time of their death. In the year before they were to die, people neglected their responsibilities (they repair fences with temporary materials). Therefore, God decided that they should not know in advance when they will die.

h7f. Death asks God whom he should eat. Death comes to God to ask whom he should eat next time. A person suggests to go to God intead of Death. God answers that Death should kill old men, children, etc. but the person distorts his instructions: Death should eat stones, trees and the like..

h8. The failed test. People lose immortality because they do not dare to touch or drink something loathsome, poisonous, hot or otherwise dangerous.

h9. Strong and weak. People are mortal because they have been likened to something subject to decay and easy destruction (e.g. to the soft wood and not to the stone).

h9a. Who will give birth the first. One woman is associated with stone, another with a plant. The plant-woman gives birth the first or the stone-woman do not have children at all. That's because people have their present characteristics (are mortal, capable to speak, etc.), or offsprings of the two women are different (skillful and not, etc.).

h9b. Children as shoots of plants. People are likened to plants which are mortal but revive in their offsets.

h10. Stone sinks, stick floats. People are mortal because stone thrown into the water sank. They have missed a chance to be like wood or other organic matter that floated.

h11. The call of God. People become mortal because they do not hear or answer a call of a being who promises them immortality (or do not pronounce his name) or answer a call (pronouns the name) of a being who brings death.

h12. Orpheus: visit to the land of the dead. Alive person visits the land of the dead, usually following a dead person.

h12a. Dead woman pursues her husband. Wife dies, husband comes after her or he kills his untrue wife. The dead wife turns into monster and pursues him.

h12b. Ghosts feed on excrements. Inhabitants of the land of the dead eat excrements.

h13. Dead person returns and revives. Person comes to the land of the dead and brings back somebody who has recently died. This person becomes alive and lives normal life.

h14. Woman flies back to the land of the dead. A dead woman returns to earth but flies back as a bird or a fly.

h15. Whisper and yawning. If called in a loud voice, ghosts do not hear an alive person but hear whisper, yawning, etc..

h16. Rivers of tears and blood. Rivers or lakes of tears, milk, blood, or water used for washing corpses exist in the world of the dead or separate it from our world.

h17. Ring of defenders around chief. Ancestors surround their (dead) chief trying to defend him or his corpse. A trickster gets to go through the ring, kills the chief or steals and devours his heart.

h18. Hoarded game released. Game animals were concentrated in one single place. Certain person lets them disperse in the world.

h18a. Pup lets animals lose. The owner of game animals conceals them underground. One of the ancestors turns into pup, is adopted by owners' children, lets the animals lose.

h18b. Cattle returns into water. After getting domestic animals from supernaturals a person immediately loses the animals or most of them (usually because of a broken taboo like to look, to speak in a loud voice, etc.; the animals disappear in water, remain in the sky, scatter in various directions, etc.).

h19. Raven tries to starve people. Raven hides or scares game animals preventing hunters to kill them. People outwit him.

h20. Fish disperse in the world. All the fish or (rare) shellfish) was concentrated in one place. Certain person lets it lose or puts it into the rivers or sea.

h20a. Mistress of fish loses it. A woman (a girl, several women) keeps all the fish for herself. Man comes and lets fish escape into rivers or sea..

h21. Animals or fish kill a child. Person possesses game animals or fish. A boy or a girl knows this secret or is used as a luring device. Another person asks or forces the boy or girl to serve him the same way or the boy himself makes an attempt to hunt or fish. As a result, the boy or girl is killed or carried away by animals or fish.

h21a. Not to kill the big fish. The owner of fish holds it in a container and regularly takes as much as he needs. Another person opens the container breaking the rules and the fish escapes.

h22. Sense of smell. Big game animals obtain sense of smell and/or become to escape from hunters after a person makes them olfactory organs or lets them feel strong odor.

h22a. Animals disperse after being touched by people. Big game animals were concentrated in one place, had no fear of people. They escape and disperse after somebody slightly strikes or stains them.

h23. Fat horns. Objects that are now stiff and inedible (animal horns, tree fungi, heartwood) contained fat or marrow.

h24. Container opened too early. Container with valuables or with dangerous creatures is opened (before time). Its content goes out of control or disappear.

h24a. A bag with stars. Person opens a bag with stars which ascend to sky in disorder.

h24b. Souls disappear from the opened container. Person receives a container with the soul of a dead person and has to open it not before he gets to particular place or after particular time interval. He opens it too early, the soul fly away.

h24c. Death in container. People open container with death or disease inside and become mortal.

h24d. Still picks up what was let lose. Animal person who let lose the content of a container entrusted to him or her (darkness, insects, reptiles, etc.) still tries to pick up what was let lose (etiology of behavior of certain animal species).

h24e. To choose life or death. People are suggested to choose one of two objects, associated with life and death. They choose the object with death.

h24f. Meat in a package. Putting a lot of meat or fish in a small package, person gives it to another warning him not to open it on the way. The warning is ignored, meat or fish falls out and cannot be put back.

h25. To choose life or death. People are suggested to choose one of two objects, associated with life and death. They choose the object with death.

h26. Mosquitoes had to be drowned. The right way to dispose of container with stinging insects would be to throw it into the river or sea or bury in a far away place, but it was not done.

h27. Mosquitoes let lose. Stinging insects (rare diseases) had been inside a container or some enclosure. They escaped to the world when the container or enclosure was foolishly opened.

h27a. A hole in the ground. During the creation of the earth Creator's antagonist demands for himself as much earth as would be enough to put his staff. He thrusts the stake into the ground (rare: pulls out a certain pole). Insects and reptiles come out of the opening and/or the antagonist falls down through it into the underworld.

h28. Plagues from the body of a person or creature. Killed and destroyed (often burned) person or creature (usually ogre, fierce animal, powerful shaman) turns into a multitude of biting insects or into other small molesting creatures.

h28a. Mosquitoes from sparks and smoke. A burned person or creature immediately turns into a multitude of mosquitoes or biting flies.

h29. Origin of foreigners. A woman is impregnated by an animal, usually by a snake. People of hostile nation originate or receive their culture from her progeny or from her paramour's relatives.

h30. A wrong choice. Seeing two women who have come together or in succession, man has to choose one of them. Usually he takes the one who is less pretty and smart or more dangerous inflicting troubles on himself and humanity.

h31. Origin of death: man and celestial bodies. God summons to him man and celestial bodies and makes the man mortal and others immortal.

h32a. Superfertility lost: a maltreated wife. Supernatural woman comes to live with humans. Thanks to that, food becomes easily available. She is maltreated, goes away, temporal superfertility is lost forever.

h32b. Superfertility lost: a maltreated child. A small girl or boy who is a child of a deity comes to live with humans. Thanks to that, food or other resources become easily available. The child is maltreated, returns to its own world, human life becomes difficult and scanty.

h33. Walking babies. Children walked or could walk from the very birth but this ability was lost or never obtained.

h33a. Babies thrown across a hedge. A woman did not allow God to throw her baby across a hedge, roof, etc. Because of this babies lost or never got ability to walk from the very birth.

h34a. Controversy over conditions of life. Person has a series of suggestions how to make the world easy for living and free of hard work and death. His companion successively rejects them.

h34b. Rivers flow in both directions. Rivers were flowing or according to the original plan had to flow in both directions; somewhere there is a river that flows in both directions.

h34c. Flying rice. Rice could flow arriving by itself to the household.

h34d. Piece of sky bitten off. Animal person climbs to the sky or to the Moon to bite off a piece of it.

h34d1. Edible sky. Sky or sky objects were edible but later this source of food became inaccessible or used only by the inhabitants of the distant land where the sky and the earth meet.

h34e. The edible snow. Snow was edible or something edible was falling from the sky instead of the snow.

h34f. Walking baskets. Baskets carried loads by themselves.

h34g. One grain porridge. One cereal grain (cob, etc.) is enough to prepare a meal.

h34h. Firewood come by themselves. Firewood, brushwood arrived to the house themselves, no work was needed to cut and carry them.

h35. Fragile teeth. Human teeth are made of material subject to easy damage (etiology of tooth ache in most cases).

h36. The muddled message. Person is sent by god to bring instructions or certain objects but distorts, forgets or replaces them. This has fatal consequences for humans or for a certain species of animals.

h36a. Origin of death from the falsified message. Person is sent by god to bring instructions or certain objects but distorts, forgets or replaces them. Because of this people become mortal (do not revive after death).

h36b. Death and the chameleon. Chameleon is responsible for introduction of permanent death or hard life; loses object that the deity trusted him to bring to the earth.

h36c. Death and the lizard. Lizard is responsible for introduction of permanent death.

h36d. Death and the hare. Hare is responsible for introduction of permanent death.

h36e. Death and the rat. Rat is responsible for introduction of permanent death.

h36f. Raven is a failed messenger. Raven is sent to deliver important object or message. It distorts message, loses object.

h36ff. Death and the raven. Raven is responsible for introduction of permanent death.

h36g. Muddled message: how many meals a day. God sends his messenger to tell people that they should eat only rarely (once in three days or the like). The messenger tells them that they should eat often (three times a day).

h36g1. Bull is a failed messenger. Bull (ox, cow) is sent to deliver important message. It distorted it making human life difficult.

h36gg. Death and the coyote. Coyote is responsible for introduction of permanent death.

h36h. The unhappy jump. Some beings, frog and toad among them, have to overcome an obstacle. This is realized not the way it was planned and as a consequence, people become mortal.

h36hh. Death and the frog. Frog or toad is responsible for introduction of permanent death.

h36i. Death and the goat. Goat or sheep is responsible for introduction of permanent death.

h36j. Death and the lark. Lark is responsible for introduction of permanent death.

h37. Magic device lost by failure . Magic object, device that makes hunting or fishing easy gets into possession of a person who is unable to operate it or abuses it. The device kills or injures the failure himself, other people and/or disappears.

h37a. Jump over brushwood kindles fire. Person gives a trickster ability to kindle fire easily. He uses it without need, it is lost.

h37b. Charge of skunk used to no purpose. Person gives a trickster his power (usually skunk gives his charge) but he squanders it all to see the effect. When a real need comes, the device does not work anymore.

h38. Supernatural person comes after his property. Supernatural person changes his guise and comes to the hero's children (more rare, to him). They hand him what he asks for and he disappears with his former property is.

h39. The spilled poison. Snakes drink liquid spilled on earth and become poisonous or immortal; creatures obtain their characteristics (usually becomes poisonous) after drinking or licking a particular medicine.

h40. Dog is the guard of man. Dog guards (successfully or unsuccessfully) the (still unfinished) physical body of man.

h41. Death and the dog. Dog is responsible for people being mortal or imperfect. Usually the antagonist bribes dog with a warm fur and the dog lets him spoil the half-ready human figures.

h42. Creator goes away for a while. After creating the bodies of the first people or after getting a conception how to do it the Creator goes away for a while. During his absence another person, because of his or her ignorance or intentionally, spoils the creation or makes himself or herself what the Creator would make in a better way. Usually because of this people are mortal and subject to diseases.

h43. One creates the body, another the soul. One supernatural creates the body of the first people, another revives them.

h43a. Broken figure of the first man. After making human body, creator goes away for a time. In his absence another person makes attempt to break human figure that was not yet alive.

h43aa. Figure of the first man smeared with filth. After making human body, creator goes away for a time. In his absence another person spits on the human figure that was not yet alive, smears it with filth, etc..

h44. Sky and Earth divide their children. Two persons, one of whom is connected with the sky (water, spirit world) and another with the earth (human world), divide their child or people created by them. Sky (spirit, Water) takes the imperishable part, and Earth (person), the perishable one.

h45. The abused bread. A woman or child demonstrate no respect for bread soiling it with excrements. For this God punishes all the humanity.

h46. The dogís part. To punish people, God deprives them of bread but keeps a small part for a dog or other domestic animal. Thatís because cereals still exist.

h46a. The dog and the spike. Properties of the cereals (usually the size of the spike) are defined by what the dog did in time of creation.

h47. Offended sky or earth. The sky (or the earth) is offended by peopleís behavior in respect to it and reacts accordingly (e.g. rises higher than it was before).

h48. Daughters of evil spirit. Diseases are sisters (rare: brothers), usually children of evil spirit.

h49. Pet defends masterís child. A dog or other animal kills dangerous creature who was going to attack the child. The master thinks that the assailant was the pet and kills it.

h49b. The faithful dog as security for a debt. A man leaves his dog with another man as security for a large loan. The dogs proves to be brave and intelligent (drive off thieves, finds stolen treasure). The man sends the dog to its owner with a letter saying the debt is cancelled. The owner, thinking the dog has run away, kills it only to find the letter.

h49c. Faithful falcon killed. A tame bird (more rare: domestic animal) seems to be aggressive against its master (usually a falcon knocks the cup from the hand of a thirsty king). The master kills the bird (animal) only to find that it saved his life.

h49d. Helpful parrot killed. A bird brings fruit (seed, sprout) that makes people young (healthy). By chance or by evil intent the fruit becomes contaminated with poison. The man kills the bird and later discovers the truth.

h50. Sky god and mistress of the dead. A couple of deities or ancestors divorces. Man remains on earth or ascends to the sky, woman becomes the mistress of the dead or of the underworld.

h51. The demonic horse. A horse eats people or is associated with antagonist of the God.

h52. The search of immortality. Person sets off in search of the country where there is no death. He finds it. He decides to visit his home and dies there.

h53. Wolf is the master of the dead. Wolf takes part in creation and/or is a brother of the creator who wins demons of the lower world. Wolf is the first person who died and/or becomes the master of the dead.

h54. The eyelids of Viy. Eyelids or eyebrows of personage hang long down over his eyes. To make him see, eyelids should be propped up with poles, folks, etc..

h55. Sinners in other world. Person who visits the other world gets to see different people punished or rewarded according to their behavior when they were alive on earth.

h55a. Married couple under one blanket. Person gets to see husband and wife who pull their blanket from each other or have not enough space for two on their bed.

h56. The prohibited fruit (origin of death). After eating certain fruit, berry, tuber, etc. people become mortal (cf. motif F97: people become sexually aware).

i1. The thunderbirds. Creatures that produce rain and/or thunderstorms are birds or anthropomorphic beings with wings; or (rare) some or all birds are connected with thunder, lightning or rain though Thunder is not a bird.

i2. Lightning from eyes. Lightning emerges from eyes or mouth of the being who is thought to produce thunderstorms.

i3. Weapons of Thunder. The lightning (and thunder) is (produced with) an object (axe, sword, mirror, belt, stones, skin, etc.) in hands of anthropomorphic being.

i4. Thunder rides in the sky. Thunder is heard when a vehicle moves in the sky.

i4a. Thunder in trouble: falls to earth. Thunder falls to earth, cannot return to the sky. Usually a human person helps him to do it.

i4b. Thunder in trouble: fights with his enemy. A man helps Thunder who fights with his enemy.

i4c. The imprisoned Thunder. Thunder-god is temporarily overcome and imprisoned by his ebemy.

i4d. Thunderís instrument stolen. Thunderís instrument is stolen from him. He or his helper comes unrecognized to the thief, gets his instrument and kills the enemies.

i5. Thunder is an animal. Thunder looks like a quadruped mammal (pig, buffalo, camel, anteater, tapir, dog, cat, leopard, monkey, etc.).

i5a. Thunderous tapir. Tapir is associated with the upper world, usually with the thunder.

i5b. Thunderous feline. Flying feline produces rains and thunderstorms.

i6. Weather birds. A man gets to the nest of giant birds. When the birds come, they bring with them clouds, rain, hail, etc. Usually, nestlings tell the man what kind of weather their father or mother brings.

i6a. Male and female birds: different kinds of precipitation. The male and the female birds bring with them different kinds of precipitations (e.g. the male comes with a hail, the female with a rain). Or (Buryats of Mongolia) one and the same bird brings different kinds of precipitations depending on is it angry or not..

i7. The cloud serpent. A flying reptile produces rain, thunderstorm.

i7a. The lightning- serpent. The lightning is associated with a snake.

i8c. The suspended earth. The earth does not fall down or swing because it is suspended to ropes.

i8e. Four supports of the world. The sky or the earth rests upon four or five (cardinal points and the center) supports of any kind (poles, mountains, giants).

i8f. One support of the world. Only one pole or mountain supports the earth or the sky.

i8g. Atlas. One giant supports the earth or the sky.

i8h. A man and a woman hold the earth. Two anthropomorphic beings, a male and a female, are in the underworld and support the earth.

i8i. Original earth unstable. Originally the earth was unstable and swung, then it was fixed up.

i9. Colors of the cardinal directions. Four cardinal directions and/or some objects associated with them are associated with different colors.

i10a. Colored layers of the sky. Different sky levels or different categories of clouds have different colors.

i10b. Colored layers of the earth. Particular layers or categories of the earth have different colors.

i11. Cosmic turtle or toad. A turtle, toad, or frog supports the earth or is its embodiment.

i12. The world axis. A tree or post pierces and unites different layers of the universe.

i13a. The horned serpent. Giant water-chthonic or sky serpent or dragon has horns or antlers on its head.

i13b. A horned snake. Snake of natural size has horns on its head.

i13c. Snakeís crown. Reptiles possess treasure with magic properties. Person gets or tries to get it. Usually it is a crown, jewel or small horns on the snake's head.

i13d. Hibernating with snakes. ◊ŚŽÓ‚ŚÍ ÔÓÔŗšŗŚÚ ‚ śŤŽŤýŚ ÁžŚť, ÔūÓ‚ÓšŤÚ Úŗž šÓŽ„ÓŚ ‚ūŚžˇ, ÓÚÔůýŚŪ ŪŗÁŗš ŤŽŤ ůŠŚ„ŗŚÚ. ÕŗűÓšˇŮŁ ‚ ÓŠŤÚŚŽŤ ÁžŚť, ÓŠŻųŪÓ ŽŤśŚÚ Úŗž ÍŗžŚŪŁ, ŤÁŠŗ‚ŽˇĢýŤť ÓÚ śŗśšŻ Ť „ÓŽÓšŗ.

i14. No-anus people. Person or creature has no anus opening.

i14a. Eject digested food through the mouth. No-anus people eject digested food through the mouth or other orifice.

i15. No-mouth people. Anthropomorphic beings have no mouths.

i15a. A vertical cut. Mouth of human being was first cut vertically.

i16. Body anomalies of the first people. First human beings have no mouth, anus or genitals, their women do not know how to give birth.

i17. Body anomalies of inhabitants of a distant land. A race of anthropomorphic beings without mouth, anus, genitals, whose women do not know how to give birth lives in the underworld, in the sky, in a far-away land.

i18. A spouse or husband without anus or mouth. Person visits people who have no anus or mouth. He or his sister marries or tries to marry a local dweller.

i19. People inhale the odor of food. Anthropomorphic beings satisfy their hunger cooking food and inhaling the odor.

i20. The underworld dworfs. Race of dwarfs lives in the underworld.

i20a. The sky giants. Anthropomorphic inhabitants of the upper world are giants.

i20b. Belt on armpits. People in the upper world are different than on earth and put their belts not on the waist but higher or below it.

i21. Red-haired people scorched by the sun. People who live in the underworld, at the sunrise or sunset (often dwarfs) are scorched by the Sun which moves by at a short distance from them. They are red-haired, dark-skinned, etc..

i22. Symplegades (obstacle opens and closes). Souls on their way to the land of the dead, heroes or shamans have to go between moving rocks, trees, river banks, etc. which are incessantly meeting and parting.

i22a. Rising and falling sky. The sky is constantly moving up and down in respect to earth.

i22b. Birds fly to the outer world. Migratory birds fly from our world to the outer world under the edge of the sky which is rising and falling or through a narrow opening. Many birds perish. Eventual details: person who lives at this place feeds on these birds; it can be mistress of birds lives on another side of the pulsating obstacle.

i23. Snapping door. The door of a house is opening and closing by itself crashing persons who attempt to come in or out.

i24. A snake bridge. Snake, lizard or worm is a bridge or a rope over the river.

i25. The bribed guards. Way to the place of a certain person is guided by dangerous creatures (which often stand on the both sides of the pathway). Person placates them by gifts or nice talk, and they let him or her go the both ways, sometimes being punished for this by their master.

i25a. Bones to cows. Person sees that food put for certain animals is inedible for them and corrects situation (usually gives to herbivorous animals food that was given before to predators and vice versa).

i26. Dangers on the way of souls. On its way to the Beyond, a soul has to defend itself or divert attention of guards who wait for it giving presents to them.

i27. Chthonic canine. A dog is the lord, guard or guide of/to the land of the dead; or dogs live on the way to the land of the dead.

i27a. Towns and paths of dogs. Souls of the dead dogs have their own towns in the Beyond or their own paths to travel there.

i27b. Dog as a ferryman. A dog ferries person across a river that forms a border between the worlds.

i27c. The four-eyed dog. Dogs having spots over the eyes are called the four-eyed and believed to have special properties (e.g. to see ghosts).

i28. Animals in the underworld. Game animals live inside a mountain, in a cave or in the underworld where they often look like humans and have a master.

i28a. Animals produce earthquakes. Big game animals disappear under the earth and produce earthquakes.

i29. Armadilloís hole leads to the underworld. Person crawls after an armadillo into its hole and gets into the underworld or digs a hole and gets into the world of the armadillos.

i30. Master of the dead welcomes women. Master or mistress of the realm of the dead copulates with every new human soul of the opposite sex who arrives to his or her realm.

i31. Master and mistress of the dead. In the Beyond, every soul is treated by the mythological characters of the opposite sex.

i32. Tree of the babies. There is (or was) a tree on which souls of still unborn babies grow, which leaves transform into people, or which trunk is covered with female breasts or flowers that innumerable babies are sucking.

i32a. Tree of human life. When a leave or a fruit of a certain tree drops, one of the people on the earth dies.

i33. Tree of the dead. The ultimate aim of the afterlife journey is to reach certain tree.

i34. The dangerous tree. It is necessary to approach a tree which is surrounded with fire, ejects fire, shoots sharp splints, etc..

i35. Dragging a hide produces thunder. Thunder is produced by dragging behind a dry animal skin or (rare) a person (rare) or by shaking clothes.

i35a. Old womanís thunder. Thunder is produced by the old woman who lives in the sky.

i35a1. Challenge to Thunder-god. Person pretends to be the sky-god imitating rain and thunderstorm.

i35a2. Thunder is rolling stones. Thunder is heard when stones or big vessels are rolled, dragged, overthrown in the sky.

i35b. The bronze sky. Sky is made of metal, is forged by smith .

i36. Thunder and lightning are siblings or spouses. Two siblings or a young couple turn into thunder and lightning or into two thunders or one turns into thunder, another into an animal.

i37d. Mushrooms are excrements. Mushrooms are excrements of mythological person.

i37e. Fungi are steps, platforms, obstacles. Tree fungi are steps, small platforms, umbrellas, obstacles that make moving easier or more difficult, provide a shelter or cover.

i37f. Fungi are ears. Fungi or mushrooms are named ďearsĒ.

i37g. Fungi shout. Tree fungi shout like persons.

i38. The dog-heads. Some beings are half-men and half-dogs (usually anthropomorphic with heads of dogs).

i38a. The dog-husbands. Dogs or dog-headed men are husbands of human women.

i39. Rainbow road or bridge. Rainbow is a road or bridge by which some ascend to the sky or descend from it.

i40. Rainbow bow. Rainbow is a bow.

i41. Rainbow serpent. Rainbow is a reptile (usually a snake) or (more rare) a fish, or it is related to snake, to its tongue, breath, or to scorpion's tail.

i41a. Rainbow from an anthill. Rainbow rises from an anthill.

i41b. Rainbow drinks water. Rainbow drinks (soaks up) water.

i41b1. Rainbow swallows fish. Rainbow drinks and together with water swallows fish, people, etc. Sometimes this fish falls on earth from the sky.

i42. Rainbow is a pair of creatures. Rainbow is two creatures or persons, usually a male and a female.

i43a. The celestial monster. Giant reptilian monster (serpent, more rare fish, chain of fish) extends in the sky and/or supports the sky being associated with Milky Way or the rainbow.

i43b. Milky Way is a serpent or fish. Milky Way is a reptile, fish, or chain of fish.

i44. Chthonic serpent. Giant serpent lies on the perimeter of the earth or supports the earth.

i45a. Not to point at the Moon or a star. Person who points at the Moon or a star or looks intently at them will get sick or die or his pointing finger will rot or wither.

i45b. Not to point at the rainbow. It to point at the rainbow, pointing finger or entire arm will rot, wither or become crooked.

i45c. Not to count stars. Person who counts stars will suffer diseases and misfortunes.

i46. Rainbow belt. Rainbow is the ornamented part of the clothes, its decoration, a belt.

i46a. Old womanís rainbow. Rainbow is associated with an old woman.

i46b. Rainbow predicts future harvest. Intensity of particular colors of rainbow predicts good or bad harvest of particular crops.

i46c. Rainbow rope. Rainbow is a rope to which a domestic animal is tied.

i46d. Rainbow snare. Rainbow is a snare, a noose.

i46e. Rainbow sword. Rainbow is a sword, a cutting weapon.

i47. Rainbow is filth. Rainbow is a flatulence of a demon, a spray of a skunk, is associated with spit, urine, feces, genitals, etc., causes skin diseases.

i47a. Rainbow is foxís wedding. Rainbow is associated with a wedding of foxes or jackals.

i48. Confined to the underworld. Certain person loses his or her freedom, is confined to a far away place (often, to the underworld) and acquires cosmic dimensions: supports the earth or the sky and/or his or her movements produce earthquakes or (rare) storms.

i49. The running earthquake. Earthquake is a person. Whenever he or she runs or walks, the earth trembles.

i50. Animal with more than four legs. An animal (a horse, an elk, a moose, a bear) with six, eight or ten legs is described or represented in art.

i50a. Torn off legs. A demon tears off or devours one by one legs of a riding animal of the hero.

i51a. Bull the earth-holder. Big mammal supports the earth.

i51b. The earth is an animal. The earth or the sky are identified with a big quadruped mammal or are made of parts of its body.

i52. Fish the earth-holder. World is supported by fish or fish-like monster or the earth itself is such a monster.

i53. Insect bothers the world-supporting being. The animal or the fish which supports the earth is bothered by an insect. The animal moves and the earth trembles (or an animal being afraid of the insect does not dare to move).

i54. Water creature full of fish. Anaconda or a water monster has live fish or animals inside; is father of the fish; all fish emerge from its body.

i55. Stars are openings. Stars are openings in the firmament; holes in dwelling's covering are thought to be stars.

i55a. Stars are lakes. Stars are lakes in one of the sky levels.

i55b. The sun deer. Hero pursues a deer or elk which carry the sun.

i56. Ghosts do not see people from earth. Person who gets into another world is invisible for its inhabitants and his touch makes local person ill.

i57. Thunder pursues his enemy. Thunder's enemies are evil spirits, reptiles, animals living in burrows. They hide from him in different objects, Thunder destroys these objects.

i58. Milky Way is the way of birds. Milky Way is the path of migratory birds (especially wild geese).

i59. Milky Way is spilled straw. Milky Way is a trace of people who spilled on their way something related to agriculture (straw, chaff, hay, more rare flour, peas).

i59a. The thief in the sky. Astral objects or lunar spots are associated with a story of a stealing and the value of the stolen objects is low (straw, firewoods, cabbage, etc.) .

i59b1. Milky Way is the road to a remote city. Milky Way is the road to the remote city (Rome, Jerusalem, etc.).

i59b2. Milky Way is the way of St Jacob. Milky Way is the way of St. Jacob (the way to Santiago de Compostela, etc.).

i59b3. Milky Way is the way of salt traders. Milky Way is the way of salt traders.

i60. Milky Way is a seam in the sky. Milky Way is a sky seam, a concealed fissure or crack between two half of the sky vault.

i60a. Milky Way is a stripe on belly. Milky Way is a longitudinal streak, associated with a white line, stripe along the middle of a belly of an animal.

i61. Milk on the Milky Way. Milky Way is a trace of spilled milk.

i61A. Milky Way is a belt. Milky Way is the belt of the sky.

i62. Milky Way is a river. Milky Way is a sky river, water body, chain of beings that swim.

i63. Milky Way is a path of tapir. Milky Way is a path of tapir, or tapir is seen in the Milky Way.

i64a. Race along Milky Way. Two different ungulates run a race in the sky. Usually Milky Way is their trace of dust.

i65. Milky Way of the dead. Milky Way is the path over which souls travel to the beyond or a path of the funeral procession.

i66. Ashes on Milky Way. Milky Way is ashes or smoldering coals.

i67. Rhea and Milky Way. Milky Way is a giant rhea.

i68. Opening of the sky. On a certain day, the sky vault opens and the interior of the sky is seen; usually any wish expressed at this moment will be fulfilled.

i69. Star dung. Shining sky objects or atmospheric phenomena are excrements of sky dwellers.

i70. Water reptile on plants on its back. Trees or reeds grow on the back of a monstrous reptile.

i71. Stars are roots. Stars are roots of the plants which grow in the upper world.

i72. Stars are people. Stars are people, ghosts, anthropomorphic beings (interpretations of unique star objects like Venus or Polaris as persons not considered).

i73. Stars are sparks. Stars (rare: suns and moons) are sparks or burning coals.

i74. Stars are stones. Stars are shining stones, spangles.

i74a. Stars are fire-flies. Stars are fire-flies, glow-worms.

i75. World ages. Before present world, several (three or more) other worlds or races of people existed.

i76a. Snake turns into dragon. After certain time a snake or fish turn into a dragon.

i76b. Mouse turns into bat. After certain time a mouse turns into a bat.

i77. The lame thunder. Powerful person connected with thunder and rain is lame (usually after falling down from the sky).

i78. The square earth. The earth is square, the sky is usually round.

i80. Thunderís apprentice. Person gets to the house of Thunder, becomes his servant and breaking certain taboo or instructions, produces extensive thunderstorm or rain.

i80a. The youngest Thunder. Man meets Thunders and becomes one of them.

i81. Waters rush down into the underworld. Waters of all rivers on earth run to the precipice where they rush down into the underworld.

i81a. The chthonic crab. A giant crab produces earthquakes or floods, stops or can stop flow of the waters into the chasm or on the contrary prevents waters from being dammed. .

i81a1. The crab and the serpent. The confrontation between the crab and the serpent (eel) produces the present landscape features or has the cosmic scale.

i81b. Haribda (the origin of tides). It is tide when a creature belches out the sea water or ousts it with its body and it is ebb when it swallows the water or lets it go back.

i82a. Venus is male. Morning and/or Evening Star is a male personage.

i82b. Venus is female. Morning and/or Evening Star is a female personage.

i82c. Venus is the Moonís wife. Venus or some other bright star seen near the eastern or western horizon is female and wife of the Moon.

i82d. Morning and Evening stars are a man and a woman. Morning and Evening stars are opposed as a man and a woman or vice versa.

i82e. Star who sold her mother. It is told about Venus or other star that she sold her mother or father to have a beautiful attire.

i82f. Venus is the Wolf star. (Evening) Venus is associated with a predator animal, usually with a she-wolf.

i82g. Venus is the star of the shepards. Venus or other bright star (Arcturus, Sirius, etc.) is the star of the shepard (herdsman, swine-herd, etc.) .

i82h. Venusí name is Colpan. The name of the Venus is like Colpan, Colbon, Tsulmon, etc..

i82i. Venusí name is Zakhra. The name of an object of the night sky (usually Venus) is like Zakhra, Zukhra, Zura, etc..

i83. The sky of birds. Birds, first of all vultures and eagles, live in the sky, usually at one or more layers of the upper world.

i84. Milky Way is a snow-shoes track. Milky Way is a path of a person who was walking on snow-shoes.

i84a. Son of God frozen to death. In winter time despite warning son of the sky deity sets off (usually on his snow-shoes) and is frozen to death.

i85. Polaris is a pole, a nail. Polaris is a (tethering) pole or a nail.

i85a. Horses around Polaris. Hoofed animals are walking around Polaris or the movement of stars is compared with the movement of animals around a post.

i85a1. Polaris is the hole in the sky. Polaris is the opening through which one can get into the upper world.

i85b. Polaris is a man. Polaris is a man.

i85c. Vessels with weather. Person gets to the sky and finds there several vessels with different kinds of weather, precipitations, times of the year and the like.

i86. Hairs into animals, scales into fish. Master of living beings sends down, hairs, scales, etc. which turn into birds, animals, fish.

i86a. Down turns into snow. Snow is created from bird's down when certain bird in the sky shakes itself or certain person shakes his or her clothes made of bird down.

i87. Skull as a cave. Human persons use a shelter which proves to be an object related to the world of the giants (a skull, a shoulder-blade, a mitten).

i87a. Series of creatures ever greater in size. Personage of gigantic dimensions in respect to normal humans and animals proves to be tiny dwarf in respect to another personage.

i87a1. Small or big? A dialogue. Two persons engaged into dialogue describe a series of objects and creatures as simultaneously giant and small.

i87a2. What is Two?. Antagonist names numbers from one to seven or nine, every time asking what it is. The hero gives answers that the antagonist accepts as correct ones..

i87aa. The big bull. A bull (rare: a horse) of a huge length is described (the head in one field, the tail in another; person who is near the head walks a long time till he meets the one neat the tail). The bull is killed and eaten (by people in Baltic Finnish tradition and in Russian bylina from Olonets area; by fish which is eaten by fish which is eaten by bird in Kirghizian tale; ib the Gagauz tale the bull drowns).

i87ab. Only child was able to pick it up. Strong men or a lot of people cannot move the corpse of a killed person or creature but a child or a woman does it easily.

i87ac. Bone in the eye. Something big or huge gets into the manís eye but he takes it for a speck of dust. Usually a bird picks up and carries away an animal or a fish and drops its bone into an eye of a man. When the bone is found, it is dragged out with difficulty (people ride in a boat inside the eye, drag the bone with a fishnet, with many oxen, etc.) .

i87b. The quest for the strong companion. A man seeks a strong adversary to wrestle with and comes across person who is incomparably stronger than he.

i87c. Human persons use a shelter which proves to be an object related to the world of the giants (a skull, a shoulder-blade, a mitten). Animals finds a shelter in an object related to the human world (skull, mitten, or other).

i87d. Men in the time of giants. The earth was inhabited by the giants. One of them finds a tiny person, brings him to his parents. Usually his father or mother esplains that this is one of those men who will live on the earth in the future instead of the present day giants.

i88. Animal with many tails. There is a zoomorphic being with many tails.

i89. The lost caravan. At night travelers mistake some bright star for Morning Star, set off, take a wrong direction, perish or get into trouble.

i91. Water body a the base of a tree. There is a source or body of water at the base of a tree which connects layers of the universe and/or has gigantic dimensions and considered to be the main tree of the world.

i92. Rainbow transforms sex. Person who gets to walk under, over or through the rainbow changes his or her sex.

i93. Milky Way is the backbone. Milky Way is the backbone of the sky or of all the world.

i94. The Pleiades are openings. The Pleiades are holes in the firmament.

i95. The Pleiades are a sieve for grain. The Pleiades are a sieve to process agricultural products.

i95a. Orion is a balance. Orion is a balance, scales.

i95b. Orion is a shoulder-yoke. Orion is a shoulder-yoke.

i95c. Orion is a staff. Orion is a staff, a crook.

i96. Bloody rainbow. Rainbow is blood, associated with war and death.

i97. Rainbow horse. .

i98a. The Pleiades are a hen with its chickens. The Pleiades are a brooding hen, hen with its chickens, chickens.

i98b. The Pleiades are a duckís nest. The Pleiades are wild ducks, a nest or eggs of a wild duck.

i99. The Pleiades are boys or men. The Pleiades are a group of boys or men, or a group of different people but predominantly males.

i100. The Pleiades are girls. The Pleiades are a group of girls or women (with children).

i100a. The Pleiades are mother with children. The Pleiades are a woman with her children.

i100b. The Pleiades are a group of people. The Pleiades are any people (of any ages and sex, combined data of i99-i100a).

i100c. The Pleiades and a cuckoo. God transformed man into a cuckoo, his wife and children into the Pleiades.

i100d. Stars and kids. The Pleiades or stars in general are associated with kids or lambs.

i101. Big Dipper is poles, a nailed skin. Several bright stars of Big Dipper or other constellation are poles which support or stretch an object like skin, shelter, etc..

i102. Milky Way is a tree. Milky Way is a tree or a trace of a tree.

i103. The dog star. Sirius is associated with a dog or a wolf.

i104. Stars are fragments. Stars are fragments of a bigger luminary (usually the Moon); or stars, the sun and the moon are formed from one and the same primeval person or creature.

i105. The celestial hand. One of constellations represents a hand with fingers.

i106. Ursa major is a person. Ursa major is only one anthropomorphic being, not several persons.

i107. Stars are nails. Stars are nails in the firmament or pegs, or stars are nailed to the sky.

i108. The Pleiades are a person. The Pleiades are only one anthropomorphic being, not several persons.

i109. Milky Way is the path of the Sun. Milky Way is the path of the Sun and/or Moon.

i110a. The star plough. Orion (rare: other constellation) is a plough.

i110b. Orion is mowers. (Belt of) Orion is (three) mowers or agricultural tools related to mowing and harvesting.

i111. The earth is a reptile. The earth is the body of a crocodile or a dragon.

i112. The monster boat. A boat is a fish, a living creature with a mouth, it can swallow people.

i113. Pig with the golden bristle. A pig made of gold or having golden bristles is a treasure.

i114. The earthquake: is anymoby alive?. Supernatural beings shake the earth because they think that no earth dwellers remained or wanting to check it, or demonstrating that they themselves are on the place.

i115a. Orion and the Pleiades as a man and a woman. Orion and the Pleiades are opposed as a man or men and a woman or women. Orion is usually male.

i116. Milky Way is the border between the seasons. The Milky Way is the border-line between seasons of the year or parts of the universe (the wet and the dry seasons, the sky and the earth, etc.).

i117. Spider ferries from one world to another. Spider person raises the hero to the sky, helps him or her to return back to earth or otherwise helps to overcome the borderlines between worlds.

i117a. Bat helps to descend from a rock. Bat(-woman) helps the hero to descend from a high rock.

i118. Helpful spider-woman. Spider-woman (rare: spider-man) is a patron of the hero who lives in her house and marries her daughter.

i119. The dead shake the earth. The earthquakes are produced by the dead who are in the underworld or during the earthquakes the inhabitants of the lower world try to come out.

i120. Cornucopia. Food and clothes are extracted from the horn of a cow or goat.

i121. Twin constellations. Two constellations (usually Ursa major and Ursa minor) are interpreted as twin objects of the same type (two animals, two carts, etc.).

i122. The Pleiades are bees. The Pleiades are a nest, a congestion of bees or wasps.

i123. Altair is the Sunís messenger. Altair or Vega with a weak nearby star are believed to appear on the sky immediately after winter solstice though really it is not so.

i124. Ursa major is a boat. Ursa major is a boat.

i125. The Hiades are a jaw-bone. The Hyades are a jaw bone or a head of a big animal or anthropomorphic creature.

i126. Ursa major is a stretcher or grave. Ursa major is a funeral stretcher or a grave.

i127. Ursa major is a bed. Ursa major is a bed, a bedstead.

i128. Ursa major is a dipper. Ursa major is a dipper, a ladle.

i129. Constellation of Heron. When constellation of Heron appears on the sky, the rain season begins.

i130. The sky net. One of costellations is a hunting or fishing net.

i131. The thread of life. Life of every man is related to certain thread. When the thread is cut, the man dies.

i132. Climbing deer antlers up to the sky. A giant deerís or deer-like creatureís antlers reach the upper world, a person climbs them to get there.

i132a. A girl on the swing of the Sun. A girl sits on a swing and it carries her to the sky.

i132b. Bride of the Sun transformed. A girl reaches the Sun to become his wife but at the last moment is transformed (usually becomes a bird).

i133. Whole-sky constellation. Sideral objects in different parts of the sky are identified with one and the same humanoid figure (parts of its body, decoratioons, etc.)..

j2. The tree-husband. Husband or lover is a tree that (temporarily) turns into a man.

j3. Impregnated from under the earth. A woman gives birth to a boy or twin boys after being impregnated without her knowledge when one of the animal persons crawls under the earth to the place where she sits on a ground.

j4. Death of the father. Heroes avenge their (grand)father's or uncles' death, not the death of their mother or both parents.

j5. Brothers as victims. Two or several brothers or friends are killed by antagonists. One of them is the father of the young hero who avenges their death or all of them are his uncles.

j6. Children of murdered woman grow up with her murderers. Pregnant woman is killed (and eaten up). Twins are cut off from her womb. They should be eaten too but survive, live (unrecognized) in the house of the antagonists and revenge on them.

j7. The changed signs. A woman or a girl is in search of her husband, fiance or kinsmen. She loses her way because certain person changed signs at the crossroad.

j8. Feathers at the crossroad. A woman or a girl is in search of her husband or other person. Bird feathers at the cross-road or near the person's dwelling mark the correct or the wrong way.

j9. Unborn children talk from the womb. A woman is in search of her husband or other person or object. Her unborn children speak from her stomach and shows her the correct way.

j10. Insectís bite. A woman loses her way after being bitter by insect (wasp, bee, ant). She accuses her unborn sons of being the cause of the bite and/or slaps herself on her abdomen to punish the sons or to kill the insect. As a consequence her sons are offended and do not show her the correct way anymore.

j11. Unborn child asks to pick up some flowers. A quarrel between a mother and her sons in her womb flares up after they ask her to pick up flowers or fruits (usually the insect bites her when she picks flowers up).

j12. Travelling girl comes across suitors. A girl (or two sisters) travel, usually in search of a proper marriage partner who lives far away or who has gone away. On her way or after reaching the place of destination the girl gets to some unpleasant suitors.

j12a. Penis in a pot. A girl or two sisters get to old woman who suggests them to marry her son. It is a worm or alive penis preserved by its mother in a pot. The girl (the sister) rejects it, runs away.

j12b. Honey-suitor. A suitor or husband is a fragrant Honey person or skillful honey-gatherer.

j12c. Meeting at a feast. A girl gets to see her bridegroom for the first time at a feast and then sets off to his place following instructions received from him.

j12d. Imposter kills his rival. After a girl marries a valuable suitor, a rejected imposter or his relations kill him.

j12j. Imposter is a buffoon . In village where valuable marriage-partner lives an imposter plays the role of a buffoon.

j12k. A valuable partner and an imposter live in one house. A valuable partner whom a girl (two sisters) should marry and an imposter live together in one and the same house.

j12l. A hypocritical murderer. A murderer of a valuable marriage-partner pretends to mourn over him. His trick is exposed, people chase him.

j12m. Woman turns into duck. A girl or two sisters marry a valuable partner. His rival kills or attempts to kill him or his wives. As a consequence, the women turn into water birds.

j13. Two sisters. Two sisters (if more, only two play a significant role in the plot) travel and meet an unpleasant suitor or get to an ogre.

j14. A flute-player. A girl or two sisters walk in search of the man whose beautiful voice or whose flute-play they listen.

j15. Woman gets to dangerous creatures. Walking in search of her husband, boyfriend, kinsmen, shelter woman or girl gets to the house of dangerous creatures where she is injured or killed.

j15a. Woman gets to jaguars. Setting off (usually in search of her husband, boyfriend or kinsmen), woman gets to the place of dangerous felines.

j15b. Woman gets to a toad. Setting off (usually in search of her husband, boyfriend or kinsmen), woman gets to the place of female toad or frog.

j16. Rejects to eat insects. Person perishes because being forced to clean ogre's or animalís head infected with insects, refuses to bite the insects, spits in disgust or is suspected to do it.

j17. Frogs in hair. Instead of lice, there are other (bigger or dangerous) creatures in the hair of some persons or he or she pretends that his or her hair is infested with them.

j18. Woman falls from the sky. A woman who is pregnant or has a small child falls from the sky. She or a daughter born by her dies but her (grand)son is grown up.

j18a. Mother is eaten up, children escape. An ogress devours a woman, gets into her house. Her daughters (daughter and son, one daughter) run away, climb a tree or a rope that hangs from the sky. Ogress pursues them and perishes.

j19. Wicked guest murders woman. When husband o brother leaves home to hunt, an evil spirit comes to his wife or sister. The spirit kills her or carries her away. Her baby boys extracted from her womb or born at this time survive.

j19a. To serve food on the abdomen. A guest demands that a woman would serve him food on her abdomen.

j19b. Belly burned through. An evil spirit kills a woman burning her belly through.

j20. Wicked guest: woman breaks taboo. When husband o brother leaves home to hunt, an evil spirit comes to his wife or sister and kills or injures her being able to do it because she has broken taboo to open the door, to look at the guest or to answer him or her.

j22a. Two men from one. Two men or a man and a woman appear from two halves of the cut in two anthropomorphic body or embryo; or another man appears from part of the body of the first one or from his body discharge.

j22b. Two women from one. A woman is torn or cut in half, two new women appear.

j22c. The double woman. A demonic creature has a form of two women half merged like Siamese twins.

j22d. Two animals from one cut in two. Two halves of one animal cut in two turn into two new animals or into foreigners.

j22e. Placenta person. A second person evolves from the placenta of the first one.

j23. A late son kills monsters. People (elder brothers, elder siblings, elder sister) disappear (one by one). A lonely woman has a baby or finds a baby or she becomes pregnant magically and gives birth to a boy or twins. The boy grows up, exterminates the antagonists, usually revives and releases those who had disappeared.

j23a. A mucus-boy. A woman is crying, mucus from her nose turns into a boy who grows up, overcome powerful adversaries.

j24. Grounded to powder. Hero is grounded to powder but resuscitates.

j25. Babies escape and return. Heroes (one, two, one of the two), usually beings still babies or embryos, escape into the water, are carried away into the wilderness or thrown into the water. They are caught (often with difficulty) by some persons or come to them by their own will.

j25a. Son of grave. Mother dies or is killed. Her (still unborn) baby-son is buried with her. He comes out of the grace, meets people, then returns to the grave but ultimately agrees to remain with the people.

j25b. Dead mother fetches food for her baby. Mother dies and is buries. Her spirit comes out of the grave to fetch food for her baby. The baby is found and remains alive.

j26. Babies come out of the water. Baby heroes or embryos are found in a river or lake or come to people out of the water.

j27. Lodge-boy and Thrown-away. One of two small boys (or one of two pairs of boys, two of three boys) lives in a lodge with his (adoptive) father or mother. The young male who lives in the lodge can be also a pup (allegedly) born by the woman. Another boy (or couple of boys) has been thrown away or born by his mother after her death, grows up by himself or is grown up by some spirit, comes to his brother(s) and ultimately to his (adoptive) parent. Usually (adoptive) father or mother catches him and domesticates with much difficulty.

j27a. Thrown-away kills his father. One of two babies is thrown away and lives in the water, in the forest, etc., another lives in the house; after both of them become to live in the house, they kills their father.

j27b. The water father. Besides his parents on earth, the baby who had been thrown into a river or lake and comes from time to time to the shore has another father (and mother) under the water. He does not want to be separated from them or they do not want let him go.

j28a. Truth about father. Hero asks how one of his parents died and receives a series of false answers. Usually he successively exposes himself to the same dangers, survives and thus demonstrates that truth is still concealed from him.

j28b. A hot scone. A youth gets to know that a woman (usually his mother) conceals from him important information about his father, brothers or bride. He causes her pain (usually putting hot scone, handful of hot grain, etc. into her hand) making her tell him the truth.

j29. Fatherís shadow. A murdered parent of the hero comes to him as a ghost and informs about the circumstances of his or her death.

j30. Parentsí remains. Before the hero destroys the antagonists or escapes from them, he finds or receives the remains or possessions that belonged to the antagonists' victim.

j31. Fatherís weapon. A young hero obtains and uses weapons or other powerful objects which belonged to his murdered father.

j32. Brothers spy for night chief. Somebody regularly steals valuables (horse, hay, apples, etc.). Brothers one by one spy for the thief but only the youngest surprises him.

j32a. To guard fatherís grave. Before passing away a man asks his sons to guard his grave for a certain time or to bring something to his grave. The youngest son goes and obtains valuables.

j33. The dummy. A youth or two siblings live in a house of an old man or woman. To produce a reaction from this older person, they kill a person or animal and stuff its skin with insects, worms, ashes, grass or blow it up.

j33a. Old woman beats the dummy. A youth or two siblings live in a house of an old woman. they kill her a person or animal who is her husband and make a dummy of him. The old woman is angry that her husband does not answer her, beats him and understands that it is a dummy.

j34. Frightened grandmother. After killing their enemy, heroes have fun frightening their (grand)mother or father with its dummy.

j35. Helpful tree-frog. A tree-frog kills or neutralizes dangerous person or creature who chases heroes.

j36. Turtle as antagonist. Hero's parents are killed by turtle who pulled them under the water.

j37. Antagonist carried away by bird. A man turns into powerful bird or creates it. The bird carries away his enemy.

j38. Talons got stuck. A mighty bird thrust its talons into a big fish, whale, water monster, etc. Talons get stuck, the bird is either pulled down under the water or makes itself free with great difficulty.

j39. Who killed a rabbit?. Antagonist makes a girl or a woman his or her slave. The slave's brothers or sons secretly come to her, kill for her some small game. Woman tries to pursue the antagonist that she herself killed the game.

j40. Enemy from the sky. A dangerous being who lives in the sky carries away a person or many people (or person's cut off head or limb). A young kin of the perished one revenges on the dangerous being and/or brings back the victim (his or her head, etc.).

J40a. Avenged prisoners. After the hero comes back after a long absence and finds his parents enslaved, he tells them to demonstrate openly a lack of respect to their masters and punishes those who were cruel with them.

j41. Foxes jeer at the abandoned person. When the hero returns home after a long absence, his relation does not believe at first that it is really he because all this time somebody jeered at him or her imitating the hero's voice, telling that the hero is back, etc..

j41a. Son transforms mother into a bird. When hero returns, he finds his mother being tormented during his absence and transforms her (and usually himself) into a certain bird.

j41b. Son returns and burns tormentors using magic. When hero returns and finds his mother being tormented during his absence, he burns the tormentors producing fire and heat by magic.

j41c. Trials before confrontation with the antagonist. A man sets off to kill dangerous adversary. On his way, he is suggested to fulfill difficult tasks but fails to do it. It is a signal that he will be killed by the antagonist. When another man follows the same way, he fulfills all the tasks successfully and then overcomes the antagonist.

j42. Waters split apart. When person comes to the water body, waters are split apart so the person reaches the other bank walking on the dry ground.

j43. Bait for antagonists. To kill his antagonists, hero lures them with an attractive object which is delicious to eat and is usually on the other side of a body of water or a canyon.

j44. The broken bridge. Person or his helper draws his enemies on the unstable bridge and destroys it. The enemies fall into water, into a precipice.

j45. The stretched out leg (crane bridge). Person stretches his or her leg or neck as a bridge across water body. The fugitives or those who walk ahead cross the bridge; the persecutor or those who are behind usually fall because the person takes his bridge off.

j46. Enemy drowns. Antagonist perishes falling into the water or trying to cross a water body.

j47. Pursuer falls from height. Person ascends to the sky (rare: descends from the sky; ascends the cliff) by a rope, a ladder, etc. Another person tries to follow him or her but the rope (the ladder) is broken or severed.

j47a. Beanstalk to the sky. A bean or a pea grows up to the sky and a person climbs by it there.

j48. Parrot cuts the sky rope. Person ascends to the sky or descends from the sky to earth by a rope. A parrot cuts the rope, the person falls to earth.

j49. Moonís wife cannot follow him. The Moon's wife or sister tries to follow him to the sky but is unable to do it.

j50. An attempt to revive the victim. Twin heroes' parent dies or is killed, an attempt to revive him or her fails.

j50a. Sons embrace their mother. Mother dies when her sons embrace or push her.

j50b. Father more dead than alive. An attempt to revive the killed father (and uncle) is only partly successful and the revived person is unable to live among the living. The hero decides to abandon him in the other world or to let him die forever.

j51. One piece is missing. Person or animal is eaten up or destroyed otherwise. His bones are put together and he or it is revived. Because one bone was broken, swallowed or lost (or a drop of blood lost), the person or animal cannot be revived or being revived misses some part of his or its body.

j51a. Ladder made of bones. To climb a rock, person must insert into it bones and use them as a ladder.

j51a1. Helpful girl is dismembered and revived. To help a youth to get an object from a place that is difficult to reach, a girl asks him to cut her into pieces (or only to cut off her fingers and toes) and then to put pieces together again. She revives.

j51b. One piece is missing: the revived Moon. The Moon is eaten or died and disintegrated. He is revived by a small piece (a bone) is missing. From this peculiarities of the Moon or of human anatomy.

j52. Two animal persons and their children. A strong and aggressive animal person (often a bear) treacherously kills his (or her) companion who is a weaker animal person. The victim's children revenge on the murderer killing his (her) own children.

j52a. Bear as antagonist. A bear-person (usually Bear-woman) kills her or his female companion who is associated with a weaker animal Ė not a predator or a weaker predator. The victim's children revenge on the antagonist killing her own children and / or run away and escape.

j52b. Hare-woman or hare-children as heroes . A girl, a young woman, or children who are associated with a hare or rabbit are heroes of the story.

j53. The fawns and the cubs. Deer person is killed by the stronger animal person. The deer's children revenge on the murderer and (or) successively escape from him or her.

j54. One of two female companions kills another. Two co-wives of female companions live together, both have children. Once when they go to work outdoors (usually to gather wild plants), one of them kills and devours another. The victim's children escape.

j54a. The calf and the tiger cub. Two women (usually female animal persons) live together, both have children, one of them kills and devours another. The son of the murderer kills his mother and becomes a companion of the victim's son, or the victimís and the murdererís children escape together.

j54b. Kills own mother to rescue his half-brother. A hero and a son of the antagonist live together. They are half-brothers friends. When the antagonist makes attempt to kill the hero, the antagonist's son kills his own mother (or his both parents) or helps his human brother to do it.

j55. Unrecognized hero comes across enemies. Hero comes across different creatures or persons who do not recognize him. Everyone tells that he is waiting for the Hero to kill him. The hero easily kills or transforms them himself.

j56. Father tests his sons. Twin heroes (or one boy) come to their divine father. He puts them under trials to get know if they are really his children and possess supernatural power.

j56a. Transformed into griddles. Brothers turn into cooking pots or griddles which are put on fire. Only the eldest is strong enough to stand this trial.

j57. Son of the Sun. A virgin girl is impregnated by the Sun and gives birth to a son or twin boys. When her son (or the twins) grows up, he (they) comes to his father.

j58. The arrow ladder. Persons shoot arrows (darts) which hit each otherís end forming a chain (rope, ladder). Persons climb by this chain to the sky or (rare) across an obstacle.

j58b. The sky door. Chain of arrows is used to pull or push the sky or the Sun lower or higher or to break a hole in the sky.

j59. Following arrow gets to the sky. To climb to the sky, person must first to shoot an arrow that reaches the sky and sticks to it.

j59a. Flight after the arrow. Shooting an arrow, person flies on it, after it or ahead of it or sends on the arrow another person.

j59b. An arrow falls down, a dead one revives. To revive the dead, person shoots an arrow into the sky (it is suggested that the dead would be afraid of the arrow falling, jump aside and become alive).

j60. Two-fold impregnation. A woman is impregnated by two different males and gives birth to twin sons who have different fathers.

j61. Light as a feather. Person is able to move or to hover in the air like a feather or a bit of fluff.

j62. People turned into stone. An antagonist transforms his victims into inanimate objects, usually stones. Hero escapes transformation and revives.

j62a. People transformed into trees. An antagonist transforms his victims into trees (or flowers). Hero escapes transformation and revives the victims.

j62b. Transformed into animals disenchanted. Person transforms into animals those who come to him or her. Thanks to hero victims are disenchanted.

j63. Son saves, daughter betrays. Enemies attack household. The master's wife agrees to live with the enemies' leader, her former husband lies outdoors alive but tied up. His daughter refuses to release him, but his son does it. The man kills the enemies, usually cruelly kills his wife and daughter.

j64. The column of smoke. Person ascends to the sky on a column of smoke (but not being burned in a fire).

j65. Sunís children destroy the enemies. A lonely woman with her daughter are the only survivors after enemies' attack. The woman rejects a series of animal-persons who come to ask her daughter in marriage but accept a sky-person for her son-in-law. Children of the sky-person and woman's daughter revenge on the enemies.

j66. Gnawed through bow-strings. Hero or his helpers cut or gnaw through bow- and other strings of the enemies, make holes in their canoes in order to forestall pursuit.

j67. Stones on eyes. At night person puts light stones (shells, fruits) on his eyes. The antagonist believes that his eyes are opened and does not dare to attack or takes off the stones and not the eyes.

j68. Ever fresher dung on a path. Persons who during a long time pursue an animal get to see ever fresher dung on a path and ultimately overtake their game (usually the dung every time answers how old it is).

k1c. One who comes to look at adversaryís bones dies himself. A man is marooned on an islet, a rock but survives thanks to helpful birds and animals. The next time the hero and the antagonist exchange roles. Usually the antagonist comes to the islet to see the bones of the abandoned man but the man takes the canoe of the antagonist and paddles away. The antagonist dies.

k1d. Womanís brothers maroon her husband. Brothers of a man's wife hate him and maroon on an islet.

k1e. Marooned on islet. Person is marooned on an islet or on another side of a sea or wide river.

k1f. Conflict because of a woman. A man maroons another because of jealousy or because he plans to take hold of his wife.

k1g. Antagonist charged by stag. Hero turns into stag or creates a stag to charge his kinsman who sent hi into a trap.

k1h. Imprisoned in the tree-hollow. Person is imprisoned in a tree-hollow or inside a rock and is released by somebody who makes a hole from outside.

k1i. Tree to descend from a rock. A tree or vine quickly grows up near the rock or in the bottom of a pit where the hero was marooned. He gets to the ground climbing down (or up) this tree (vine).

k1j. A marooned man returns home before his adversary. A man marooned on an islet or rock in the sea turns into a bird and flies home. When the man who marooned him comes home, the hero is already there.

k2. The destroyed ladder. Hero climbs up (e.g. to a tree) or down (e.g. into a deep cave) by ladder, rope, from branch to branch, etc. The rope etc. breaks or is intentionally destroyed and the hero cannot return to the ground. (all cases of motif K2A are also computed together with K2).

k2a. Hero marooned in the underworld. A person descends by a rope into the lower world through a well, precipice, etc. His companions cut the rope and the person remains below. Usually he saves a girl or girls, gets treasure etc. and sends them up and companions leave him in the underworld with the purpose to take themselves possession of these valuables.

k3. Tree or rock grows taller. Hero climbs up a tree or rock to get eggs, nestlings, fruits, honey, etc. Another person makes the tree (rock) grow higher or thicker and the hero is unable to descend back.

k4. The bird nester. Person climbs up a tree or rock or descends to a cave to get eggs or nestlings from the bird's nest. Another person remains on the ground. They get into conflict and/or the first person is unable to get back to the ground.

k5. The fake nestlings. To lure the hero into a trap or to send him far away, the antagonist makes a bird or nestlings of excrements or guts.

k6. Vine from body excretions. A vine grows from person's or animal's tears, mucus, urine, etc..

k7. ďLike pubis of your wifeĒ. Hero compares something with pubis of another man's wife or sister. The insulted man maroons him in a tree or rock..

k8a. Jonah: swallowed by monster. Person gets into the belly of water being or into the belly of giant creature which appearance and living place remain vague. He kills the monster from the inside and/or returns to earth by himself (i.e. not extracted by other people).

k8aa. Jonah: swallowed by bird. Giant bird swallows people. The hero kills the bird and lets people free or being swallowed himself remains alive and comes out.

k8b. Woman is soul of a whale. Raven gets inside a whale where he sees a woman who asks him not to touch an inner organ of the whale (usually its heart) or a burning lamp. Raven touches it, woman disappears, the whale dies.

k8c. Jonah: swallowed by terrestrial animal. Person gets into the belly of ground animal or bird. He kills it from the inside and/or returns to earth by himself (i.e. not extracted by other people).

k8c1. First swallowed by herbivorous animal and then by wolf. Tiny boy is first swallowed by chance by a big herbivorous animal and then carried away by a wolf who began to eat the animal's offal.

k8c2. The swallowed mouse. Mouse swallowed by a big terrestrial animal cuts it open from the inside and comes out.

k8c3. Not from your mouth but through your side. One (animal) person refuses to use different body parts of another besides the only one the use of which causes anotherís death.

k8d. Jonah: swallowed by anthropomorphic being. Person (often an animal-person) gets into the belly of anthropomorphic being. He kills it from the inside and/or returns to earth by himself (i.e. not extracted by other people).

k8e. Gets inside via anus. Person or animal gets into another being through its anus.

k8f. Deer in monsterís belly. A swallowed up person finds alive deer in the belly of the monster.

k9. Godís wife thrown down from the sky. The sky chief discovers or thinks that his wife, sister or lover is untrue or incestuous. He throws her down from the sky. She becomes the mistress of the lower or middle world or a part of it or one of her sons gets power over the lower world.

k10a. Battle with a bird: a shelter. Heroes kill a dangerous bird. During or before confrontation they hide inside a shelter (hut, cage, vessel, bag, hollow log) or cover themselves with a protective object.

k10b. Cage carried away. A giant bird carries away to its nest a cage or bag with people inside.

k10c. Wrapped in guts. Hero (or twins) hangs on his body a bag with animal bowels full of blood. Breaking them with its claws, the bird thinks that its victim is killed and brings the man to its nest. He kills the adult bird, kills or transforms its nestlings.

k10d. Bird carries man to an island. A flying monster carries a man to a far away island. There he gets to kill the monster. To return, he uses a boat, a bridge or a rope made of parts of the monster's body.

k10e. Rescued people. Getting to a nest of a monstrous bird, a man finds there kidnapped people, helps them to return home.

k10f. Nestlings turn into eagles. Hero transforms nestlings or monster bird into common eagles or owls.

k10g. Nestlings carries a man down to the earth. A man gets into the nest of a giant bird on a high rock or tree. He descends to the earth killing the bird and fixing its feathers or wings to his body or (more often) using the birdís nestling (riding on its back, holding its feet, fixing its feathers or wings).

k10h. A bird feeds but does not release its prisoner. A giant bird carries a woman or a boy to its nest. It supplies them with food but does not release. The prisoner escapes.

k10i. A tree that opens its trunk. A tree opens its trunk to provide a refuge for a hero pursued by the monstrous bird. When the bird follows the hero the tree crushes it squeezing its trunk again .

k11a. Feathers turn into birds. Feathers of giant bird turn into different present day birds.

k11b. Reeds from birdís bones. Bones of a giant bird turn into reeds or bamboo from which arrows or blowpipes are made .

k12. Woman lost and returned. A rival or adversary kidnaps man's wife or bride or takes her sending her man off. The man gets her back.

k12a. A strained bow. An unrecognized hero comes to a place where his bride or wife has to marry another man or is tuned into a slave. Despite expectations, he gets to strain a tight bow killing his rivals.

k13a. Person with cut off leg ascends to the sky. Certain person's leg or (rare) both legs are cut, torn, or bitten off. He ascends to the sky, usually becomes a constellation or a luminary or gets to the luminary.

k13b. Leg bitten off by caiman. A caiman ferries a man across water body, bites his leg off. The maimed man is transformed into a constellation or into an animal.

k13c. Ogressí daughter avenges death of her mother. A man marries an ogress' daughter, kills her mother. The wife revenges on him, gets to cut off his leg.

k13d. Leg hangs in the sky. A group of boys gets to the sky. The leg of the last one is cut or torn off.

k14. Precious advices. A man gives his last money for simple advices. Each of them saves his life or helps to achieve success or he does not follow the advices and gets into trouble.

k14a. Thrown into the oven himself. An antagonist orders to kill the first one who will come in the morning to a certain place. The hero becomes late by chance, the antagonist or his wife or son come and are thrown into the fire.

k14b. A charge of stealing the knife. A man receives good advice never to act before he is asked to do it. He decides to be helpful and suggests his knife (rare: other weapon) on a visit to somebodyís house and is accused of stealing the knife.

k14c. Man mistakes his son for his wifeís lover. Coming home after a long absence, a man understands that there is another man in his house but keeps patience and discovers that it is his own son or a close kin of his wife.

k14d. The make believe crime. To test his wife (friend, member of his household), a man pretends to commit a crime (to kill somebody or to steal something). When his wife (friend) betrays him, he presents evidence that proves his innocence.

k15. Embraced nobody besides this beggar. A woman swears that she never embraced anybody besides (her husband and) the beggar who is among the people. The people do not know that her lover assumed the beggarís image .

k15a. Substituted weapon. Hero substitutes powerful person's weapon or amulets with a fake.

k15b. Substituted barrel of water. Because containers with alive and dead water (one makes one stronger, another weaker) are imperceptibly exchanged, during the battle the hero drinks the alive water and overcomes his enemy who drinks the dead water.

k15c. Substituted clothes. The owner of the stone (ice) clothes kills people. The hero hides these clothes or substitutes them with a fake and kills the owner.

k16. Girlís pet turns into a young man. Disguised as a bird, small animal or insect, the hero lets himself be caught by a girl to have sex with her or to steal valuables possessed by her family or he lets himself be caught by the girl's father to receive opportunity to get to his daughter.

k16a. Slips and drops dummy. Being eager to show that he is a successful hunter, a man walks in front of a girl carrying a game (deer, birds). The girl makes him slip, he drops the false game that proves to be a dummy stuffed with ashes or a termite nest.

k17. Ornitomorphic suitor. Ornithomorphic hero impregnates a girl magically or imperceptibly for her.

k18. Infant picks out his unknown father. A boy is born whose father or (rare) mother is unknown. He himself points at his parent who as a rule occupies a low social position. Usually many men (women) come together and everyone hopes that the boy points at him (her).

k18a. Infant takes fatherís bow and arrows. When a small boy has to recognize his father among many men, he comes to him and takes father's bow and arrows.

k18b. To cease crying. A baby boy has to recognize his father or mother among many people. When his parent takes him, the boy ceases crying.

k18c. Urinates at his fatherís arms. A baby boy has to recognize his father among many men. When his father takes him, the boy urinates at his arms.

k18d. The laze boy and a fish. A lazy (stupid) boy releases a fish (frog, serpent, supernatural being) which gives him a power of making all his wishes come true; he marries a princess.

k19a. Star-wife. A man maries a star-woman.

k19b. Star-husband. A woman maries a star-man.

k19c. Wife hidden in a bag. A youth brings how a being which at night or after some time turns into a girl and to whom he makes love. During the day time the youth hides his sexual companion in a bag, gourd-vessel, and the like in which he had carried her.

k19d. Starís husband suffers from cold. When a man who has married a star gets to the sky, he suffers severe cold and dies either of cold or after touching a forbidden fire.

k19e. Wolverine under a tree. When a woman or two sisters descend from sky back to earth, they get to the top of a tree. Some animals who walk by cannot help them or do not want to help. Wolverine gets women down because he plans to marry them but they escape from him.

k19f. Stars help to work. Star person or persons descend to earth to work at the garden plot.

k19g. Two stars of different color and brightness. Two stars are men, an old and a young ones. They look different as about their color or brightness but these characteristics do not correlate (the bright star can prove to be an old man and vice versa. Usually two girls wish these stars for husbands and express different preferences (one prefers bright blue star, another wants small and red one, etc.).

k20. Wish for star-husband or wife realized. A human person admires a star or (rare) the Moon in the sky, wishes for a star. The star descends to him or her or takes him or her to the sky.

k21. Woman descends from the sky by rope. A sky-dweller marries a woman. Being eager to return to the earth, she secretly climbs down to earth by a rope.

k22. Dwarfs and cranes. Different from (common) people inhabitants of a distant land fight with non-human enemies who periodically attack them.

k22a. Dwarfs attacked. Birds or other creatures which not dangerous for common people attack dwarfs who live in another world.

k22aa. Humans in the south, birds in the north. A man gets to the country inhabited by migratory birds. They have there human guise but turn into birds going back to the north.

k22b. Man helps inhabitants of other world. Inhabitants of a distant land who have different nature than (normal) human beings struggle from time to time with some non-human enemies. Man helps local dwellers because their enemies are not dangerous for the human beings.

k22c. Birds attacked. Inhabitants of a distant country suffer from periodic assaults of the enemies which are not dangerous for common people. These enemies (and sometimes the inhabitants of the country too) are birds.

k23. Battle with birds. Birds attack the inhabitants of a distant land or a man who had got to this land.

k23a. Feathers are the birdsí weapon. Birds use their feathers as arrows or their arrows and down stick mouth openings of them enemies.

k24. Stolen clothes of supernatural woman. Women who possess supernatural power and usually come from a non-human world (from sky, from under the water, they are winged beings, bird- or animal-persons) take off their clothes (feather skins and the like) or part of it. After the man hides clothes, their owner has to marry him or help him.

k24a. Supernatural male hides clothes of human girl. Supernatural male person (often a snake, a dragon) hides clothes of a human girl or sits on it. To return her clothes she had to become his wife.

k24b. To dance in her magic clothes. Magic wife gets her wings back and flies away after she pretends that putting her real clothes she would be more beautiful, a better dancer, etc..

k25. Woman from sky-world marries mortal man. A man gets a woman connected with the upper world (bird-maiden, sky fairy, star-woman, etc.), she becomes his wife or (rare) adopted daughter.

k25a1. Magic wife finds her clothes. Magic wife abandons her mortal husband when she finds her clothes (often, her feathers if she is a bird-woman), makes herself the new clothes, receives them from her kin or her husband gives her her clothing believing that she will not abandon him. (Versions with magic wife abandoning her husband because she feels herself offended is not alternative to the ďfound clothes but in most of the texts these motifs are not combined).

k25a2. Thrown down feathers. Magic wife flies away or makes attempt to fly away when her bird relatives throw down her feathers (wings).

k25a3. The picked up feathers. Magic bird-wife flies away after she had picked up many feathers and made of them her new bird-clothes.

k25a4. Escape from the mermaid. A man (rare: woman) gets into power of a demonic person related to the lower world (usually siren, fish, sea monster, rarely wizard). The marriage partner who remained on earth bribes the demon with gifts (begs, provokes her or him) to persuade him to raise the person above the water (the ground). As soon as this is achieved, the hero escapes (usually flies away turning into the bird).

k25a5. Two brothers and the swan-maidens. The elder brother is a hunter, the younger brother (rare: sister) stays at home. When the elder gets to know that the bird-maidens visit the younger, he instructs him what he should do to catch one of the girls. The elder brother marries her but she finds her feathered clothes and flies away (in many versions the younger brother is a simpleton and tells his sister-in-law where her clothes are hidden). The elder brother goes away in search of his lost wife.

k25b. Woman pursues a porcupine and gets to the sky. Pursuing a porcupine, woman climbs a tree and gets to the upper world.

k25c. Baby under a tussock. Digging roots or gathering sea food on a beach, a woman finds baby-boy. Usually her mother warns her not to dig a certain bulb or not to do it in a certain way. Breaking taboo, the woman finds or conceives baby-boy.

k25d. Prohibited bulb in the sky. Person gets to the sky, makes hole through the firmament digging out a root. Usually woman's husband or his kinsmen warn her against digging out a special bulb or tuber; breaking taboo, she gets to see the earth, decides to descend.

k26. A hole in the firmament. Finding a hole in the ground or making it, person gets to see below another world. Usually the earth is seen from the sky.

k26a. Sky opening covered with a stone. Opening in the firmament is covered with a flat stone. When person puts the stone aside, he or she gets to see the earth.

k27. Competitions and difficult tasks. Person is suggested to fulfill tasks that are mortally dangerous or cannot be fulfilled without supernatural helpers or capacities. The person fulfills the tasks and remains alive. A contest between persons has form of a competition or game in which the loser is deprived of his status or life.

k27a. Ordeal: survive frosty night. An ordeal: to survive frosty night outdoors or in chamber with ice.

k27b. Ordeal: to smoke a pipe. An ordeal: to smoke a huge or poisonous pipe or to remain alive in poisonous smoke.

k27c. Ordeal: knives and thorns. An ordeal: to remain alive after contact with sharp points or blades.

k27d. Ordeal: chamber with dangerous beings. An ordeal: to remain alive in a closed room full of beasts of prey, poisonous or other dangerous creatures.

k27e. Ordeal: to eat much. An ordeal: to eat or drink much or eat or drink poisonous beverage or food.

k27f. A task: to get a woman. A task-giver asks the hero to get a woman (the Malagacy: a husband for a woman).

k27f1. To build a bridge. Person builds a bridge (usually of gold etc.) during a very short time.

k27g. Ordeal: to bathe in boiling water. Person is ordered to bathe in a (boiling) milk or other hot liquid or to jump into fire. He remains unharmed but his adversary usually dies .

k27g1. Cleaning of the stable. Person must quickly clean a stable or cattle-shed from dung accumulated there for a long time.

k27h. A task: to carve a bench. A task: to carve a bench decorated with representa¨tion of the head of the father(or mother)-in-law that is always concealed.

k27hh. To sort grain. A task-giver asks to sort a large amount or small particles of different kind (usually seeds of different plants) mixed in container or to count such particles or to pick up the spilled grains.

k27i. Task: to dry a body of water. A task: to dry a body of water.

k27k. Diving contest. A contest: to dive deep or for a long time.

k27l. Task: to get object from bottom of body of water. A task: to get an object from the bottom of a water body.

k27L1. To be frozen in ice. Person agrees to test his strength being frozen in ice but fails to break it and get free.

k27ll. Water covered with ice. When hero dives, the antagonist covers the water surface with ice or net.

k27m. To get an animal of unusual color. The hero must kill and bring an animal of special (often unusual) color or form.

k27n. Tasks of the in-laws. Father or other kinsmen of hero's wife or bride try to kill or test him and/or suggest him difficult tasks.

k27n1. Task-giver is a king or a chief. Person who gives difficult tasks to the hero is a prominent figure in social hierarchy, i.e. a head of political unit of community- or higher level and not a mythical being.

k27n3a. Task-giver is the Sun, Moon, or Thunder. Person who gives difficult tasks to the hero is associated with the Sun, Moon, or Thunder.

k27n3b. Task-giver lives in the sky . Person who gives difficult tasks to the hero lives in the sky but is not associated with the Sun, Moon of Thunder.

k27n3c. Task-giver is an animal or a fish. Person who gives difficult tasks to the hero is associated with a terrestrial or aquatic animal or with a fish.

k27nn. Envious minister. Not the powerful person himself but his official or adviser tries to get rid of the hero and suggests that the person should give the hero difficult tasks.

k27o. Ball game. A contest: ball game.

k27p. Antagonist mourns loss of his helpers. The antagonist sends the hero to the place where he is attacked by dangerous creatures. The hero kills them and brings to the antagonist. The creatures are the antagonist's relatives, pets, or helpers, therefore he or she mourns their death or revives them.

k27p1. Antagonist in animal guise. Antagonist asks the hero to kill or to tame a dangerous animal or not to kill certain animal during a hunt. This animal is the antagonist himself (or his daughter or wife).

k27q1. To bring musical instrument . Hero is sent to get musical instrument, usually a (self-playing) psaltery .

k27r1. Dancing apples. A task: to bring objects (usually fruits) that act like people, i.e. dance, sing and the like.

k27q. Task: to bring milk of dangerous animal. A task: to bring milk of dangerous animal.

k27r. To visit the world of the dead. A task: to bring object or news from the land of the dead.

k27s. Contest: a race. Contest: a race.

k27ss. To win a race with an (old) woman. A strong man has to race with a woman (often with an old woman). He cannot surpass her or does it with much difficulty.

k27t. Climbing contest. A contest: to climb a pole or tree.

k27u. Hide-and-seek. Hero and his adversary play hide-and-seek. The hero finds his adversary but the adversary cannot find him.

k27u1. One day from conception to birth. A demand is brought up that a baby would be born the next day after conception or would talk immediately after the birth.

k27u2. News from the tumbleweed. Powerful person asks the hero to get know where the tumbleweed goes or what are its news.

k27v. To hit a bird with an arrow (stone). Person must kill a bird with an arrow or a stone.

k27v1. To hit a needle. Person must hit a needle with an arrow (to shoot an arrow though the eye of a needle).

k27v2. To hit an object of copper. Person must hit the copper object or the creature whose body consists of copper.

k27v3. To shoot an arrow though the ring. Person must shoot an arrow through a small ring or several rings.

k27w. Monster brought by the hero kills the task-giver. Task-giver asks to bring him dangerous being or object possessed by a moster or deity. Hero fulfills the task. The beast, monster, deity or the object itself kills the task-giver.

k27x. Former husband of magic wife. A man marries a non-human woman. In her world, she has another husband or suitor. She returns to her world, human husband follows her. He stands tests and/or fights with local inhabitants, gets his wife back.

k27x1. Invisible servant (ďBring donít know whatĒ). Hero receives a difficult task (usually to bring an object or creature that have no particular indications and properties) and comes across an invisible person who is a powerful and well-disposed servant to anybody who becomes his master. The hero is kind with him and the person helps him.

k27x2. To steal an egg from under a bird. Person is able to steal an egg (a nestling, to put it back) from under the bird (to change the birdís feather; to steal an embryo from animalís womb, etc.).

k27x3. The man persecuted because of his beautiful bride. A powerful person coverts a beautiful bride or wife of a man and gives him impossible tasks to get rid of him.

k27x4. To climb a tree with a full glass in hand. Person must climb a tree (pole, rock) with a full open vessel in hand and not a drop should be spilled.

k27y. To get material for making bow and arrows. Hero is sent or sets off by his own will to get two or more different materials needed for making bow and arrows (wood or reed for shafts, feathers, tendons for string, flint for points, paint to paint the shafts, gum to stick points to the shafts).

k27y1. Arrow points made of coal.. Person believes or pretends that the arrow points should be of coal, bark, grass and the like..

k27yy. To get something dangerous from a tree. Hero is sent to a dangerous tree or rock to bring feathers, nestling, fruits, bark, etc..

k27z. Game of chance for life and death. Confrontation between the hero and his antagonist has a form of a game (of chance, chess, draughts but not a sport tournament).

k27z1. Bird, horse and princess. Helpful animal instructs the hero how to steal an object he needs to get but not to take anything else (bird, but not cage, horse but not bridle, etc.) The hero breaks prohibition, is caught but released on condition that he brings another wonderful object. Situation is repeated and the last task is to bring a girl. Ultimately the hero gets both the girl and all the objects.

k27z2. Princess separated from her son averted incest with him. A noble young woman or girl who had to abandon her home gives birth to a son and is separated from him. The youth becomes adult and is going to marry a woman. At the last moment he understands that she is his mother. The woman gets back her high social position.

k27z2a. A man and a girl made to meet for a night. Supernatural beings carry a man to a girl or vice versa or carry the man who was far away to his wife. They spend a night together and then separated again and find each other. After troubles and sufferings.

k27z2a1. Unrecognized wife visits her husband. A man marries a woman but abandons her without consummating his marriage. She visits him in disguise and ultimately he gets to know who was his beautiful companion. Usually the wife gives birth to his son (three sons) and upon seeing the boy, the man realizes that it is his own child.

k27z2b. The killed doll. Complicated relations between a poor girl and a prince lead to his attempt to kill his bride in the nuptial night. The girl puts a doll in her bed, the prince pierces it with a sword and takes the sweet juice (honey, sugar) with which the doll was filled for the blood. He repents his deed but the real girl appears and the couple is happy.

k27z2Ů. Marries to put wife under lock. Prince marries a poor girl but keeps her alone under lock and key. She proves to be smarter than he.

k27z2d. An argument between female sparrow and her husband. A male bird (sparrow, dove, etc.) abandoned his wife but later claims nestlings to be his. Or the male bird abandons (kills) nestlings when his mate has died and he married again. This episode begins a story about the king, his wives and children.

k27z2e. The stolen jewelry and the final uniting . During the first meeting(s) between the prince and the princess one of them (sometimes adopting an unusual guise) takes objects (decorations) in possession of another. Either the girl of the boy falls ill. Thanks to the new meeting the sick ones become healthy again, the disappeared objects are recognized and the couple married.

k27z3. The cat with the candle. A man trains a cat (monkey, dog) to hold lighted candle (lamp) on its head or to extinguish the light by a signal. When a mouse (a rat) runs through the room, the cat drops the candle (forgets about the lamp) and chases the mouse.

k27z4. Trained animal of the gambler. Person always wins a game thanks to a cat (or a mouse) who carries the lamp (or puts the light out in a certain moment). The hero releases a mouse (or correspondingly a cat), the cat runs after it and the person loses the game.

k27z4a. A cripple claims his leg back. A cripple tells that his visitorís father borrowed and did not return his leg. The visitorís wife (or he himself after receiving a good advice) asks the other leg (eye) for comparison because there are many legs (eyes) in his fatherís box.

k27z5. An agreement to marry the would be born children. Two men agree to marry their future children if a girl and a boy will be born. The girlís parents evade the given obligation. The boy grows up and finds his bride.

k27z6. The stone of pity. Being a victim of the injustice and after much suffering, a young woman speaks with a certain inanimate objects (often it is ďthe stone of pityĒ) telling it her sad story or her husband does it. The woman is rescued and the justice reinstated.

k27z7. To get know what is the rose of the heart. A person promises to fulfill somebodyís request if another gets to know why certain man or woman acts regularly in a strange way.

k27z8. Insolvable riddles. The riddle refers to extraordinary or accidental events that happened to the person setting the riddle, and thus is unsolvable to outsiders.

k27z9. Why the fish laughed. A (dried) fish laughs, smiles or spits because a man disguised as a woman lives in the house.

k27zz. The outcast queen and the ogress queen. A married man marries another woman who is a transformed ogress/witch. Thanks to her intrigues other wives (the first wife) are blinded and/or confined in an underground hole. A son of one of them overcomes the ogress, returns sight to his mother and her sisters.

k27zz1. Only the youngest queenís child survives. Several imprisoned co-wives give birth but only the son of the youngest woman survives. The boy saves the women.

k27zz2. All queens are blind, one is half-blind. Several young women who are co-wives or sisters loose both eyes but the youngest only one eye.

k27zz3. The wife who would not be beaten. A prince (merchantís son) says he will marry only a woman who will submit to a beating each day. When he is married his wife saves him demonstrating her superiority.

k28. Father or uncle is rival and enemy. Maternal uncle or father (or grandfather if he replaces father who is not mentioned) of the young man is his rival or enemy and tries to kill him.

k29a. Survives in a fire. Hero demonstrates his supernatural abilities remaining alive in a burning hot chamber, stove, bonfire, among burning vegetation.

k29b. Posthole murder. Hero is asked to climb into a hole or pit. When he does it, they fill it with soil or throw down a post, a stone, etc. The hero demonstrates his magic capacities coming back uninjured.

k29c. Brings tree that was fallen on him. To kill a strong man, others fell a tree and hope that the man will be crashed when it falls on him, or they tie him to a tree. The man remains unharmed and brings the tree home.

k29d. The drunk elephants. When water in a spring is replaced with alcohol, honey, etc., an animal or bird becomes drunk (sticks to it) and is caught.

k30. Flying enemy abducts woman. Flying person or creature abducts a woman but is ultimately killed or the woman escapes from him.

k30a. The chiefís wife and vultures. Wife of a chief abandons him with vultures (usually by her own will being untrue to her husband). The chief (Witoto: her own brother) brings her back.

k31. Wooden seal. Person makes a sea mammal or fish of wood, it carries another person or persons into the open sea or kills him or them.

k32. The false wife. An ugly, old, lazy, etc. woman or a male trickster comes to man under disguise of his wife, bride or (more rare) sister who is driven out, confined to the underworld, killed, etc..

k32a. Travelling man leaves his wife or daughter for a short time. A man travels with his wife or daughter. Another woman or a demonic person replaces her when the man goes away for a short time.

k32b. Mother substitutes daughter. Mother takes the appearance of her daughter to replace her.

k32c. True wife turns into owl. When the imposter takes place of the real wife, the latter turns into owl.

k32d. Sister sent to feed geese, servant take for the sister. A girl (rare: boy) is walking to her or his relations or to her bridegroom. On the way the imposter lures her (him) to exchange clothes and takes her (his) place while the real girl (boy) is sent to look after crops or feed domestic fowl or animals. People hear her (his) song in which all the story is told. The deception is disclosed, the imposter killed.

k32e. Ones of gold, of silver, of wood. Negative person or place is contrasted with one or two positive ones as wood with silver and gold.

k32f. Bird-son rescues his adopted mother. An evil spirit abandons a girl or a young woman in a tree or islet. She takes care for a nestling of bird of prey, he grows big, rescues her.

k32g. Punishment: torn apart by horses. To punish an antagonist, he or she is tied to a horse (camel, bull) and dragged or to several horses (camels, etc.) who torn him or her apart.

k32g1. Forty horses or forty knives?. Person is asked to choose between objects that have utilitarian value, often forty (seven, etc.) horses or forty knives. Usually the person does not understand that the question is about different kinds of execution.

k32h. Punishment: buried alive. To punish an antagonist, he or she is buried alive.

k32h1. Punishment: rolled in nail barrel. A person who has committed a serious crime is put in a nail barrel which is rolled down a slope or tied to the tail of a horse.

k32i. Two sitters at the bed of a sleeping prince. A girl finds a body of a sleeping youth who will wake up at a certain time and marry the girl who would sit nearby. Usually at the last moment the girl goes away for a time and the impostor takes her place..

k32j. Sister replaced by an ugly girl, brother accused of deception. From a young man king gets to know that his sister is extraordinary beautiful. On the way to the king the beautiful girl is replaced by the ugly one. The king is angry and usually throws the young man in prison.

k33. Drowned woman remains alive. A young woman is transformed into an animal, pushed into the water, into the underworld or she herself has to plunge into water. Her connection with the human world is not completely lost, however, and usually she is helped to return to the people.

k33a. Younger brother transformed into animal. Siblings (most often younger brother and elder sister) leave their home. One of them (most often the brother, most rare several brothers) turn into animal (usually an ungulate) or (rare) a bird but (in the most cases) ultimately acquires his or her human form again.

k33a1. Children born in a well. Pregnant woman is thrown into a well (pond, hole, etc.) where she gives birth to a son (children). She and her children brought alive.

k33b. Friends abandon a pretty girl. A girl goes with her friends to a river, into a forest, etc. Other girls return home but the heroine has to remain or to go back to the forest, etc. She has a narrow escape from a dangerous creature. marries a supernatural being or a chief, or dies but is avenged.

k33c. Girl from a fruit. Young man gets a girl who is inside a fruit or a flower.

k33d. Peau díasne. A man discovers that a beautiful girl hides herself under a guise of an ugly and dirty servant, under a skin of an animal or in an object that is brought into his house.

k33d1. The princess in the chest. The youth does not know that a beautiful girl hides inside an object that is brought to him.

k33e. Disappeared and returned children. Babies disappear but are ultimately returned to their mother or father grown up and in good health.

k33f. Basin of honey and basin of oil. Person promises to fill one basin (fountain, dry river-bed, etc.) with honey and another with oil (milk, etc.) if his wish would be granted. He fulfills the promise either really or formally (honey etc. from broken containers is spilled on earth) .

k33g. Fruits of two kinds. One who eats certain fruit (leave, etc.) gets horns (long nose, etc.) or turns into an animal. After eating another fruit (leave) person recovers his or her normal body.

k33h. The cat, the dog and the magic object. A man obtains an object that fulfills desires. The object is stolen but brought back by the animals which had been formerly saved by the man.

k34. Fatal swing. Person kills others inviting them to sit on a swing and launching them into water, on rocks, etc..

k35. False husband. An imposter pretends to be the her to take his position and/or to marry or to violate a woman.

k35a. Hero brands his rivals. Person who is an excellent food provider or warrior agrees to let the others material proves of his exploits (the killed game, etc.) for the right to brand them or injure their bodies in a certain way or to take from them objects that they should not give off.

k35a1. Not to pick up a feather of the fire-bird. On his way a man picks up a precious feather (often despite the warning of his magic horse). When a powerful person gets to know about the feather he tells the man to fulfill difficult tasks.

k35a2. An animal with the shining hide. A man kills an animal with the shining hide. When a powerful person gets to know about the hide he tells the man to fulfill difficult tasks.

k35a3. The master becomes the servant. To obtain privileges of his master, his servant makes him to exchange clothes and names.

k35a4. Thrown into the sea. To get rid of the hero and to get his social and family position, the imposter pushes him into the sea or maroons him on a faraway island. The hero survives and comes back.

k35b. The most delicious dish. Hero gives his rivals the food provided by him by order of the king but the king finds this food poisonous, useless or tasteless while the food presented by the hero is excellent even if it looks not so good.

k35c. Ogre in a well. An ogre (a dragon) kills everybody who comes to him. The hero is not killed but receives a reward because he greeted the ogre and/or gave a correct answer to his question.

k35c1. The best is one whom you love. A mighty person asks a man which of two women is prettier, what is the most beautiful thing, and the like. Giving a correct answer, the man is not killed like those who were before him but receives a reward.

k36. Bewitched into animal. Person is temporary transformed into animal (usually into a dog or coyote or into donkey, ox, etc.). When he acquires his human guise again, the antagonist suffers similar transformation. In some texts only the hero or only the antagonist is transformed.

k37. Recognition-test. To return or to get his or her son, wife, husband, domestic animal or (rare) object, person must recognize her, him or it among several identical persons, animals or objects.

k37a. To recognize a man. Person must recognize her (or his) son or husband among several identical persons or (if the son or husband is temporarily transformed) animals.

k37c. To recognize an object or an animal. Person must recognize a particular object or animal among several similar objects or animals.

k37d. Recognized by traces of teeth. One person identifies another seeing traces of his teeth on a fruit or leaf.

k38. Hero helps nestlings. Person does good to nestlings of a powerful bird, the grateful mother bird helps him.

k38a. White and black rams. Getting to the underworld, hero should take a white ram (horse) which would carry him back to earth. By chance, he takes the black one which carries him even deeper to the lower level of the underworld.

k38b. Snake threatens nestlings. A serpent or water monster regularly devours or injures children of powerful being (almost always: nestlings of giant bird). The bird has no power over the serpent but hero kills the monster.

k38b1. Bird steals colts, hero kills the serpent. Every time when a horse gives birth to wonderful colts, they are stolen by a giant bird. A hero goes to get the colts and kills a serpent that regularly devours nestlings of the giant bird.

k38b2. Birds carries hero to its place, hero kills the monster. Bird carries a man to its place where he kills a monster who regularly devoured the nestlings.

k38b3. Hero takes care of nestlings. Hero protects nestlings of a giant bird from bad weather, provides them with food or medicine, decorates them. Grateful birds helps him. Cf. motif K38b.

k38c. Bird carries hero to his destination. Hero helps a powerful bird (usually does good to her nestlings), grateful bird carries him to the place where he is eager to get or tells to do it one of her nestlings.

k38d. Monster blocks waters. A monster blocks sources of water and usually gives some in exchange for human victims or valuables. Hero kills the monster.

k38e. Of copper, of silver, of gold. Loci or objects of three (rare Ė four) different materials are mentioned in such a way that all of them have positive connotations though unequal value (copper, silver and gold; silver, gold and diamonds, etc.).

k38e1. Forest of metal trees. Person travels across a forest with trees of two or more kinds of metal (copper, silver, etc.).

k38e2. The packed kingdom. Coming from the underworld to the earth, princess puts objects that she used (clothes, house, ďkingdomĒ) into a small container (an egg, a ball, etc.) and brings them with her.

k38f. The dragon-slayer. A reptile monster feeds on people (demands victims to be sacrificed; abducts a girl; closes sources of water). Hero kills him. Monsterís victims do not play an active part in the plot.

k38f1. The cut off tongues. Killing monster or animal, hero cuts of and hides a piece of its body, usually a tongue. The imposter claims the deed to himself but cannot demonstrate the cut off piece. The hero does it unmasking the imposter..

k38f2. Stains of the dragonís blood on the heroís body. Hero kills the dragon and saves the girl who had to be sacrificed. She smears the youth with the dragonís blood. The imposter claims the deed to himself but is exposed when the hero demonstrates stains of the dragonís blood on his body.

k38f3. The ambush from a pit. In order to kill a dragon, a hero digs a pit and hides in it. When the dragon crawls close to or over the pit, the hero deals the death blow with his sword.

k39. Man feeds his own flesh to his animal helper. Person has to feed powerful creature (usually a giant bird) giving it regularly pieces of meat. When meat supply is exhausted, he cuts off a piece of his own flesh.

k40. One laughs, another weeps. Hero sees two persons or creatures one of which laughs and another cries. The one who cries will be eaten by monster today and the one who laughs he will be eaten tomorrow. The hero kills the monster.

k41. Thunder against a serpent . Thunder or giant bird fights against a reptile, big water animal or other big and strong creature who lives in water or under the earth.

k42. Bird-woman kills men (The loon-woman). Bird-woman is energetically searching a man whom she likes, takes him by force for her husband. Turning into a monster, she kills men but is ultimately destroyed.

k43a. Compassionate person saves fire. People abandon a boy, a girl, brother and sister, a group of children, or a young family without fire and food. A compassionate person conceals hot coals for the outlaws in the abandoned camp.

k43b. Bird brings some meat. People abandon a boy, a girl, brother and sister, a group of children, or a young family without fire and food. The outlaws demonstrate supernatural powers or protectors providing food and lodging. While the abandoned persons have plenty of food other people starve. A person (often a bird like crow, magpie, sea-gull, etc.) visits the abandoned ones and brings from them some food home. This way people get to know that the abandoned ones prosper.

k43c. Dog unfastens children. Abandoned children are tied to a tree. Helpful dog or other animal unfastens them.

k44. False parent. Spirit or animal person steals a boy, tells him that she or he is his real mother or father. The boy gets to know the truth, leaves the false parent.

k44a. Frog pretends to be mother. An amphibian (frog, toad, rare newt) steals or finds a boy, lies him that she is his real mother.

k44b. Returning after long absence, person throws food to his mother. Coming home after a long absence, the hero (rare: heroine) peeps into his house and sees his mother (his parents, her husband) who suffers hunger. He or she throws food inside, extinguishes the fire, pushes aside, etc. Usually those who are inside do not understand what is happening.

k45. Sedna (fingers cut off). A man throws a woman into the water. She tries to snatch at something, he cuts her fingers off. Usually the woman or/and the cut off fingers turn into water creatures.

k46. Woman throws herself into the ocean. Giving way to a burst of horror or shame, woman or girl runs to the ocean, throws herself into the water or remains on the beach. Her husband or suitor pursues but cannot catch her.

k47a. A woman and a dog. A woman takes a dog paramour, marries him, gives birth to his children. The puppies turn into human children and usually become ancestors of some groups of people.

k47b. Dog turns into handsome man. A girl marries a handsome man whom she had first seen in guise of a dog.

k47c. Origin of dogs. A woman marries a dog, gives birth to the ancestors of present dogs who are people's helpers and friends.

k47d. Dog fulfills conditions of marriage. A girl marries a dog because only the dog fulfilled the condition of marriage put by the girl's father.

k48. Singing bird of the hero. An antagonist wants that a wonderful bird of the hero sing but it remains mute or cries differently. The bird begins to sing when the hero triumphs over his adversaries .

k48a. Birds decorate heroís attire. Alive birds and beasts decorate hero's costume and headgear. Imposter steals hero's attire, takes his place but the birds and beasts are mute or cry differently.

k49. Dead mother returns to nurse her baby. A woman who is transformed into animal or driven out of the human world returns to her baby to feed and to care for him.

k50. False wife beheads enemy. A man disguised as a woman comes to his enemy and kills him at night (usually cuts off and carries away his head).

k51. The deceived wife. A Man disappears or goes away for long time. His wife sets off, comes to a house where her husband lives now or first sends her son there. She gets to know that he has married another woman.

k51a. Pushes into a boiling pot. The abandoned wife comes to the new one when the husband is not at home. She kills her rival pushing her head into boiling liquid or pouring it into her ear.

k52. Rescue from the sea bottom. When a woman or a lad comes to the sea bank, she or he is carried away by sea predators (killer-whales, sharks, swordfish). Man descends to the bottom and rescues the woman or lad using his shaman's power.

k52a. Slave pours water on fireplace. A man descends to the bottom of the sea to rescue his wife. He makes arrangements with a slave who pours water on fireplace producing steam. Hidden behind the steam, the man escapes with his wife.

k52b. Broken adze. A man comes to the non-human beings to get a woman. He secures the help of a slave repairing his adze or axe.

k52c. The flood in a dwelling. A shaman, wizard or other character with magical powers demonstrates his skill. The dwelling in which he and other people are situated begins to fill with water. It is sometimes said that this water is an illusion and that the people also see animals (waterfowl, fish or marine mammals) swimming around.

k52c1. Penis instead of a fish. A shaman, wizard or other character with magical powers demonstrates his skill. The dwelling in which he and other people are situated begins to fill with water. It is sometimes said that this water is an illusion. One of the episodes: the character tells the people to take the waterfowl or fish that have appeared with the water or they start to catch them on their own initiative; when the water disappears, the people see that they hold in their hands not those animals, but their own penises or something else.

k53. Animal skins as metamorphosis amulets. Person temporarily turns into a bird or an animal putting on corresponding skin or animal skins are amulets that become alive and help the person.

k54. Two giants. A man meets a dangerous giant (or serpent) who proves to be friendly to him. When another giant fights with the first one, the man helps his friend.

k54a. Cut tendons. A man and a friendly giant live together. The friendly giant fights with another one and asks the man for help. This help proves to be crucial because the man badly injures a foot of another giant.

k55. Chastity rewarded. A powerful supernatural wants to check if his guest made love with his wife or daughter. The person is impotent or (successfully pretends to be) chaste and is rewarded or at least gets no harm. Usually the same episodes repeats with another person who is dissolute or unable to control himself. This person is punished.

k56. (Kind and unkind girls. A girl or a woman meets powerful person, behaves herself in a right way and is successful. Another (or two others) behaves in a wrong way and suffers a reverse (is punished or not rewarded). Rare: the protagonists are a stepchild and a family child of different sex.

k56a. The unworthy girl fails, the worthy one succeeds. Two or three sisters are sent in succession to powerful person. The first or the first and the second sister behave in a wrong way, perish or do not succeed. The last one behaves correctly, gets a reward.

k56b. Conversation with the Frost. A man or (more often) a woman speaks friendly with persons who are embodiments of seasons or months (praises the corresponding weather) and is rewarded by them. Another man or woman scolds them and is punished.

k56aa. The dog tests his bride. Two or three girls in succession become brides of the dog. The first one or two act in a wrong way, perish or do not succeed. The last one behaves correctly, gets a reward.

k56a1. Mother-in-law helps the girl to fulfill a task. Coming to powerful man, a girl must make work that she is unable to do. His mother makes the work for her, and she marries the man.

k56a2. If asked to do in a bad way, do otherwise. Person (usually a girl) gets to the powerful person (usually an old woman) who asks her to act in a strange and harsh way (to put room in disorder, to bring unclean water, and the like). The person does not according to order but in a rationale and polite way and is recompensed. Another person acts according to the direct sense of the words and is punished.

k56a2a. To wash herself in the red water. The girl becomes beautiful or ugly after washing herself in the water of particular color.

k56a3. Not to fix laces on clothes and shoes. Though laces on her clothes or shoes get loose, a girl on her way to the powerful persons or back should not tie them up.

k56a4. Dog the messenger. When the kind girl returns home, a dog barks saying that everything is well with her and when the unkind girl returns (or her dead body is brought home), the dog barks that everything is bad.

k56a4a. Girl and demon in a strange house. At night girl remains alone in a strange house (mill, bath-house, etc.). When demon comes, she asks him to bring her ever new pieces of attire, jewelry, etc. till it dawns and the demon disappears.

k56a5. Old woman becomes a young beauty. An old or ugly woman is transformed into a young beauty or becomes rich. Usually another old woman tries to imitate her but dies or suffers a reverse.

k56a5a. Becomes young after being flayed. Old or ugly woman wants to be flayed alive to become a beauty. Cf. motif H4.

k56a5b. Conversation with the Frost. A man or (more often) a woman speaks friendly with persons who are embodiments of seasons or months (praises the corresponding weather) and is rewarded by them. Another man or woman scolds them and is punished.

k56a6. Food asks to be eaten. On the way to the non-human world objects ask a child to taste certain food or to fulfill some work. The child does what was asked and is rewarded.

k56a7. Strawberries under the snow. In the winter time a girl (rare: a boy) is sent to bring something that is available only in summer. She brings it.

k56a8. Swallowed by boa. A girl marries an animal or brings an animal to her home, the animal turns into a handsome man (or a boy marries an animal who turns into a girl). Her sister or friend tries to do the same but perishes or suffers a reverse (or another boy marries an animal).

k56a8a. Kind girl returns with a handsome man. A girl goes to the other world, acts correctly and brings back an animal or a box with a handsome man inside. Usually another girl acts wrongly and suffers a reverse.

k56a9. Helpful mouse rings a bell. Using a bell (drum, etc.) a mouse produces sounds which the antagonist who is blind or is outdoors takes for the sounds produced by the hero (heroine). Thanks to this the hero escapes.

k56aa. The dog tests his bride. Two or three girls in succession become brides of the dog. The first one or two act in a wrong way, perish or do not succeed. The last one behaves correctly, gets a reward.

k56ab. Girl sheds her shirts, snake sheds his skins. A girl marries monster and challenges him to shed one of his skins every time she takes off one of her shirts. When he is completely stripped, he turns into a handsome young man .

k56b. The worthy man is rewarded, the unworthy punished. First one, then another man meets a powerful person or persons. The first man is worthy and rewarded with treasure, prestige or the like. The second man (or two men) follows him, behaves in a wrong way and is punished.

k56c. Golden axe. A man loses an axe. A spirit or a powerful official suggests him a golden axe but the man does not accept it. The spirit (official) gives him axes of gold and silver as a reward for his honesty. Usually another man intentionally loses his axe, claims the golden one but receives nothing.

k56d. Broken leg of a nestling. A man cures injured bird, it brings him a seed from which something valuable grows. Another man intentionally injures and then cures a bird, kit brings him a seed from which something harmful grows.

k56e. Two humpbacks. Two men have a similar defect (a hump, a lump). One spends a night in a place where spirits free him from his defect. Another comes to the same place but spirits double his defect giving him what they had taken off from the first man.

k56f. To divide a chicken. A poor man brings his master a chicken (goose, etc.) as a present. The master asks him to divide the bird appropriately among the members of his household. The poor man does it considering the symbolic meaning of particular parts (gives the master the head, his daughters the wings, etc.) and receives rich compensation. A neighbor brings the master five chickens but is unable to divide them appropriately. The first man does it again..

k57. Cinderella. A girl who conceals her beauty and/or is poor and oppressed by her stepmother puts on a splendid attire and comes incognito to a feast where a man of high status falls in love with her. He marries her after identifying her by an object given to her or lost by her or (rare) seeing how she changes her clothes.

k57A. Beauty from the Soap country. Noble youth falls in love with a beautiful girl but does not recognize her as a kitchen maid whom he gave a harsh treatment. When he asks the beauty where she is from, he does not understand her cryptic answers related to corresponding episodes. Or younger brother gives a cryptic answer when his elder brothers first beat him and then do not recognize in a guise of a handsome hero.

k58. Construction of watercourse: a tragic love. Person builds a watercourse as a condition of marriage. Usually the woman breaks her promise to marry the winner and she or her bridegroom die.

k58a. Water in exchange for love. Person makes water or fish available only if girl agrees to marry him and does not do it if the girl is unwilling.

k59. Box for Osiris. One man puts another into a box, closes the lid (or ties him to a board, to canoe, etc.) and puts the box adrift. It floats to another land, man is released there, returns home, revenges on his enemy.

k60a. How strong are these bonds?. Person does not understand that his life is in danger when he allows the other one(s) to tie him firmly.

k60b. Invitation to coffin. Person is lured into a trap being invited to lie in a box or a hole to measure it. Being unable to liberate himself from the box etc., the person remains in power of his enemies.

k60c. Touchy with king, patient with stableman. Kingís wife is extremely touchy and cannot suffer a slightest pain. She does not say a word, however, when her lover who is a servant or a demon is beating her.

k61a. To get know a secret. To get know the precise number of certain units, to select certain object among many others, to get know a name of particular person or a reason of particular phenomenon, person tries to surprise (or unintentionally surprises) the possessor of the knowledge who becomes to speak aloud and so provides the hero with necessary information.

k61b. To get know names. Person is eager to get know names of strangers. He hides himself and creates situations when the strangers call each other by name.

k61c. To name a demon. A demon suggests to fulfill a difficult work if the person tells him his name after the work is done. At the last moment the person gets know the name by chance, the demon disappears and the person rewarded for being such a good worker. Or the demon comes to take a child but agrees to give it back if the parents guess his (the demon's) name.

k61c1. Listen in secret of demon. Person will be ruined if he or she would not find an answer for a riddle of a demon. The answer is found accidentally when the person or somebody else hears how the demon talks with himself or with another demon. See motif C29.

k61d. Hard work made her ugly. Young womanís bridegroom or husband gets to believe that she is extraordinarily industrious. To conceal the deception, she herself or somebody else makes the man believe that because of hard work women become ugly or change into animals. The man prohibits his wife to work anymore .

k61e. Reward for making a supernatural laugh. When a powerful (supernatural) person gets to see a ridiculous situation, he or she laughs (and thus is cured from his disease). People involved into the situation are rewarded (saved from a danger).

k61f. The make-believe daughter (son). Being afraid of her husband, a sterile woman pretends to give birth. In a due time the husband plans to marry his daughter or son. During the wedding ceremony a doll or an animal is in a sedan-chair but at the last moment a supernatural persons transforms it into a young woman or handsome youth.

k62a. Quarrel of mouse and bird. A mouse (rat, mole, etc.) and a small bird quarrel because they cannot divide supplies for the winter. (Usually this episode initiates the story about the war between animals and birds).

k63. Hunting wild people. A man gets to a country which inhabitants hunts of fish people whom they consider wild and equivalent to the real game or fish.

k64. Escape from Polyphemosí cave. Person gets into dwelling of master of animals or monstrous shepherd. The host can kill him. The hero escapes sticking to hair of one of the animals who are going out.

k64a. Blinded cyclops. Person blinds sleeping ogre and escapes from him.

k64b. Object sticks to a body. Hero's adversary provokes him to touch an object that proves to be sticky. The hero sticks to it, sometimes has to cut off his finger.

k65. Genii loci. Being thrown out, put into certain places, born by primeval couple some beings turn into spirits of particular loci.

k65a. Spirits fall from the sky. Being thrown down (usually from the sky), some beings get to different places and turn into spirits or animals with particular functions and names.

k65b. People and spirits. Spirits or unpleasant animals (reptiles, worms, etc.) are (often: concealed from the eyes of God or deformed) children or miscarriages of the same human couple or the same primeval ancestor who produced first human beings.

k65c. Unwashed children of Eve. A woman gives birth to many children but conceals part of them (rare: all) from God. The concealed children become poor people or non-human beings.

k65c1. Separating the rich from the poor. A woman gives birth to many children but conceals part of them from God. The concealed children become ancestors of the people of the lower social status while those that had been shown to God become ancestors of the high status people.

k65d. Wrong marriage ritual and the birth of spirits. The primeval couple is married. First wife has miscarriages or gives birth to spirits, worms or other unpleasant animals. Later, usually after the proper marriage ceremony is organized, she becomes to give birth to real human beings or gods.

k65e. Midwife in the underworld. A woman is summoned to help supernatural beings as a midwife (to baptize a baby, to be a babysitter) and returns to the human world after rendering her assistance.

k65f. With which eye do you see us?. When a man touches his eye with the magic substance, he sees supernatural beings unseen for the people. Usually the beings understand it and put his eye our.

k66. Extraordinary companions. Several companions have extraordinary abilities (one who runs fast, one who eats great quantities, one who produces or can withstand severe frost, etc.).

k66a. The land and water ship. The man who is able to build (to get) a ship which can fly (travel on land) marries the princess (inherits property).

k66b. Hero presents the received princesses to his companions. Travelling from one place to another, hero lets his companions live there (usually presents to each one a princess that he received for his deeds) and continues his journey. When he gets into trouble, companions rescue him .

k67. Burned moccasins. Two men spend a night in a forest, take their moccasins or clothes off usually to dry them near the fire. One plans to burn the moccasins or the clothes of another at night. The latter imperceptible interchange their things and the first man burns his own property.

k67a. Drowned wife. A man who has a low social position is a nuisance for persons of high position. He gets to know that they plan to drown him or his preperty (rare: to strangle him) and tricks them to drown instead one of them or their own property.

k67b. Bargain not to become angry. Person of a low social position (a man) makes an agreement with a person of high social position (an ogre) that the master must never become angry with the servant. The servant abuses the master until the latter erupts in anger and has to be severely punished or to pay a great fee.

k67c. Skin ribbon ripped off from the back. Person agrees that under certain conditions another may rip off some skin from his back.

k67d. Flight of the master with his goods in the bag. A master (ogre, devil, wife) tries to get away from his farmhand (her husband). The farmhand hides in the masterís bag (chest) so that the master unwittingly takes him along.

k68. Blood-clot defends his stepfather. A weak man abused by a strong one (often his son-in-law) brings home a clot of animalís blood, from which a child is born. The blood-clot boy avenges the old man.

k69. A visit to God. A group of persons decide to go to the end of the world to meet the Sun or other supreme god. One (or several) of them perish on their way, some reach destination, at least one returns home using the shorter way than the one they have took before.

k70. Two sisters-in-law: the girl and the frog. One brother marries a girl, another a frog or toad, both bring them to their parents, or one man takes two wives, a woman and a frog. Both wives have to pass a test. Values of the girl are highly assessed, the frogís poor qualities are revealed.

k71. Coyote first betrays and then saves his brother. Coyote's brother is victorious against numerous enemies as far as Coyote does not break some taboo. Enemies kill the brother. Coyote gets his remains, escapes, revives him.

k72. Three maidens. Powerful person listens in conversation of three or two women. Each one say what she would do if the person marries her. One promises to bear his son who would have wonderful qualities (or a son and a daughter), two others promise to practice some work or marry other people.

k72a. A ban to kindle any light. A king notices that his ban to kindle any light during the night is broken.

k73. Children of the youngest wife. A young woman promises to bear a wonderful child. In her husband's absence other people (co-wives, mother-in-law, etc.) try to kill the mother and/or the child, usually slandering her.

k73a. Baby child substituted with pup. Rivals of the beloved wife hide or throw away her baby and substitute it with an animal (usually with a pup) or object.

k73a1. Baby substituted with a broom. Rivals of the beloved wife hide or throw away her baby and substitute it with a broom, stone or other inanimate object.

k73b. Innocent woman punished. A woman who was falsely accused of killing her new-born child or giving birth to pups and the like is punished in such a way that she must suffer from filth and be taunted by passers by.

k73c. A girl in a birdís nest. A girl gets into a birdís nest (usually the bird carries away a baby-girl). The bird cares for her like her parent, the girl becomes a beauty.

k74. Hero, his companions and a dwarf. The hero and his companion or companions live together. Every morning one stays at home while another or others go to hunt, etc. A demonic person comes, eats up all the food and beats the cook. Or the man who remained at home comes to the demon himself in search of fire and is maltreated by him. The hero kills or neutralizes the demon.

k74a. Demon claims food and is wounded. A demonic person comes to the hero and claims food that the latter possesses or cooks. The hero overcomes and wounds him, follows his trace and comes to his world.

k75. Bridegroom of the youngest daughter (The loathsome bridegroom). A girl (usually the youngest of several sisters) does not reject but marries a poor, sick, dirty, old, too young, non-human, etc. man who later demonstrates his supernatural qualities.

k75a. Thrown apple hits the chosen one. Boy or girl selects one person among many throwing an object (usually an apple) into him or her. This way a girl makes a choice of a husband, a young man of a bride, a boy identifies his father.

k76. A strange son. A boy or (rare) a girl born in family or found by his adoptive parents has strange guise (ball of meat, nut, bag, half of a man, an animal). He or she possesses magic power and usually marries a princess (a prince).

k76a. Son the frog. Frog marries a princess (and usually turns into handsome man)..

k76b. Son the snake. An (adoptive) son is a snake. He marries a princess, turns into handsome man..

k76c. Son the gourd. An (adoptive) son is a gourd. He marries a princess, turns into handsome man. Or a daughter born to a family has guise of a gourd.

k76d. Son the hedgehog. .

k76e. Son the pig. An (adoptive) son is a pig. He marries a princess, turns into handsome man..

k77a. Small objects and animals defeat the ogre. Small objects and animals (rare: animals alone but including harmless and passive ones, e.g. on the dry land fishes) revenge on a powerful enemy making attack on him in succession (usually they hide in his or her house); the enemy is badly injured, runs away or dies.

k77b. The animals in night quarters (Bremen town musicians). Domestic animals abandon their masters. They find an empty house or build a house. Robbers or the predator animals come there. The domestic animals attack (or just frighten) them. The robbers (predators) do not understand who are their enemies, are scared and run away.

k77b1. The wolf flees from the wolf-head. Domestic animals find the head (bones, skin) of a dangerous animal (wolf, several wolves, tiger, etc.). They meet another wolf and make him believe that they have killed one of his kind. The wolf flees in terror..

k77bb. Weapons of a goat. A predator animal asks a goat (a ram, etc.) about a purpose of certain parts of his body. The goat describes every part as a weapon able to injure his opponent or the goat really possesses weapons.

k77c. Ones who hide in a house frighten dangerous enemy. Objects and/or domestic animals live in a house. When dangerous enemy comes, they attack him, he dies or escapes (all texts with K77A and K77B included).

k78. Extracted from finger. An ogre (an ogress) swallows people, is killed but the people are not found in his or her belly or are found dead. Only when the ogre's finger is cut off, the hero finds a remedy to revive the people or the swallowed up (the swallowed hero himself) come out alive from the finger of the ogre.

k79. Snake serves an example of resuscitation . Person in a desperate situation gets to see how a snake or other small animal uses remedy to revive or to cure itself or other animals. The person uses the remedy, succeeds.

k80. Repeated reincarnation. Person (usually a young woman) turns into different objects or creatures which another person destroys one by one. However, the person is reincarnated again and again and ultimately acquires her or his original form.

k80a. A bird or an object tell about a murder. An object or a creature that emerged from remains, decorations, etc. of a killed person tells about his or her fate. Usually a reed grows from the person's grave and a pipe made from the reed tells the story.

k80a1. Bird tells about a murder. A bird (that usually emerges from the remains of a murdered person or being incarnation of his or her soul) punishes the murderer or tells people about the crime.

k80a2. Pipe tells about a murder. Body part of a murdered person or a plant that grew on the place of the crime are used for making a musical instrument. This instrument tells people about the crime.

k80a3. To the forest to pick up berries. Person who would bring more berries from the forest will be rewarded. The antagonists appropriates berries picked up by the hero and usually kills him or her.

k80a4. The hair of buried person turns into a grass. Person is buried (usually alive) or descends underground. Her or his hair grows as a grass or a bush.

k80b. My mother slew me, my father ate me. The (step)mother kills or orders to kill her small (step)son, eats him or feeds his flesh to her husband. The son revives, usually in the form of a bird who tells about the crime..

k80c. The cranes of Ibycus. Person becomes a victim of a murder. Just before dying he or she calls on some birds (animals, celestial bodies, etc.) to bear witness for the crime. Getting to see these birds (the animal, the Moon, etc.) the murderer reveals himself without thinking. Or the birds, being the only witnesses, bring the investigators to the murderers.

k80c1. The tell-tale calfís head. A person who committed murder or made an offence carries home or brings to a king what he thinks is the food to be cooked and eaten (melon, grapes, calfís head, etc.). This object turns into cut off human head. The person is imprisoned (and executed).

k80c2. The treasure finders who murder one another. Three (two, more) men find (rob) a treasure. One of them goes away for a while. Those who stay kill him when he returns but die later from eating food (drinking wine) which he had poisoned.

k80d. The stuck in pin. Person is bewitched (transformed into a bird, faints) when a pin or other sharp object is stuck into her (rare his) body.

k81. The handless girl. For minor offence or because of a false accusation a man maims (rare: kills) a girl or young woman and drives her out of his house or (rare) the girl maims herself. The maimed person magically obtains her body integrity (the dead revives) and is happily married.

k82. Evil sister-in-law. Wife of a man or wives of a group of brothers envy his (their) sister and tries (try) to destroy her.

k82a. Pregnancy from the snake eggs. An ill-disposed elder woman makes a young woman or girl to swallow snake eggs (a snake, something else). Her stomach becomes to swell and the man believes that the victim has become pregnant because of her dissoluteness (rare: to make snakes, worms, etc. to kill her from inside).

k83. The sons on a quest for a wonderful remedy for their father. To cure a sick person or to make him (rare: her) young again it is necessary to bring a remedy from a distant country. The medicine is brought and the sick person is cured (becomes young).

k84. Sisters married to animals. Several sisters marry different animals or demons. Usually their husbands help their brother.

k85. Horses-brothers. An antagonist possesses a horse which can overtake any other. Hero obtains the brother (sister) of this horse who is the only one to win the race with the antagonist's horse.

k85A. The thought-horse and the wind-horse. When assessing the swiftness of a horse, the speed of thought (lightning) and the speed of wind are compared.

k86. Weeping child stolen. Because a small child is ignored or punished by its parents (usually it cries late in the evening), bush spirit or animal carries it away.

k87a. A stolen boy. A forest woman receives or steals a small boy and brings him up to make him her paramour.

k87b. Woman steps into bearsí dung. Gathering berries a woman steps into bear's dung and curses bears. A bear abducts her and marries her. Her human husband, her brothers, or supernatural person kill the bears.

k88. The two travellers (Truth and Falsehood). Two men travel or argue about whether truth or falsehood (justice or unjustice, etc.) is more powerful. The evil one abandons the good one robbing or blinding him but the good one gets back his sight and becomes rich. The evil one usually perishes.

k88a. The blinded bride. Wicked stepmother or aunt blinds the heroine (often feeds her salty food and gives water for eyes). The heroine returns her eyes..

k88b. Food exchanged for eyes. A companion promises to share water or food with a thirsty or hungry person on condition that he or she allows to blind him or her.

k89. A girl and a witch: presents of kinsfolk. A girl and her rival (a witch, a frog) marry two brothers. Both daughters-in-law have to bring presents from their kinsfolk. The girl finds her brother, brothers or sister who were lost or died in the beginning of the tale and they give her valuables. Presents brought by the rival are worthless.

k89a. In search of the place to abandon the sister. A girl with her maimed sister or brother escapes from a danger. The sister (brother) rejects some places where the girl wants to abandon her or him but agrees with her last suggestion.

k89b. Brother abandoned in a tree. A girl becomes separated with her brothers (or brother) who die, remain in a tree, on a hill, ascend to the sky, etc. Usually after being happily married, the girl once again meets her brothers who have acquired a non-human nature.

k89c. Helpful brother is married to bear. A girl parts with her brother or sister who marries a bear and helps the girl.

k89d. Girl hides turning into a needle. The girl who remained alone in a house or got into the house of dangerous creatures hided turning into a needle or other weaving or spinning tool.

k90. The black and the red ones. A man gets to see two fighting monsters or animals of contrasted colors (red and black, black and white). He helps one of them and/or one of them helps him.

k90a. Trying to hit the black serpent a man hit the white one. A man gets to see how two serpents of contrast color fight. He tries to hit one f them but injures another by mistake. The injured snakeís kinfolk come to punish the man but they give him presents after getting know that he regrets his mistake .

k90b. Stag antlers stuck in serpentís throat. Antlers of a stag or tusks of an elephant who a serpent tries to swallow are stuck in its throat.

k91. An invisible battle. Hero's dogs or horse or (rare) he himself fight with his adversary in the underworld (under the water). Those who are waiting for the outcome of the combat understand who overcomes whom by the color of water or foam that rises to the surface.

k92. King Lear. A man puts his children questions that seem easy to answer (how they love him, who is the elder in the family, etc.). The elder children flatter, the youngest daughter (rare: son) is reserved and her father drives her away or deprives of inheritance. Later her noble nature becomes evident to him.

k92a. The princess responsible for her own fortune. A girl driven away from home or married to a poor man become prosperous.

k92b. Love you like salt. A girl answers her father (rare: brother) that she loves him like she loves salt (or that salt is the most valuable, etc.). He becomes angry (usually drives her away) but later satisfies himself that she was right.

k93. Twin brothers and a woman. A twin brother or the best friend follows hero's trace and spends a night in his wife's house but rejects to have sex with her.

k93a. Sword of chastity. Sleeping in one bed with a woman, man puts a sharp or thorny object between them as a sign of chastity (sometimes the woman herself puts the sword).

k93b1. Conception from eaten fish. After eating a fish, the sterile woman gives birth to a son or twins.

k93b2. Conception from eaten apple. After eating a fruit, usually an apple, the sterile woman gives birth to a son or twins.

k93b3. Boys, colts and puppies are born the same day. To have children, a woman eats a fish, apple or something else. A mare, a bitch or other domestic animals eat part of this food (often skin, broth, etc.). The woman gives birth to a boy (twins), the mare to colts, the bitch to puppies.

k93b4. Woman, mare, and bitch birth give birth to human boys. When a woman gives birth to a boy (twins), a mare (a bitch and/or other domestic animals) also gives birth to human boys. When the boys come of age. they leave for a journey .

k94. Bird of luck (eaten up head). Person eats magic bird, fish, small animal, or fruit and becomes prosperous and powerful.

k95. The twining branches (united in death). Two persons (usually two lovers) are buried in one grave or not far from each other. Two plants which grow on this place interweave or smoke of two funeral pyres is merged or the dead couple turns into two birds or two stars.

k96. Fifty sons. Many brothers marry or have to marry in such a way that all their wives are (were) sisters.

k97. Now you are grieved as I was. A man is going to kill but spares a giant bird. Later when the bird carries him high in the air it pretends to drop him or to abandon him on a rock. This way the bird wants him to feel the same terror that he felt when the man was going to kill him. Or it is the bird that first drops and picks up a man who later makes the bird feel a similar terror.

k98. (Animal) helper turns into household. An animal or (rare) a person that gave birth to the hero or supported him for a long time asks his master or son to kill him or her. Its (her) remains turn into a house with a household where the hero can live.

k99. Prophecy of future sovereignity. A young man or (rare) a girl has a (day-)dream that predicts his or (rare) her future triumph. The dreamer either conceals or reports its contest to his family and in both cases is punished for too high opinion of himself. In the beginning the dreamer sometimes sells his dream to another young man, who becomes the protagonist of the tale. Adventures that follow explain the contest of the dream. The youth becomes rich and happy (e.g. marries heiresses of two kingdoms, that in the dream were symbolized by two suns or a sun and a moon), the girl marries king's son.

k99a. The father will humble himself before the son. A lad or a girl (often after having a prophetic dream) claims that he (she) will achieve much more than his (her) father (parents, brothers; often, that his father will be serving him or demonstrating other signs of high respect). The lad (girl) is expelled out of the family but the prophecy is fulfilled.

k99a1. Smart man is rescued from prison. An imprisoned man is rescued and exalted after he gets to resolve problems that trouble the king or to save the princess (prince, the king himself).

k99a2. The sold dream. Person has a dream, another person buys it and acquires the fortune that the dream promised .

k99b. Eloping with the wrong man. At night a girlís lover has to carry her away but falls asleep or is late. She is carried away by another man who happened to be on the place .

k100. A faithful servant. A man gets to know about dangers that threaten his master or his friend of a higher status. He helps his master (friend) to escape the dangers though his own behavior seems strange or hostile. Facing an alternative to be executed or to turn into stone because of revealing the secret, the helper opts for the second. In many cases the masterís child has to be sacrificed to turn the statue back into the man.

k100a. Tobias. A young man lets free a fish or an animal that was caught or he or his father renders a help to somebody. When the young man sets off for a journey, the grateful creature or person in guise of a stranger becomes his companion and protector.

k100b. A grateful dead. A young man helps to bury a man (pays the debts of the dead man, honors a saint). When the young man sets off for a journey, the grateful dead (the saint) in guise of a stranger becomes his protector.

k100c. Girlís bridegrooms are bitten by a snake. Person (usually a young woman) does not know that a snake lives inside her or him, or always comes to the girl when she is going to marry, or makes her or him ill or dangerous for other people. {Motif K100C is pretty similar to F9f1 but F9f1 links to a cluster of etiological/cosmological motifs related to the idea of a dangerous woman while K100c is related to adventures}.

k100d. Helpful animal becomes a prince. Helpful animal (horse, lion, etc.) asks the hero to kill him (or dies killing the antagonist) and becomes a prince (princess) himself.

k100e. Aggressive stories. Stories act as particular persons: usually become harmful because they think that a certain person does not treat them in a correct way.

k100f. Youth lets the fish go. When an unusual fish (rare: some water being) is caught, the (young) man lets it go. His father (the king) drives him away or the man goes away by his own initiative. The saved fish helps him.

k100f1. The wild man. A man (usually a king) catches a strange (anthropomorphic) creature. His son frees the prisoner, is afraid of his fatherís anger and leaves home or is driven away. The released prisoner helps him.

k100g. Person sacrifices his child to cure his friend. To revive or to cure his friend (rare: himself), person agrees to sacrifice his small son (children). The friend rubs his body with the childís blood and becomes healthy (childís blood is sprinkled on the stone statue and it revives; the child is not killed though his father believes that he is). Usually the sacrificed child also revives.

k101. Night dances of girls. Every morning girl' or (rare) boyís clothes are in disorder, the boy looks very tied. People spy on her (or on him) and discover that she or he spends nights in the non-human world.

k101a. The princess in the coffin. A man has to send several nights near the girl who died and became a dangerous demonic being. After this the girl is disenchanted.

k101b. Three nights of suffering. A girl or a youth are disenchanted because the hero bravely spends three nights in a certain place being tortured or terrified by demons. The girl (youth) herself is helpful and not dangerous for the hero.

k101c. In the palace by day, on the sky by night. A girl agrees to marry a man only if she would be allowed to spend days with him but return for the night to her parents. The husband gets to know that at night she joins company of sky maidens (and usually ascends to the sky to dance). He follows her. After all she remains with her husband on earth.

k102. Demonic paramour of mother or sister. A woman who initially is a friend of the hero (his sister or mother) tries to kill him when she becomes allied to a demon whom the hero overcame or (rare) a man who tries to get rid of the hero.

k102a. Father was right. Father (or other man) tells a youth to make something evil (usually to kill his sister, mother, or wife). The young man does not fulfill the order but later regrets about it.

k102a1. The false grave as evidence of the death. Buried animal (sheep) claimed to be the corpse of an absent person (wife, ride, sister, children, etc.).

k102b. To ride for the last time. To kill a boy (a girl), the antagonist first needs to get rid of his or her horse. When they are ready to kill the horse, the boy (the girl) rides on his horse away saving his or her life.

k103. Helpful cow. Cow (ox, bull) helps an orphan child or a young woman who got into trouble .

k103a. Tree raises its branches. A tree that has grown up rapidly does not let the antagonist to climb it or to pick its fruits (leans to the opposite side, raises its branches, etc.).

k104. A red swan. The youngest of several brothers remains at home, wounds a red swan or duck, goes away following the bird's trace.

k105. Wonderful son and rat-children. A despised wife gives birth to wonderful human children, other wives give birth to animals.

k106. Thrown to cows. To get rid of a baby child or of the magic cock, they throw him into enclosure for animals, but cows or other animals do not trample the child or cock down.

k107. Lost husband found. A woman is abandoned by her magic husband. She finds him and becomes his wife again.

k107a. Iron shoes to be worn out. Wandering to the purpose of her or his travel person has to worn out her or his iron shoes or staff.

k107b. Not to light a candle. One of the spouses visits another only in the night time and prohibits to light a candle. When the other does it and gets to see his husbandís (her wifeís) face, the other disappears.

k107c. Knives on the windowsill (the prince as bird). Magic bridegroom who comes as bird or otherwise appears before a girl meets her regularly. Her jealous sisters (stepmother, brother, etc.) wound him (usually putting knives of broken glass around the window). He disappears, the girl goes to find him. .

k108. A revived wife betrays her husband. Wife dies, husband revives her, she abandons him for another man and is punished.

k108a. After murdering his wife, the man loses everything. A man acquires a magic wife. Another woman agrees to marry him if he abandons or kills his first wife. The man does it and loses everything.

k109. A puppy turns into wife. A man is advised to ask for his service rendered to a powerful being a puppy or a small object (a beaker). The puppy or object turns into beautiful girl who is a daughter of a deity. Other person makes attempts to take the woman away.

k110. Reflection of golden sword. Person must get a treasure from the bottom of water body. He understands that what he sees is a reflection in water while the treasure is high in a tree.

k111. Animal suitors rejected, a man from the sky accepted. Mother of a girl rejects in succession birds (and animals) who come to ask her daughter in marriage, but accepts a man from the sky (the Sun) as her son-in-law.

k112. Farm-hand revenges on the Sun. A poor man condemns the Sun and other supernatural personages responsible for weather, wild animals, etc. that because of them he lost his property. He finds them and punishes them.

k113. Frog-princess. Several young men (usually three brothers) find wives (usually shooting arrows or throwing objects on the off-chance). The wife of the youngest initially is ugly or non-human (a frog, a snake) but proves to be beautiful enchantress. She and her husband triumph. Or girls choose their husbands and the youngest one gets a youth who has guise of a snake.

k113a. To take wife where arrow falls. A young man shoots an arrow or throws an object on the off-chance to take bride where the object falls.

k114. Brothers leave home after their sister is born. Several brothers leave home immediately after their mother gives birth to a girl. Usually they do not want to have another brother and hope that this time a girl will be born but chance or by evil intent a signal is given that not a girl but a boy is born again. The brothers are disappointed and leave, the girl grows up and travels in search of them.

k115. A web at the entrance. A man escapes from his (her, theirs) pursuers and hides in a cave. A spider spins its web over the hiding place. When the pursuers see the spider web they think the cave is unoccupied and do not enter it.

k116. Choice of companion. The proper companion to be chosen for journey is a man who would take a smaller half of available food, wait the hero as long as it would be needed, etc..

k116a. Wife never laughs (king is killed after putting on a poor manís clothes). A king takes or is going to take a poor manís wife. She tricks him to put on her husbandís clothes and his men (or dogs) kill him taking for the poor man (fool).

k116b. The lecherous holy man and the maiden in the box. A holy man (trusted adviser) falls in love with a beautiful girl and makes her father believe that she should be placed in a box and cast into the river; or the girl is stolen and the box abandoned in the field. The man plans to open the box in his room. Another person finds the box and replaces the girl with a dog or other dangerous animal who kills or injures the deceiver.

k117. Woman who never laughs (a bride). A woman should marry a man who would be able to make her laugh; a man promises a reward to the person who make laugh his wife or mother.

k117A. To make a mute woman speak. A girl who keeps silence is promised to one who would make her speak; a man with much difficulty makes his magic wife speak.

k117B. Stuck together. Using a magic object or spell, hero makes people (and animals) attached to the object or to each other .

k117C. Magic fiddle makes people dance. As soon as a person plays his flute (fiddle, horn, etc.), people and animals become to dance and cannot stop without the personís permission.

k118. The prohibited room. Master of the house allows person to enter all rooms besides one. The person breaks prohibition and the master gets to know about it.

k119. Puss in boots. An animal intends to help a poor man to become rich, gets for him a bride, makes other people believe that the groom is rich. The man becomes prosperous indeed.

k119a. Ungrateful master. An animal saves a man or helps him but the ungrateful man humiliates the animal, kills or tries to kill it.

k120. The averted incest (daughter and father). A man is going to marry his daughter (often puts certain condition on his future marriage, only his daughter complies with them). The girl gets to escape.

k120a. The averted incest (sister and brother). A man is going to marry his sister (often puts certain condition on his future marriage, only his sister complies with them). The girl gets to escape.

k120a1. Three dresses. In order to delay a wedding with an undesirable suitor (her own brother or father, a monster), a girl asks him to give her a dress (often three dresses in succession) of unusual material (like gold, of fly wings, etc.). He does it but the girl runs away.

k120a2. Not my mother but my mother-in-law. Members of the girlís family want to marry her to a man who should not be her marriage partner (usually it is her own brother). They ask her to name them as her in-laws or the girl herself tells that they are not anymore her mother, sister, etc. but her mother-in-law, sister-in-law, etc. or her worst enemies.

k120a3. Jewelry in a nut. Person gets a nut with valuables inside (precious clothes, jewelry, animal helpers, etc.) or he or she himself or herself puts valuable into a nut to use them later .

k120a4. To fill a vessel with tears. Person must fill a vessel (to cover a floor) with tears .

k121. Wanderer at a crossroad. It is written at a crossroad that following one of the paths person will safely return and following another it will not return (there is often a third path following which person either returns or not). Hero follows the dangerous path.

k122. Queen of other world comes to identify hero. Hero gets to the powerful woman who lives in another world, then returns to the world of humans. Imposter claims hero's deeds for himself. The powerful woman comes and finds the real hero, usually punishes the imposter.

k123. Old womanís curse. A youth or (rare) girl offends an elder woman. She makes him or her to be overcome by desire to undertake something dangerous (usually to get a particular marriage partner).

k123a. A broken vessel. A youth breaks or overthrows an elder womanís vessel. This episode is a trigger for the narrative.

k123b. A broken distaff. A youth spoils an elder womanís distaff or yarn. This episode is a trigger for the narrative.

k124. There was a greater wonder!. An animal killed by a hunter revives and runs away. The animal itself or somebody else tells the hunter that there was a greater wonder with such and such a person. The story follows.

k125. House utensil betrays its master. An enemy asks house utensils or personal objects where their master hid himself or herself or what direction he or she ran away. One of the objects, not treated by the master in a proper way, betrays him or her.

k126. Wolf pays for the eaten up horse. A wolf eats up hero's horse but gives him a fare compensation (usually provides a wife).

k127. Brothers transform into swans. A girl has many (more than three) brothers, they turn into birds or animals (rare: they are killed by magic), ultimately become human again.

k127a. Temporarily mute heroine. A girl or young woman is bewitched to be mute or must keep silence for a period of time. Just when she has to be put to death, the period of her muteness is over and she is saved.

k128. Grazing animals to be preserved by a herdsman . A man had to graze animals or birds. If at least one is lost, the master would kill (not reward) him.

k128a. Best apples for the princess . A princess is promised to a man who would bring her the best apples (figs, fish; fruits that would cure her; that she would be unable to eat all, etc.). On the way two brothers do not give anything to a person who looks like a beggar but has supernatural power and their presents are rejected. The youngest one is generous and (after additional tests) marries the princess.

k129. The disenchanted beauty. Because of the female antagonist, a girl faints and is taken for dead but her body is not decomposed. A valuable marriage partner breaks the charms, she revives.

k129a. Half alive lady in the burial chamber. A young woman (in the burial chamber) is now alive and now dead but after all she is disenchanted.

k130. Am I the most beautiful?. A woman asks if she is the most beautiful among female folk and always receives a positive answer. She tries to get rid of her rival when the answer becomes a negative one.

k130a. Girl in the house of several brothers. A group of brothers live apart. A girl comes to them or is born magically. The brothers recognize her as their sister. After some time she is separated from them and is in danger (abducted, killed though her body remains intact, should be executed, etc.) but is rescued.

k131. Men fight over magic objects. A man on a journey meets tree or two persons who are quarreling over the division of magic objects (a flying carpet, seven mile boots, etc.). The man promises to render a judgment, but he asks first to try our the objects or suggests the owners to run a race and uses opportunity to escape with the objects.

k131a. Hero settles an argument of animals. Several animals (often a lion, an eagle, an ant) argue because of an animal carcass or a living place. A man settles their argument, they give him capacity to acquire their form (their qualities).

k131b. Magic objects are exchanged and returned. A man loses a magic object that he got before but gets it back thanks to another object (a cudgel, a box with soldiers, etc.) that is exchanged for the first one or obtained by the manís brother. The episode can be repeated several times .

k132. Invincible chicken. Person of a small size (often a chicken) overcomes powerful adversary despite all attempts to destroy him thanks to objects and animals met on the way and preserved in his bag or inside his body.

k132a. Husbandís cock and wifeís hen. Husband (rare: wife) sends his cock to earn money and the cock brings it. Wife (husband) sends her hen (cat, her half of a cock, etc.) and it brings filth.

k133. Foam-flecked horse. Every morning a horse is exhausted because animals or demonic creatures ride it at night.

k134. The planted treasure. To accuse a guest of theft, a host plants a treasure into his guestís bag.

k135. Seven with one stroke. A weak and timid man or boy overcomes accidentally powerful enemies and gets high esteem.

k136. A lad and his cattle. A lad becomes a master and a leader of great amount of cattle (cows or buffaloes) and meets a princess (usually after she finds his hair fallen into a river).

k136a. Hair picked up from a river. Person finds a hair that was carried by water and decides to marry its owner.

k136b. Rubies from a river. Person finds precious stones or miraculous flowers (usually in a river) and gets to know whence they originate .

k136c. Killed and revived periodically. Every time when a demonic person goes away he kills or puts asleep a woman reviving her when he comes back.

k137. Sister tricks women to come and revive her brother. When her brother is killed, a girl puts on his clothes and in a guise of a man wins competitions and gets women who are able to revive the dead. She puts the clothes back on her brother and the women come and revive him taking him for their husband. Or a sister is killed and her brother after winning wives tricks them to revive her.

k138. Exchange of bodies (king and his minister). Person gets an ability to enter a dead body and revive it. His own body remains dead for this time. Another person takes it for himself while the first one remains in an animalís body.

k139. Roasted pheasant gets burnt. Roasting meat or baking bread for his master, servant sees a girl and is so impressed with her beauty, that the meat or bread get burnt. The master decides to marry the girl.

k140. Ostentatiously ungrateful. Travelling with his sibling, a youth regularly kills those who help him and save him creating for himself ever more problems.

k141. Tamed injurious fairies . Supernatural women make harm to people. Hero overcomes them and usually marries them .

k142. Corpse buried many times . Person kills several people. asks somebody to bury only one and then tells that the dead man has returned. The grave-digger buries several people but believes that it was one and the same corpse.

k143. Hero is a bird-catcher. Protagonist of the story is a bird-catcher (bird-hunter) or a son of a bird-catcher (bird-hunter).

k144. The predestined death because of an animal. A certain animal or (rare) man is predicted to become a cause of death of a certain person. When this animal (man) is already dead himself or itself or is faraway, its (his) remains or image becomes the cause of the personís death.

k145. The predestined death because of the wolf. A wolf is predicted to become a cause of death of a person or the person must die at his wedding day. The prophesy becomes true. If it is about the marriage, the bride herself turns into a wolf and kills her bridegroom.

k146. Life-medicine brought by the hero is used to revive him. The hero is sent to bring a life-medicine. On his way back a friendly woman replaces the real medicine with a useless one or keeps part of it for herself. Using the medicine she revives the hero when he is treacherously killed.

k147. Heroís horse brings his remains and he is revived. Enemy cuts heroís body into pieces and ties them to his horse or the horse itself picks them up and brings to his masterís friends. They revive him..

k147a. The transformed hero kills his rival. Heroís rival together with the heroís untrue wife or another woman tries to kill him when he turns into different creatures of objects. When the hero turns into a duck (fish, bird), the rival puts the magic weapon on the ground and rushes to catch the duck (bird, its.). The hero acquires his normal guise, takes the weapon and kills his rival.

k148. The stolen colts. Every night or every year a mare gives birth to a colt but every time it is stolen.

k149. The three knots. Person receives a rope, reins or the like with three knots. If untied, person can move more or less rapidly. Usually untying the first two knots he makes his ship or his horse move more rapidly but, besides warning, he (being near to his destination) unties the third knot too and because of it he looses his ship or his horse, does not reach his destination, etc..

k150. Horse eats coals. Magic horse eats (hot) coals, nails, etc. or they try to feed the horse with such a staff.

k151. The fisherman and his wife. Supernatural creature fulfills a poor manís moderate request. After this he or his wife asks for ever bigger gifts till the angry helper punishes them (usually takes all his gifts away).

k152. The evil woman thrown into the pit. A man throws his evil wife into the pit or well. After some time he drags a devil (snake, etc.) out of it who thanks the man for being saved from the woman (asks the man to save him). Usually the devil helps the man and after all the man scares the devil telling him that the woman climbed out of the pit and is coming.

k153. Grateful animals, ungrateful man. A man helps several (potentially dangerous) animals and another man. The animals give him a reward (rescue him), the man attempts to destroy him.

k154. A skull with an inscription. Certain man finds human skull. It is written on it that the skull will be the cause of death of seven (forty, etc.) men. Or the skull foretells something related to its own future. The skull is burned to ashes but a girl licks it and becomes pregnant. Usually she gives birth to a son who becomes the cause of death of the corresponding number of men.

k154a. Men in the harem. Solving a riddle, a boy or youth unmasks a daughter (wife, minister) of a powerful person: house-maids (or some of them) are men, the minister plans to kill his master).

k155. Bone in the meat (prince grown up in isolation). A man (usually a king) isolates his son or daughter in a closed room, servants bring the boy (girl) meat without bones. Once he or she finds a bone in the meat, uses it to make an opening in the wall and gets to see the world outside .

k156. Will flowers wither under the pillow?. A girl conceals her real identity and pretends to be a young man. To identify real sex of the person, flowers are put under his/her pillow or the mattress. If it is a man, the flowers should remain fresh and if a girl, wither .

k157. Robbers killed one by one. Person comes to robbers (giants) and pretends that he agrees to help them to rob a treasury (to abduct the princess, etc.). After penetrating into the castle, he invites the robbers to enter through a narrow opening (climb over the wall, etc.) and kills them one by one.

k157a. Vanished husband learned of by keeping inn. For finding the lost husband (wife, benefactor), person sets up an inn (bakery, bathhouse) where guests are served gratis. This attracts people. One of the guests proves to be the lost one or the guest tells a story that helps to find the lost one .

k158. Who is the woman on a portrait?. To find the lost husband (and other men who were helpful or cruel to her), a woman demonstrates her portrait in a public place and calls to her everybody whose reaction shows that they recognized the represented person.

k159. Peas poured under the feet. When two persons are fighting, somebody wants one of them fall and throws or pours something under his feet.

k160. Three hairs from the devilís beard. Hero must bring hairs, feathers, scales, etc. of a dangerous person. He fulfills his task and returns home. Usually a wife or (grand)mother of this person gets the three hairs when she delouses him or when he is asleep and puts questions which the person answers and the hero listens in. {The motif of a woman who puts questions is also in traditions that lack the motif of the ďthree hairsĒ; ATU 461 tale type is a combination of episodes that have different areal spread}.

k161. The liberated dragon. Person imprisoned a dragon (demon, Thunder, etc.) and warns the other not to open a certain room (not to give water to the prisoner, etc.). The instruction is broken, the demon liberates himself and flies away that has undesirable consequences .

k162. The robber gets into the sleeping room. The antagonist (robber, wizard) penetrates into the house of a girl or young woman hiding in a state (in cupboard, etc.) and/or putting her husband (guards) to sleep using a medicine. At the last moment he is killed.

k163. Aladdin and his lamp. A magician orders a boy to fetch a magic object (often a lamp). The boy finds the object but refuses to give it to the magician. A helpful genie appears and fulfills the boyís wishes.

l1b. Bear-woman and her sister. A young woman turns into monstrous bear. She kills most of the people besides her younger sister (Ojibwa: younger sister of her former husband). Their brothers return from a hunt, kill the bear or she dies pursuing them.

l1c. Fugitives turn into stars. A young woman turns into monstrous bear. She kills most of the people besides her younger sister (Ojibwa: younger sister of her former husband). Their brothers return from a hunt, kill the bear or she dies pursuing them.

l1c1. An escape to the sky. To escape from a demonic person, a group of men who are relations of a girl ascend to the sky and remain there.

l1c2. Hided under the hearth. Pursued by a demon, persons hide their younger brother or sister or children in a pit under the hearth.

l1d. Woman kills jaguar . A were-jaguar kills most of the people but is killed itself thanks to a woman who remained alive.

l1e. Person creates monstrous birds. A monstrous bird is created from small amount of the flesh of a human being or animal (usually a heart) or from manioc starch.

l1f. Sister avenges her lover. A young woman turns into monster and kills her brothers avenging the death of her husband or lover.

l3. Husband turns into demon. A demon takes appearance of a man and comes to his wife or (rare) to other woman. The woman (alone or with her child) runs away and/or kills the monster (herself or with somebody's help).

l3a. Woman asks for assistance, a demon comes. A woman remains alone and calls for somebody who could help her with her housework. A demon comes, kills the woman or her child.

l4. The unmasked murderer. Person kills girls (rare: his nephews or younger brothers of his wife) in succession (usually the male person kills his wives). The last of potential victims escapes, usually after finding remains of those who were killed before.

l5c. Rolling head pursues people. A monstrous head pursues luminaries, people or sticks to person's body.

l5d. Head is thirsty. Rolling head suffers thirst.

l5e. Wifeís headless body pursues her husband. The beheaded woman pursues her husband while her head pursues her children.

l5f. Helpful skull. A bodiless head, face, or skull is a woman's husband, suitor or son. He is not dangerous but a good provider, saves people from hunger, etc..

l5g. Elder sisterís head rolls after her younger sister. Only head remains from a girl. It rolls after her younger sister or sisters or they take it with them. Ultimately the head finds a place to stop.

l5h. Person stuck in an opening, head is torn off. Two sisters or two brothers get into demon's house. One crawls out through a tiny opening, another sticks there. Brother or sister pulls him or her by the head but tears it off.

l6. Demon clings to person. A demonic being demands that a person would carry it permanently, clings to his shoulder or back.

l6a. Asks to be carried. Person that looks weak and feeble asks a man to carry him or her on his back and refuses to leave him.

l7. Chasing an animal by mistake. Instead of chasing a person, a bush spirit, a monster or a dangerous animal pursues by mistake an object or animal that moves nearby.

l7a. Sticking demon: first to person and then to animal. A demon who sticks to other creatures and refuses to get down sticks first to a person and then to an animal or first to an animal and then to a bird.

l7b. Chasing gourd vessel by mistake. Instead of chasing a person, a bush spirit, a monster or a dangerous animal follows by mistake a gourd vessel that floats downriver .

l9a. Sharp leg. Person's leg is injured intentionally or by chance. The loss of one leg does not bother him. He uses the sharpened bone as a thrust weapon.

l9b. Elbow-knives. Person's sharp elbows or (rare) knees are like awls or knives.

l9c. Sharp breast. Person has a sharp axe-like protrusion on his breast.

l9d. Sharp hands. Person has sharp nails or knife-like hands to kill people.

l10. Sharp tail. A monster kills victims with his or her sharp or stinging tail or protrusion on his or her back.

l10a. Demon comes to hunterís camp-fire. A hunter spends night in a desolate place. A demon comes to his fire. When the demon falls asleep or goes away for a while, the hunter puts his clothes over a log and hides nearby. When the demon attacks the log taking it for the man, the hunter wounds or kills the demon.

l11. Turtle-bench. In a non-human world objects of everyday life have appearance of animals and monsters, mainly fish, amphibians and reptiles.

l12. Vultures and incomplete body. Vultures bring to the sky a being who has lost part of its body members or is reduced to the head or skull.

l13. Reared up monster. A small creature is found and reared up by people. When it is grown up, it becomes harmful and dangerous.

l14. Reared up serpent. A worm, reptile or a small water creature is brought home and reared up. When big, it goes out of human control or becomes something huge and/or dangerous.

l15a. Vulnerable limb. The only vulnerable spot of some being's body is his (her, its) limb (knee, toe, finger, etc.).

l15a1. Achillesí heel. When the baby boyís body was subject to special treatment (put into the fire, etc.) to make it invulnerable, a small part remained unhardened. The grown up hero dies being hit into this part.

l15b. To kill with a reed. Person can be killed only with a particular plant that normally is not used as a weapon.

l15b1. Deer horn is a weapon against the evil. During a fight between the good and the evil creators the good one chooses a deer horn for a weapon (because his adversary is afraid of it most of all) .

l15c. Hero lies and remains unharmed. Antagonist asks hero what he is afraid most of all (i.e. what object is mortally dangerous for him). The hero lies and the object used by the antagonist does him no harm at all.

l15d. The external soul. Life of a person or creature is preserved outside of his (her, its) body. Person or creature dies after the corresponding object is destroyed.

l15e. Heroís life in his sword. Hero's life is in certain object, usually in his weapon. When antagonist steals the object or throws it away, the hero dies but revives after his friends or brothers find the object and bring it back.

l15f. Heroineís life in her necklace. A young woman or (rare) a youth falls dead when her necklace (rare: an organ) is stolen from her and revives again as soon as she gets it back or when the antagonist takes it off.

l15g. A burned piece of wood (Meleagros). Life of a man depends on an object that can be burned. He dies as soon as the object is burned.

l15h. The external soul: three or more objects one inside the other. A small object that contains the life (soul) of a person is inside two or more creatures or other objects (like an egg in a duck, a duck in a hare, etc.) or the zoomorphic soul container tries to escape turning in succession to other animals Ė three or more enclosures or transformations.

l15i. Life in hairs. A man dies or loses his strength if (some) hair on his head is cut off.

l17. Face on breast. There is a headless anthropomorphic being who has eyes and/or mouth on his or her breast.

l17a. Eyes on the back of the head. Person or creature has another pair of eyes (or one eye) on the back of his head or (rare) on his back or the third eye on the forehead.

l17b. Two faces. Person or creature has another face (another mouth) on the back of his (her, its) head.

l18. Multi-headed bird. A bird with two or more heads on top of one body is described in tales or represented in art.

l19b. Multi-headed being. A being with three or more heads is described in tales or represented in art.

l20. Eater of the raw meat. Two persons hunt or fish. One of them is or becomes a cannibal. He or she reveals his or her nature eating the quarry raw.

l20a. Eater of parrots. A man climbs a tree, throws down bird nestlings to a woman. She eats them raw and then kills or tries to kill the man.

l21. Cannibalís attention diverted. A cannibal under a tree plans to eat up a man who has climbed the tree. The man throws down and afar his pray or some object and escapes while the cannibal rushes to this object or is eating the pray.

l22. The sound sleep. After breaking some taboo, coming across a strange object or person, people fall asleep. They do not feel when at night spirits come and injure or kill them.

l22a. People become blind. After breaking some taboo, coming across a strange object or person, people fall asleep and awake blind.

l23. Proteus. Person gets hold of another. Trying to free himself, the latter turns into different materials, elements, animals or orders different dangerous creature to attack his opponent.

l23a. Transformation into the fire. Being seized, person changes his or her guise in succession, one of the transformations is into the fire (and also into the water).

l23b. Transformation into spindle. Being seized, person changes his or her guise in succession, the transformations is into a small wooden object (usually into a spindle that should be broken in two).

l24. Monsters suffocated. Demons (or one of them) attack people and return to their den (usually a cave or tree hollow). People make suffocating fire around the den killing most or all of the demons.

l25. Demonic girl sucks brains. People adopt a demonic child, girl or woman but discover that this being kills people (in particular babies left in its charge) sucking out their brains or taking out their eyes.

l26. Death of initiated boys. During the first initiation supernatural beings teach boys the rituals and kill them for breaking rules related to consumption and distribution of food. In response men kill the supernaturals and reproduce their appearance and/or voices during the rituals.

l27. Girl eaten up. Two girls or young women meet a demon. One or both are not aware of danger. One is eaten up, another escapes.

l27a. One is eaten up, another escapes. Two or three children get to the house of a demon or the latter comes to their house. They do not know that the person is a cannibal or are not sure about it. The demon eats up one of the children. Another child (children) escapes, the demon pursues him or them and perishes. Usually the demon is a female, and if he is male, his victims do not arouse in him sexual interest.

l28. Snake-eater. Person who have eaten a prohibited meat or fish turns into monstrous snake or fish.

l28a. Eating of snake meat triggers flood. A river or lake appear or a flood begins because certain person ate meat of a snake or a strange fish.

l29. Fish from a forest pool. Person catches fish in a place where it ought not live, i.e. in a forest pond or in a tree hollow isolated from other water bodies. After eating he dies, is transformed and/or attacked by monsters.

l30. Eating of snake meat triggers thirst. Person who breaks some sort of taboo (usually has eaten a prohibited food) is thirsty and drinks enormous quantity of water.

l31. People stick to monster. People against their will must follow an object, a creature, or a person (usually stick to it) who/which leads or carries them far away, usually into the water or to the sky.

l31a. Children carried away to the sky. An object descends from the sky. Playing children climb on it or stick to it, it carries them away to the sky.

l31b. Reptile carries people into the water. People find a snake or a turtle on a dry ground. They touch it or sit on it, stick to it, it carries them into the water.

l32. Gluttonous stone. Stone swallows, bites or transforms people.

l33. Rolling stone. Stone chases people to crash them.

l33a. Rock pursues stealer. Trickster takes off an object (often a blanket) that lies on or near a rock or other seemingly inanimate object and that has been presented to it. The object pursues or otherwise punishes the stealer.

l33b. Trickster provokes a rock. Person suggests to another who looks like being unable to move (rock, stump, fire) a race competition. The competitor becomes to move, burns or crashes the person or runs away with his clothes.

l33c. Rock crashes trickster. Trickster and rock agree to race down slope. The rock rolls with ever greater speed and crashes the trickster.

l33d. Hero defeats monstrous rock. Rolling rock kills people, hero destroys it.

l33e. Presented blanket. Trickster takes a blanket or decorations which are a property of Rock or other seemingly inanimate object (usually the same trickster presented this blanket to Rock before).

l33f. Goatsucker breaks Rock. Rolling rock pursues person. The person cries for help, and goatsucker breaks Rock to pieces.

l33g. Rock with a beard. A rock or tree kills everyone who names it in a certain way. Person provokes others to do it and devours the killed ones. The last of the invited ones deceives the provoker.

l34. Burning hair. Hero kills or injures his enemy putting fire on his or her straw costume, mask, headgear, hair or object on his or her back.

l35. Demonís hand broken. At night, a shaman or a bush spirit comes and inserts his hand into the hut to steal food or to make this way love with a sleeping woman. A man who is in the hut cuts the hand off or breaks it.

l36. Woman attacks man who climbs a tree. When a man climbs a tree (escaping from persecutor; to get bird nestlings, honey, fruits, etc.), his wife (rare: her brother) kills, injures him or turns into demonic creature who pursues him.

l37a. To get know causes of problems. On his way to a powerful person (God), a man comes across some persons or animals who ask him to put questions to this person from their part too (usually to ask what is the reason of their troubles).

l37a1. Wolf should eat a fool. A man travels to get know why he is poor (unlucky). Other persons, animals, plants ask him to investigate the reason of their own misfortunes. God (fate) tells that the wolf (bear, lion) should eat the most stupid man. Other problems can be resolved if the queen gets a husband, a treasure is taken from under the fruit tree, etc. The man does not use opportunity to become a king, to receive gold, etc. because did not receive direct instructions to do it. The wolf decides that the man is a real fool and eats him up.

l37a2. Who will become the ferryman. Hero comes to God (Fate, Sun, etc.) and puts questions that asked him to put those whom he met on the way. The ferryman wanted to know for how long he must fulfill his duties. The God answers that the ferryman should let in his boat another person and jump to the shore himself. The hero tells this to the ferryman only after being back on the shore.

l37b. Secrets accidentally overheard. Person accidentally overhears secrets of animals or demons and thus gets to know the causes of his and other people's misfortunes.

l37b1. Toad under a stone. To cure a sick person or to save a household from misfortunes a toad or frog hidden in the house should be killed or removed.

l37c. Bad Luck imprisoned. Misfortune is a particular being who was imprisoned and sticks to a person who has released him.

l38. Demonís trap. A demon puts a trap to catch people, hero gets into it.

l38a. A sticky trap. Person sticks to an object, usually touching it one by one with his body members. The object is a trap of demonic creature or is a non human creature itself.

l39. Person hides in a tree but descends. Person hides in a tree. Dangerous being gets to see him or her, makes him or her descend and takes to his house or den.

l39a. Demon from underworld. A demon comes from the underworld and attacks a man who has climbed a tree.

l39b. The doughnut tree. A tree grows from a doughnut (scone etc.) and usually brings doughnuts instead of fruits.

l39c. Quickly grown fruit tree. A boy (rare: girl) climbs a fruit tree that is recently grown up (usually from a seed thrown by the boy) to eat fruits. An ogress tries to make him (her) descend to the ground.

l40. Reflection and shadow. Person discovers (rare: ever fails to discover) another seeing his or her shadow or reflection in water; usually the first person makes the second one to descend to the ground.

l40a. Woman takes reflection of a youth for her own. An ugly woman gets to see in water a reflection of a youth who is up in a tree. She takes it for her own reflection and thinks that she has become beautiful.

l40b. Absurd actions to lure person out. Somebody acts in absurd way to lure person out of his or her place. The person does not understand the deception and comes to explain how to act correctly .

l41. Hero escapes on the way. An ogre or ogress catches a person and carries his or her prey home but the person escapes on the way or immediately after reaching the ogre's house.

l41a. Stone in basket. Hero escapes from the demon's basket or bag letting stone instead of him.

l41b. Pitch basket. An ogress puts her victims into a basket which is filled or smeared with pitch.

l42. Hero carried to ogreís home. An ogre or ogress brings hero home where he or she plans to cook and eat him. The hero escapes.

l42a. Ogre steals corpses. An ogre steals fresh corpses from graves and devours them.

l42b. Credulous children of ogre. An ogre's child or (rare) wife believes in what hero tells him (or her) and releases him. Usually the hero kills the child and puts its meat to cook in the very pot where the ogre planned to cook the hero.

l42c. Now in, now outdoors. Person hides from the powerful one now in his house, now outdoors, the powerful cannot catch him.

l42d. Ogreís tongue frozen to ice. Person escapes from an ogre, runs over frozen water body and spills some blood on ice. The ogre rushes to lick the blood, his tongue freezes to ice. Or the ogre slips on ice, falls, is badly hurt, dies.

l42e. Caught again. An ogre catches a person and carries his or her prey home but the person escapes on the way. The ogre comes back, this time carries the person to his home. Or the ogre catches a group of children, most of them escape on the way, one is brought to the ogre's place.

l42f. Prisoner escapes, wife is killed. Person that has to be eaten up imperceptibly runs away. The master of the house thinks that his wife had eaten the food alone and cuts her belly open.

l42g. Hansel and Gretel. Step mother or more often father (persuaded by his wife) abandons children in a desolate place. Getting to the ogre or ogress, children (or at least one of them) survive and ultimately achieve success.

l42g1. Chops are heard, woodcutter is gone. Father (step mother) abandons children in the forest. He (she) hangs a plank (gourd, shoe, etc.) on a tree that is striking trunk under the wind. Children believe that he is still nearby cutting woods.

l42h. Ogres who come to a feast devour the host. An ogre brings the hero to his house to feast on him together with other ogres. When the guests get to know that the hero has escaped, they devour the host.

l42i. Sister sets out to save her little brother. A demon carries away a little boy but his sister finds him, takes and back escapes from the pursuer. Usually the boy has three sisters but only the youngest one is successful.

l42i1. The witch and the fisher-boy. A boy rides in a boat. The witch lures him to the shore and carries to her home. The boy escapes.

l42j. Tree bends down (mice in the ogreís bag). An ogre puts children (usually they are mice) into his bag, tell a tree (post, etc.) to bend down, hangs the bag on the tree and tells the tree to straighten itself back. Another animal person (usually the fox) releases the children.

l43. Ogre eats filth. Hero escapes from ogre's trap or hides in a shelter. The ogre or ogress roasts and/or eats insects, snakes, excrements, etc. being sure that he or she eats the man.

l44. Show me your head!. A man hides in a shelter. An ogre wants him to demonstrate certain parts of his body. The man demonstrates or parts of the body of an animal or some objects. The ogre believes that his adversary is a powerful creature.

l44a. Give me your liver. A man hides in a shelter. An ogre wants him to give certain parts of his body. The man gives the ogre instead parts of the body of a killed animal. The ogre does not understand the deceit, gives in response parts of his own body and dies.

l44b. The blind got his sight, the lame got his legs. A blind man and a lame man live together and help each other. When they got mortally scared or became to fight, their eyes and legs were cured.

l45. Duped watchman. An ogre or a stronger animal catches a man or a weaker animal or drives him into a small enclosure and goes away for a time leaving a watchman. The hero dupes the watchman, escapes. (Most, though hardly all American cases can have post-Columbian African origin).

l46. Head downward. Person ascends, descends, walks head downward or sees the world upside down.

l47. Enemy moves backward and dies. Hero's enemy ascends a tree or rock head downward or walks backward letting the hero better possibility to kill him or to escape.

l48. Demons devour their comrades. A man kills (usually in a tree, on a rock, at the edge of a well, of a precipice) and/or throws down one of his enemies. The other enemies do not recognize their comrade and think that their prey is falling down.

l49. Body parts falling down. Body parts of a person or pieces pf his flesh are thrown down successively. Usually, thows who are on the ground take them for game, honey, fish.

l50. Cliff ogre. A person distracts attention of those who come to him or her or pass by and kills them, usually throwing down into a precipice, lake, etc..

l51. Victims thrown to water creatures. A cannibal, a bush spirit or a dangerous animal throws his victims into the precipice where water creatures devour them.

l52. Hero escapes from top of a tree. Hero hides in a tree from an ogre. Before the ogre gets to fell the tree, the hero flies away or a bird helps him to escape.

l53. Stones into the maw. A monstrous animal is killed or neutralized by stones (or pieces of metal, heavy fruits, etc.) thrown into its maw or anus. The stones are usually burning hot.

l54. Lake coming to boil. To overcome a disaster, hot stones or ashes are thrown into the water.

l55. Monster killed with hot liquid. To kill a dangerous animal or monster, acrid or hot liquid (boiling water, resin, soup, etc.) is poured into one of his body orifices.

l56. Fire in monsterís belly. A monster or a big animal dies when fire is kindled in its belly.

l57. Person gets his body part back. Person loses his organ or body part, it is carried away. He finds its new owner, gets his property back.

l57a. Heroís companion gets his body part back. Person is deprived of his organ or body part, dies or becomes ill. Another person gets it back and the first one revives (becomes strong again).

l57b. Demon comes to get his body part back. Person cuts off and uses part of the body of demonic creature. The demon comes after it and usually kills or maims the person.

l58. Avaricious man. A man does not share food with his wife or kinsfolk. He or his food is transformed (turns into a bird, into worms, etc.) in punishment.

l59. Avaricious woman: metamorphosis. Man's wife, sister or mother eats all the nest food alone, she is transformed in punishment.

l59a. Stuck to a whale. People who treated badly the hero or his son are pulled into the sea and turn into sea animal or into parts of its body or into parasites on its hide.

l60. Picked up baby-demon. Two or more sisters pick up a baby boy. In their absence he turns into adult man but when they come back they find him again in guise of a baby lying in its cradle.

l61. Endocannibal. Person devours his or her own flesh or disembowels himself or herself.

l62. Stone man. Stone man kills people but ultimately is killed himself.

l63. Person eats with vagina or anus. Person eats food with her toothed vagina or her or his toothed anus.

l64. Removable head. Person removes part of his or her body (head, scalp, lungs) and then puts it back.

l65. Demonic baby. A baby or small child proves to be a demon, devours or injures people.

l65a. The cannibal sister. A girl born to the family or found proves to be a monster, devours people. Her brother escapes, (usually marries and returns home, finds that everybody had been eaten up), runs away, she pursues him but cannot get.

l65b. Dogs save their master. A demonic woman or (rare) her paramour or a monster is going to kill a man usually after driving him up a tree. At the last moment the man's dogs or other animals or birds who are the man's pets come and kill the demon.

l65c. Cannibal elder sister. The eldest of three or more sisters becomes a cannibal and devours her sisters and other people.

l65d. Younger sister of cannibal woman. When the elder sister becomes a cannibal, the younger one (temporarily) escapes. Cf. motifs L1B, L65C .

l66. Tunnel under the monster. A small animal digs an underground hole to the place where the monstrous stag, elk, antelope, or buffalo lies. Hero climbs along the tunnel and kills the monster.

l67. Monsterís hair gnawed off. After digging a tunnel under a lying monstrous animal, a small animal (usually a mouse) bites off the monster's hair at a certain place. Hero kills the monster thrusting his spear or arrow through the hairless place into the monster's heart.

l68. Two companions in the night. Person turns into monster at night when he remains alone with his companion in the wilderness.

l69. Puma rescues man from a monster. A man is attacked by a monster but puma or jaguar fights with the monster and rescues the man.

l70. Fruit falls and kills. Person or animal is killed or injured with a heavy object dropped from a tree (or rock, etc.). The person or the animal knows that the objects will fall but has falls ideas about its character and weight.

l71. Tip of a branch. Person has killed an animal. A trickster attempts to appropriate all the meat. The person gets to carry the meat to the top of a tree and helps the trickster (or trickster's child) to get there too to share their meal. After eating, the trickster wishes to defecate or (rare) to drink. The person points to the tip of a thin branch as a right place for doing it. The trickster climbs there, falls and dies.

l72. The obstacle flight. Running away from a dangerous being, person throws objects that turn into mighty obstacles on the way of the pursuer.

l72a. Comb becomes a thicket. Running away from a dangerous being, person throws objects that turn into mighty obstacles on the way of the pursuer. One of the thrown objects is a comb which usually turns into a thicket.

l72b. Whetstone becomes a mountain. Running away from a dangerous being, person throws objects that turn into mighty obstacles on the way of the pursuer. One of the thrown objects is a whetstone which turns into a mountain.

l72c. Obstacle flight: the thrown mirror. Running away from a dangerous being, person throws a mirror behind him or her creating an obstacle on the way of the pursuer (ice, lake, etc.).

l72d. Obstacle flight: the thrown scissors. Running away from a dangerous being, person throws a pair of scissors behind him or her creating an obstacle on the way of the pursuer.

l72e. Pursuer is delayed hiding his axe. To break obstacles created by hero the pursuer uses an axe or other tools and is further delayed hiding them or taking them back to his home because birds or animals warn him that otherwise his tools will be stolen.

l72f. Obstacle flight: the thrown entrails. Running away from a dangerous being, person throws entrails or contents of the stomach of an animal creating an obstacle on the way of the pursuer.

l72g. Obstacle flight: the thrown salt. Running away from a dangerous being, person throws salt creating an obstacle on the way of the pursuer.

l73. Ogre persuaded to drink a river dry bursts. A pursuer is advised to drink a river or sea. He or she tries to do it and bursts.

l73a. Darkness behind, light ahead. The fugitives create light in front of them and darkness behind them to trouble the pursuer.

l74. The returned hand. A bear or other dangerous being tears off and carries away a hand of a person and holds it at his sleeping place. Another person steals the hand, gives it back to the owner.

l74a. Hung over fire. An antagonist carries away the hero or rips off and carries away his limb and hangs the prisoner or the limb (usually over the fire). The hero is suffering from pain. Another personage saves the hero or brings his limb back.

l75. Flint kills his mother. One of twin brothers is evil. Being still in the womb, he does not want to be born in a normal way and bursts through his motherís side killing her.

l76. Ogress devours testicles. An ogress attacks her male victim devouring or pulling off his testicles.

l77. Girl seen as a fruit eaten up. Person sees or smells people as delicious objects and devours them.

l78. Toad-jaguar. Mixed traits of toad and jaguar in iconography; a toad or frog transforms into a jaguar; a toad or frog is a jaguar's mother or wife.

l79. Two co-wives, human and monstrous. A girl marries a powerful benevolent man. His first wife is a monster. The man kills her or is glad that she is killed by his human wife.

l80. A drop of blood. A demonic person or animal is killed but revives or can revive if a small piece of its flesh or blood goes out of control.

l81. Demonís fire. Person sets off in search of fire and finds it in the house of a demon. The demon makes harm to the person.

l81a. Cat brings a misfortune. Because a girl or young woman offends a cat (rare: a dog), it plays a trick that brings the girl a misfortune (usually extinguishes the fire and in search of it the girl gets to a demon).

l81a1. Red bead in the hearth. Person takes for alive coal a red bead (stone) that fell into the hearth and does not understand that the fire is extinguished.

l81a2. Demon comes to drink blood of a girl. While the men of the household are not at home, a demonic person comes to drink blood of a girl or young woman. Initially the men do not understand why the girl becomes thin.

l81a3. Demon with a golden spoon. A girl meets a demon who is disgusting and terrible. When the demon gets to see her again, he (or she) asks her what had she told about him (what had she seen). The girl answers that the demon was beautiful (clad in gold, etc.). Usually at the last meetings the girl tells the demon truth. He is enraged and the men who hide nearby kill him.

l81b. Heroís cut off legs. Heroís companions put a sword (sabre etc.) in front of his tent or room. When the hero runs out in a hurry, he is wounded by the blade (usually his legs are cut off)..

l82. The burned off foot. Intentionally or not, a man burns his foot or his whole body in a fire, then turns into demon.

l83. Incomplete body turns into thunder. A rolling head or a man who has burned off his foot turns into or produces thunder or lightning.

l84. Unfit axes. Bush spirits and the like try to cut down a tree. The attempt fails because their axes are good for nothing being made of turtle shells, clay, etc..

l85. One-sided people. One-sided people have one leg, one half of a head, etc. The second leg is not cut or burned off, preserved as a stump but is absent completely.

l85a. One-sided child. Person is born as half of a child or loses his or her half in an accident. The person does not belong to any category of supernatural beings and usually turns into normal girl or young man.

l85b. Woman gives birth to disfigured child. A woman gives birth to disfigured child because she offended a powerful supernatural being (Rain, Sun, etc.). Her child is provided with magic power and eventually obtains normal body.

l85b1. After coming to the sky, gets normal body. A lad with incomplete or grotesque body becomes normal after coming to the sky (coming to God, getting back to the earth).

l85c. Half-chicken. Person with half of a body is a chicken (sometimes only by name).

l85d. One leg and one arm: the injured ploughman. Hero comes across a giant (usually a ploughman) with one leg, one arm, one eye. The latter was injured when he met another giant who was much bigger and stronger than he.

l85e. One-leg people. Person has only one leg (and one arm) but has no problems with moving. Unlike motif L85 (one-sided people), the personís body is complete.

l86. Woman pursues her children. A woman turns into demon and pursues her children.

l87. Taste of blood. Unintentionally, person gets to taste his or her own blood or flesh, likes the taste, turns into a cannibal.

l88. Ogre returns to life. A man kills an ogre. When he later comes and touches the ogre's remains, the latter revives.

l89. One secretly feeds another. Person transforms humans into monsters or animals secretly putting prohibited meat, grease or eggs into their food or provoking them to use a particular object.

l90. Mouth from the earth to the sky. Monster's upper lip (fang, horn, etc.) touches the sky, lower touches the ground.

l90A. House on the birdís legs. A house stands on one or several birdís legs and/or is turning (capable to turn).

l91. Long serpent. Two or four boys go to war or are on their way home. A long serpent-like creature blocks the passage, they cannot find a path around it and burn it through. One eats its roasted meat and turns into serpent himself or dies.

l92. Animal shams being helpful. Person escapes to a tree or high rock. An ogre tries to cut it down. An animal suggests the ogre to have a rest, promises to work instead of him but spoils his work.

l93. Axe thrown into the water. Person escapes to a tree or a high rock. An ogre tries to cut it down. While the ogre has a rest, an animal throws his axe into the water or carries it away.

l93a. Helpful fox. Cunning fox, jackal or coyote saves particular person or many people, helps them.

l93b. Helpful rabbit. Cunning rabbit or hare saves person, helps him or her.

l94. Child promised to demon. A demon helps a man or a woman or lets him or her free. As a reward, the person is forced to promise to give the demon his child.

l94a. Caught by a beard. A man, stooping down to water, is caught and held by his beard, and has to give the promise in order to be relieved.

l95. Coming back to pick up toys. Person (usually a kid or lad) returns to the former place to pick up the forgotten object (often a toy) and is caught there by a demonic being.

l95a. Floating lungs. A lung or a liver lies on a road or floats in a pond etc. As soon as person touches them, a dangerous demon appears in front of him.

l96. Sold in animalís guise and comes back. Person can transform himself or herself into an animal or an object. Being sold in this guise, he or she achieves his or her aims and becomes a human again.

l96a. Oh, dear!. When person sighs or utters an interjection, another one (usually a demon) emerges because his name is spelled like Ahh, Ohhoi, etc..

l96b. The yogi boiled in his own pot of oil. A man comes into the power of a yogi or demon. He asks the man to walk round the boiling pot of oil or to prostrate himself before the image of a deity. The man asks him to show how to do it and pushes him in or the pot or beheads him.

l97. Rooted to ground. A human being cannot move because the lower part of his body is rooted into the ground, stuck to it, or is absent at all.

l98. Cannibal owl. Dangerous cannibal or bush spirit who abducts children, attacks people, etc. is associated with an owl.

l99. Bring me a spit to roast you!. An ogre sends a man to bring a spit and/or firewood to cook him. The man intentionally does it slowly, brings unfit objects or a an animal helps him to escape.

l100. Transformation flight. A youth and a girl who run away from pursuer transform themselves into a pair of persons, creatures or objects (pond and duck, church and priest, etc.) in order to escape detection by the pursuer.

l100a. A pursuer throws ahead the transformed fugitive. A fugitive turns into small object (stick, stone) or hides himself inside it. A pursuer picks it up and throws ahead in anger, thus unwillingly helping the fugitive to escape.

l100b. Forgotten fiancee. A youth and his bride get to escape from the pursuer. The youth goes to visit his home, leaves his bride behind for a time but forgets her (usually after breaking taboo to kiss or embrace his relations). When the youth is about to marry another woman, the forgotten fiancee reawakens his memory by performing magic actions; or a young woman whom her magic husband let to visit her parents, forgets him after being kissed or embraced in her parentsí house .

l100c. Duped visitors of a chaste woman. When a man comes to a beautiful woman she tricks him by asking to finish some trivial task, keeping him by her magic in an awkward or ridiculous position until daylight. Episode is repeated next nights with other or (rare) the same suitor. Usually the first suitor being ashamed tells the other that everything was nice, so all of them are humiliated the same way.

l100d. The entrapped suitors. A pretty, faithful wife is courted by one or several men, one of them usually a clergyman. With her husbandís consent, she invites the suitor(s) to a private rendezvous. Before the first manís wishes are gratified, the next one arrives and then the husband himself. The suitor or suitors are caught in an uncomfortable position and then killed, punished in some other manner, ridiculed, made to pay ransom, to work, etc..

l100e. The lover, the husband and the guest. Before coming in, a guest gets to notice that the housewife is with her lover. When the husband comes home, the guest pretends to possess magic object or the like that helps him to reveal where the good food and the lover are hidden.

l100e1. Mollah in the baby cradle. A cleric or administrator visits a woman after the dark. When her husband knocks at the door, the woman, according to the scenario elaborated by her and her husband, tells the guest to lie in the cradle. She answers the husband that it is their baby son. The husband becomes or shams to become transform the adult into the baby (shaves his beard off, knocks out his teeth, grasps an axe to cut his feet off). The disgraced guest runs away.

l100f. Guest runs away from the host. In the absence of the host, the guest is told that the host is going to kill or to maim him. The guest runs away, the host runs after him with good intentions but the guest believes that the received warning had a reason.

l100f1. Lover runs away from the husband. A farmhand (a young son of the peasant) arranges a situation a series of tricks to the love affair between the wife of his master and another man. The wife is going to bring food outdoor to her lover but gets to her husband. Seeing the master coming with an axe (stones, etc.), the lover believes, that he is going to attack him and runs away.

l100g. The goose with one leg. The servant is asked to prepare a goose (chicken, etc.), eats one leg and maintains that the goose had only one leg enforcing his point by showing geese who stand on one leg. The master shoots away the geese so that they use both legs. Usually the servant replies that if he had frightened the roasted goose, it would have showed its second leg as well.

l101. Pieces of clothes thrown to pursuer. Pursued by demonic creature (usually a whale or walrus), people throw behind piece by piece childrenís or womanís clothes. These attract the pursuerís attention, he loses time, the runaways escape.

l102. Escape from animal husband. Seriously of for fun, a girl or a woman names an animal or remains of an animal as her husband or steps on the animalís bones. The animal (revives and) carries her away. Her human husband or brother comes after her and they run away. Usually the animal husband pursues them but abandons the chase or dies.

l103. Obstacle flight (Atalanta type). Treasure, or the like, is thrown back to tempt pursuer to delay.

l103a. Relatives do not open the door for the girl. A girl or young woman runs away from the demonic person, knocks at the door of her house but her relatives do not open the door and she is devoured by the demon. (Musical instrument is made from her hair or bowels).

l103b. Animals carry hero away from a demon. A girl or a boy gets to demonic person. Sitting on the back of domestic animal (usually a calf, a bull) the girl (boy) escapes from the demon who pursues her (him). Usually several different animals in succession try to carry the girl away but the demon overtakes them and only the last animal brings her home.

l104. Fugitive and pursuer change guises. A fugitive turns in succession into different animals or objects. A pursuer does the same, every time becoming an animal or a person who is dangerous for the fugitive in his given guise.

l105. Invisible missile. Animal, fish or person wounded by hero runs or swims away, usually with the man's projectile in his or her body. Local doctors are not able to cure the wound (usually because they do not see the projectile). The hero or his companion comes to the place where the wounded one lives and cures him or her (usually extracting his projectile from the wound).

l106. Lost object claimed back. An antagonist makes a demand to the hero which is correct in form but really is unjustified. The hero fulfills the claims or is punished. Now antagonist takes an object or animal possessed by the hero, is unable to give it back and is punished.

l106a. Stomach cut open. An antagonist makes a demand to the hero which is correct in form but really is unjustified. The hero fulfills the claims or is punished. Now antagonist takes an object or animal possessed by the hero, is unable to give it back and is punished.

l106b. In search of lost object to the other world. In search of a lost object, usually carried away by water or wind, a girl or (rare) a boy comes to a powerful person, gets the object back and/or is rewarded. The object is related to the everyday life, it has no ritual significance and is not a weapon.

l107. The ear-sleepers. Anthropomorphic beings have huge ears (use them for blankets, umbrellas, etc.).

l108. The wolf and the kids. An (animal) person gives a signal (special song, etc.) to his relative or friend who lets him or her in. Antagonist imitates the person's voice or guise and the relative lets him in.

l108a. Goat kills the antagonist. A predator or ogre swallows people or animals. Goat opens the ogreís belly open, usually the swallowed ones come out alive.

l108b. The thin voice. To make himself unrecognizable by the victim, a predator or ogre modifies his throat or tongue mechanically (oils or burns it, asks blacksmith to remake it, etc.).

l108c. The white hand. To make himself unrecognizable by the victim, a predator or ogre demonstrates clothes, limb, etc. that look like clothes or limb of his victim's mother, etc..

l108e. Children of fox. Fox has a child or children (usually adopts a lamb, foal, etc.), cares for it. Wolf finds and eats it, the fox revenges on him.

l108f. Lured from river-bottom. A person (a girl, a small boy) gets into the water and remains there. Antagonist lures him out imitating his father's or sibling's voice.

l108. To wash a black one. Person is or becomes black and has to sit in the water till becomes white. An antagonist carries him or her away.

l109. The cannibal gourd. A gourd proves to be a cannibal or grows from remains of a monster.

l110. The devourer. A demonic being swallows a multitude of people and animals. When it is killed and cut open, the swallowed ones come out alive or are revived.

l110a. The injured ear. A demonic being swallows a person or (in African versions) a multitude of people and animals. Hero kills the monster but cutting open its body, injures a person who was inside. Usually this person is offended and finds opportunity to kill the hero.

l110b. Stomach devours an oak tree . A stomach (spleen) cut out of the body of a domestic animal or fowl becomes a voracious monster.

l110c. Artificial child. Old man and woman make a child of clay (wood, straw). The doll becomes alive, devours everybody who comes across. Usually a goat (sheep) breaks it, swallowed people come our alive.

l111. Hook from the sky. The sky dwellers fish human beings who live on earth with a line and a hook.

l112. Complete body obtained. A boy with defective body (too small, only half of a body, only a head) ultimately obtains normal body.

l113. The ogre bridegroom. A girl refuses all suitors, at last marries a handsome man and walks with him to his place. Her husband proves to be a cannibal demon.

l114. The youngest one saves siblings from demon. A group of young people comes to a demon. The youngest brother of sister or a sick and invalid person who often accompanies the others against their wish saves them all.

l114a. A child who stays awake. A member (usually the youngest) of a group of boys or girls gets with them to a cannibal. The cannibal plans to kill people when they fall asleep. The youngest boy or girl every time answers the cannibal why he or she is still awake and forces him or her to be engaged into different activities instead of killing the sleeping people. Brothers (sisters) run away and return home.

l114b. To bring ogreís property. Getting a task or by his own initiative, a trickster several times comes to a person (usually an ogre) and steals in succession objects in his possession or members of his family.

l114b1. A task: to bring the ogre. Person bring objects from ogreís house and after this catches or kill the ogre himself.

l114c. To exchange clothes with ogreís daughters. Children or youths (usually a group of brothers) exchange clothes (headgears, ornaments, etc.) with their enemyís children who kills his or her own children by mistake. Usually brothers get to the ogre or ogress. The youngest advices to exchange places (clothes, headgears, cloaks) with ogreís sleeping children (usually daughters). The ogre kills his children. Outside of Europe the protagonists can be animals..

l115. Perfect gentleman. A girl who rejected suitors finds at last a really handsome man. He escorts her to his place and distributes on the way all his clothes and body parts that he loaned before. Only his skull (head) remains.

l116. Singing girl in a bag. A cannibal (old man, Gipsy, etc.) carries away a girl. He walks from village to village forcing her sing or dance. People recognize her (or her voice) and release her.

l116a. Doe with golden horns. Hunting a doe (a deer), hero gets to the place of a magician or demon; the doe is a bewitched person or demon.

l117. Unwanted companion. When a man goes to marry, an evil spirit joins him, helps him in the village of his bride, etc. but then claims at least half of the bride for himself. (In Gola story a man gets a wife for a spirit and claims a half of her).

l118. Caught in a split log. (Animal) person provokes another to put his hand or paw into a split log, between two planks, etc. When a wedge is removed, two pieces of wood spring back together and the person or animal gets caught.

l119. Battle in the air. Hero and antagonist fight in the air tearing off each other limbs. Usually their allies on earth preserve limbs of their leader and destroy limbs of the adversary.

l120. Snake-women turn into apple-trees. Hero listens in conversation of demonic beings who plan to turn into something edible, attractive, etc. and to destroy those who touch them. The hero neutralize the demons beforehand.

l120a. Tongue of dragoness and the smithís pincers. Hero hides in a smithy from a dragoness who pursues him. She destroys the door with her tongue but the hero (smith) grips tight her tongue with his hot pincers or throws hot iron club in her mouth.

l121. A hunterís secret. An animal or ogress turns into woman and marries a hunter to destroy him. Accompanying him to the wilderness, she acquires her real guise, the hunter has narrow escape. Usually the wife asks him what are his usual transformations in case of ŗ danger. The hunter's father or mother stops him before he tells his wife about his last transformation.

l122. Riding a cock. A (demonic) person is riding a cock.

l122a. Stitching up cracks in the earth. A (demonic) person is stitching up cracks in the earth with a giant needle and thread.

l123. Running in many directions. To confuse pursuer, person many times runs away in different directions and comes back.

l124. Sinew of a killed enemy cuts a tree. After killing his adversary, person pulls out his sinew (spinal cord, intestine, ribbon of skin) and puts it around a tree trunk. The trunk is cut through. Fortunately for him, the person has not put it around his own waist.

l125. Demonic wife recognized. A man marries a beauty but catches her in a situation when her not human nature is revealed. After this their marriage breaks down.

l126. The bird indifferent to pain. A small bird makes a powerful anthropomorphic person lose his temper. The bird cannot be annihilated, cries from inside person's stomach, the person suffers or dies.

l127. Dancing ears. In the other world person sees separate body parts or other strange creatures that dance, etc. He or she should neither express his or her surprise, laugh, nor name the God.

l128. You are Deo but I am Mahadeo. When a demonic person gives his name, the hero invents such a name for himself that suggests his superiority over his opponent.

l130. One eye for three persons. Two or more persons have only one eye for all.

m1a. Caiman ferries the Pleiades-brothers. Caiman ferries a person or a group of brothers who later turn the Pleiades.

m1b. Caiman ferries a monkey. Caiman ferries a monkey across a river. Reaching the opposite bank, the monkey escapes before the caiman gets to catch it.

m2. Riding down a tree. A man descends from top of a tree or rock down a chain of animals or on the back of an animal who climbs or runs down the trunk.

m3. Chain of animals. Person crosses a water or air space along the chain of many animals, birds or fish.

m3a. Counting water animals. Animal who does not swim well suggests animals who live in water to count their number. For this, they should make a chain and he would run along it. It is but a trick to cross a body of water.

m4. A wrong step. Crossing a body of water or descending a tree, person steps on an certain part of a body of an animal or on a certain animal that have made a chain (usually despite warning that he should not do it) and falls down or drowns as a result.

m5. Provoked insult. Being in a situation when his life depends on a good will of a demon or animal, person either resists or does not resist the temptation to insult or to beat, bite, etc. the latter.

m5a. Rat in the water. A rat or other animal which cannot swim well rides a canoe with other creatures who can swim or fly and unlike them gets into trouble when the canoe sinks. Usually a water creature carries the rat to the shore but the latter defecates on its savior or kills it.

m6. Night with a partridge. A young man or girl spends night in the forest. The forest partridge (Tinamus sp.) provides him or her a fire, a shelter and/or a hammock but takes them away and flies away itself when the person does something wrong.

m7. Waiting to be picked up. Getting into the lower or upper world, to an island, a country at the horizon, etc. a man is unable to move further and waits for somebody who could bring him to his destination. Some animals, birds or celestial bodies pass by, the last one (often the Sun or the Moon) picks him up and brings to the place he is eager to go.

m7a. Left in the water. Birds or an animals takes (animal) person into their boat but acquire their animal guise and leave him in water (when he breaks a taboo).

m7b. Fox asks passers-by to help him. Animal person (usually the fox) gets to a place from which he cannot come out. He asks to help him different animals (fish) who pass by and the last one helps.

m8. Breaking the obstacle. Non-human persons work hard to destroy a strong and durable obstacle that blocks access to some place or object.

m8a. Birds peck a rock to release prisoners. Birds and sometimes also animals work hard to break from the outside or from the inside a rock, a tree truck, bonds, etc. to release some beings or themselves from confinement in a small enclosure or trap.

m8b. Birds break an obstacle to get water. Birds or (rare) animals work hard to break a rock or a cane and get water or honey concealed inside.

m8c. The stuck up eyes. Birds peck through a layer of clay, wax, pitch etc. with which personís eyes or anus are stuck up .

m8d. Birds break body covering. Birds work hard to peck through the substance that covers some beings' body or to reach its entrails.

m9. Stuck in a tree hollow. Person who puts her or his head or hand into a tree hollow or (rare) other hole is stuck fast or falls into the hollow and dies or undergoes a metamorphosis.

m9a. Transformed into tree-frog. Person who sucks honey greedily from a tree hollow and/or is stuck in it turns into tree-frog.

m10. A girl and a honey. A girl or a woman who was stuck in a tree-hollow when she tried to extract honey or who was greedily sucking honey otherwise, dies or turns into the honey or into the bee.

m11a. Fish extracted from body. Person serves people fish extracted from her or his own body.

m11b. Meat extracted from body. A woman serves a man a good meat cut from her own body and does not do it anymore when the man got to know about the source of the meat.

m11c. Gets lard from his body. A male person cuts or roasts his own body to extract meat, lard or blood, cooks it and serves to his guest without injuring himself. Such a food is not considered to be unclean.

m12. The unlucky hunter. Not to return home empty-handed, a hunter or (rare) a fisherman cuts off a piece of flesh from his body (usually from his calf) or (more rare) extracts his blood or entrails. Usually he brings his flesh or blood to other people pretending that is a good game or fish; or a woman cuts off a piece of flesh from her calf to feed her husband.

m13. God grants requests to his visitors. Some persons ask the supreme deity (usually coming to him) to fulfill their demands. The deity does it according to the letter and not to the spirit of the demand.

m13a. Transformed into stone. God agrees or suggests to fulfill a demand of a man. As a result the latter is transformed into a stone.

m14a. Roasted alive. To revenge on his wife and her kinsfolk, a man roasts her alive.

m15. Tied to a tree. A girl or young woman is tied to the top of a tree or impaled on the sharpened top of a tree and abandoned by a man. Somebody (usually her brothers) attempt to save her.

m16. Ugly or sick becomes healthy and handsome. A kinfolk (often his mother) or wife (bride) of a sick (ugly, old) man or boy do not care for him. He becomes healthy (and handsome), punishes and/or abandons those who were evil with him.

m16a. Diving birdís medicine. A supernatural helper (usually a loon) makes a blind man to regain his eyesight diving with him into water.

m17. Woman lies that man missed. A blind man or lad kills an animal. His wife or (grand)mother lies that he has missed, cooks and eats all the meat alone.

m18. Stolen arrows and hooks. Person transforms himself into an object of hunting or fishing and provokes hunters of fishermen to catch or shoot him. Arrows, darts, a harpoon stick in his body, he carries them away or he bites off and carries away a fishing hook. Or he fishes by way of turning himself into a hook. Another or (rare) the same person tries to repeat the trick but suffers a reverse (usually is fished out).

m18a. Getting arrows. Person turns into a fish or game and exposes himself as a target. A lot of arrows, darts or harpoons stick in his body making him no harm, he carries them away.

m18b. Getting fishing hook or harpoon. Person turns into a fish to steal fishing hook or harpoon or he turns into fishing hook to catch a fish.

m19. The bait-person. Person ties another one (usually a child) to a fishing line to use him as a bait or orders the tied one to catch fish with his hands.

m20. Tricksterís jaw injured. Person steals bait or fish from fishhooks. His bill or jaw is ripped off or otherwise injured. Usually the trickster gets the ripped off jaw back.

m21. A protector hides fugitives. Person is pursued by an enemy. A man or an animal hides him.

m21a. Under pretext of a toothache. Person is pursued by an enemy. A bird or animal hides him or her in its mouth (under a wing) and pretends not to be able to open the mouth (to raise a wing) because of a tooth ache, some injury and the like.

m22. Helpful stock. A long-necked bird living near water (stork, heron, bittern, swan) saves person from dangerous pursuer.

m22a. Stock guardian. A long-necked bird living near water (stork, heron, swan) is a guard in a strange house or land where hero comes.

m23. Mock plea. –erson or creature pretends to be afraid of a particular sort of treatment that really cannot do him any harm.

m23A. ďSoak me before eatingĒ. A turtle explains that before to be eaten he has to be soaked in water in order to soften his shell. When he gets into water, he swims away.

m24. Turtleís war party. Turtle goes to war and/or is captured by enemies.

m24a. Turtle kills a woman. Turtle goes to war, kills people (usually a woman), is caught and killed but continues to live in its animal guise.

m25. Banquet in the sky. To take part in a feast or to visit God or celestial object, person ascends to the sky. To return, he either uses a rope but falls before reaching ground or jumps (falls) down from the sky and is badly hurt, dead, and/or transformed.

m26. Ducks rise hunter into the air (he caught them by legs). Person hunts ducks or geese catching them by the legs. They rise him into the air, he falls down.

m26a. Ducks rise hunter into the air (threaded to a string)). Person catches birds by tying a bait to a string which they swallow and become tied one after another to the same string; or he immobilizes many birds with one bullet; or gives them liquor and ties to a string. Usually the birds all fly up at once and lift the man up in the air.

m27. Coming back from the sky. A tree or a chain of reeds by which people have ascended to the sky is destroyed. On their way back they fall to the ground. Some of them remain in the sky for ever or longer than others.

m28. Icarus (failed attempt to fly on artificial wings). Person flies on artificial wings or partly turning himself into a bird but falls to the ground or remains in a far away place being unable to fly any more.

m29a. Trickster-raven. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is raven.

m29b. Trickster-fox, jackal or coyote. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is fox, jackal or coyote.

m29b1. The wolf is a failure. Because of its stupidity and unsocial behavior, the wolf suffers a reverse, is injured or dies .

m29b2. The bear is a failure. Because of its stupidity and unsocial behavior, the bear suffers a reverse, is injured or dies.

m29c. Trickster-skunk. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is skunk.

m29d. Trickster-mink. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is mink.

m29f. Wolverine is a failure . Because of its stupidity and unsocial behavior, the wolverine suffers a reverse, is injured or dies .

m29g. Trickster-hare or rabbit. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is hare or rabbit.

m29g1. Hare or rabbit as the main trickster. In most of the episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is hare or rabbit. Not considered are traditions in which 1) trickster hare/rabbit is rare while other trickster (usually fox/jackal/coyote) typical; 2) Mesoamerican traditions in which episodes with trickster rabbit are not many and could be borrowed in post-Columbian time being of African origin.

m29gg. The hedgehog wins thanks to his smartness. Being smart and witty, the hedgehog overcomes the strong ones.

m29h. Trickster-owl. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is owl.

m29i. Trickster-hawk. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is hawk.

m29j. Trickster is a water bird. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is a water bird.

m29k. Trickster is a turtle, a toad or a frog. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is a turtle (or tortoise), a toad or a frog.

m29l. Trickster is an opossum. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is an opossum.

m29m. Trickster is a rat. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is a rat.

m29n. Trickster is a mouse. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is a mouse.

m29nn. Trickster is a ground squirrel . In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is a ground squirrel (Xerux sp.).

m29o. Trickster is a monkey. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is a monkey.

m29p. Trickster is a spider. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is a spider.

m29q. Trickster is a racoon. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is a racoon.

m29qq. Trickster is an anteater. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is an anteater.

m29r. Trickster is a porcupine. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is a porcupine.

m29u. Trickster is the Moon. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is the Moon.

m29v. Trickster is a small ungulate. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is a small ungulate (deer, gazelle, antelope).

m29w1. The leopard is a failure . Because of its stupidity and unsocial behavior, the leopard (panther) suffers a reverse, is injured or dies .

m29w2. The tiger is a failure . Because of its stupidity and unsocial behavior, the tiger suffers a reverse, is injured or dies .

m29w3. The lion is a failure . Because of its stupidity and unsocial behavior, the lion suffers a reverse, is injured or dies .

m29w. Trickster is a feline. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is a feline (jaguar, ocelote, puma).

m29x. The hyena is a failure . Because of its stupidity and unsocial behavior, the hyena suffers a reverse, is injured or dies.

m29x1. Trickster is a badger. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is a badger.

m29y. Trickster is a wren. In episodes related to deception, absurd, obscene or anti-social behavior the protagonist is a wren.

m30. Trickster falls down. Person or creature who has no wings or is unable to fly on a long distance attempts to ascend to the sky or to fly far away but falls down or, deprived of his wings, remains in a place from which he is unable to return.

m30a. Person defecates on a trickster. Trickster who flies over a village falls to the ground. They bind him and defecate on him.

m30b. Birds give and take back their feathers . Birds give their feathers to a certain person to make him be able to fly. When they take their feathers back, the person falls or cannot return back..

m30c. Flying person falls down after breaking taboo. Person flies across the air but falls down when, despite warning, looks down to earth, flies above villages, becomes to talk, etc. .

m30d. The tortoise lets itself be carried by birds. An animal (usually a tortoise) is carried up into the air by two birds who hold onto a stick which the tortoise holds in its mouth.

m31. Trickster thrown into the water. Animal person who cannot swim asks a good swimmer to carry him. The latter agrees only to throw his rider into the water.

m32. Anus opened. Food or liquid that person swallows are immediately pouring out from his bottom part.

m32a. Eating pieces of flesh that fall out. Person's intestines or pieces of flesh from his bottom part fall out. He eats them up taking for a good meat or fat.

m33. Anus closed. Person himself or somebody else stitches up or firmly stops his anus (with wax, clay, grass, etc.).

m34. Thrown object turns into tail. An object thrown into person becomes his tail and the person himself an animal.

m35. Cold enduring competition. Two animal persons compete to see who could withstand cold all the night. At dawn one is dead.

m36. Dismantles himself to crawl through an opening. Person is imprisoned inside a tree, stone, a ball of ice, etc. He or somebody else makes the opening but it is too narrow. The person puts himself to pieces (or turns into fog), inserts them into the opening, outside puts the pieces together again.

m37. Blow of axe. Person or person's head is split with the blow of an axe. Person remains (or must remain if the procedure is realized in correct way) uninjured.

m38. Stupid imitation (all versions). Person sees how others act using magic or according to their animal nature. Back at home, he imitates their actions and is in trouble. Actions are not heroic deeds, competitions or tests and refer to everyday activity, mostly to providing and cooking food.

m38a. The bungling host. Being on a visit to other people or (more often) animals, an (animal)-person sees them act using magic or according to their animal nature. Back at home, he imitates their actions and gets in trouble. Actions are not heroic deeds, competitions or tests and mostly refer to providing and cooking food.

m38a1. Imitating wifeís kinfolk. Person imitates actions of his son- or brothers-in-law or (among Comox and Halcomelem) of his wives.

m38b. Stupid wives imitate magic one. The first and rejected or taken later wife acts using magic. Other wives try to imitate her but perish are maimed or disgraced.

m38b1. Young wife is mute until her husband pronounces particular words. After the wedding a wife does not speak with her husband until he says particular words related to her origin (the name of her adoptive father, her own name that reveals her superhuman nature, and the like).

m38b2. Three daughters-in-law at the kingís banquet. Three brothers have to come to their father with their wives or brides. The youngest brother or his bride are considered worthless but the girl proves to possess magic power and surpasses her rivals in everything.

m38c. Old people forged into young ones. In forgery person forges old people into the young ones. A smith who has no supernatural power unsuccessfully tries to imitate him.

m38d. Animated objects perish one after another. Two or several animated objects or small animals and live or travel together and perish one after another when they make the most simple acts.

m38d1. Neck like a hair. Three persons live together. One has a head like a bladder, anotherís neck is like a hair and the third has the leg like a straw. They attempt to behave like normal people and perish one after the other..

m38d2. The bean, the straw and the coal crossing a river. Several (usually three) small animated objects travel but fail to cross a river (usually perish attempting to cross it).

m38d3. Clod of earth melts away. An animated object who is a clod of earth (flour, salt) melts away when he gets wet under the rain or going to fetch water.

M38d4. Needle, the hunter. Several persons who are the embodiments if small artifacts (and a squirrel with them) are travelling. A needle penetrates into the body of a big animal and kills it. (In the beginning of the Baltic Finnish versions the needle finds objects which its companions consider worthless but after the killing of the animal they prove to be useful for cooking the meat).

m38d5. The grains talk with one another. Two or three different grains talk with one another, act together, etc..

m39a. Fool takes off boots from animalsí legs. Two brothers live with their mother. One of them makes stupid actions like (all or some of them): lets free animals that got into a snare but kills his mother; thinks that an animals (reindeer, cow, horse, etc.) does not want to step into the water because they are afraid to make their shoes or clothes wet, cuts their hooves off or flays them; thinks that a certain place on a head of a baby is a tumor, sucks baby's brains out; cuts a cloth into pieces and ties them to reeds of to branches of a tree; hearing a murmur of water throws food into the water; tries to build a hut not on a river bank but in the river.

m39a1. Misunderstood instructions: a step behind. Fool follows instructions that were reasonable in every previous episode but become absurd in every next one.

m39a2. Misunderstood instructions: a sharp object. Fool is acting in an absurd way taking instructions literally or being one step behind. One of the episodes is related to treatment of a needle or other sharp objects.

m39a3. Had your daughter horns?. Fool kills a person, throws the body into a pond or a well. His relation throws there a dead goat. Searching for the corpse in the pond, the fool asks if the killed person had horns, etc. People see that he is really crazy and do not suspect him of a crime.

m39a4. Fool and his shadow. Fool takes his own shadow for a person who pursues him and gives it his possessions.

m39a4a. Selling a cow to a lizard (Money inside the statue). Fool sells (gives) goods to an animal (plant, statue) and believes that the buyer will pay or he makes a work which nobody asked him to do mistaking an animal for a master. When he comes for the money, he beats the animal (plant, statue, follows the animal) and finds treasure.

m39a4b. Frogs the spinners. Stupid woman beliefs that frogs will spin or weave for her and throws her yarn (ball of threads) into the water.

m39a5. Fool kills goats for eating pears. Fool brings his goats to a fruit tree and kills them when they become to eat fruits that he has thrown down from the tree.

m39a5a. The sausage rain. Because telling the truth a stupid son (wife, husband)) can bring misfortune upon the family, his mother (wife; her husband) mystifies him (her) making him or her describe events that are definitely impossible. People take him (her) for a fool and let alone. .

m39a5a1. The chicken army. Husband (mother) understands that his stupid wife (her son) can report about certain deeds of the family members and inflict a severe punishment. The fool is put into a hole (barrel, etc.), covered with a skin and the domestic fowl is let to pick up the grain above it. The fool takes the knocking for the attack of the birds, the rain of stones, etc. See motif m39a5a.

m39a5b. Husband discredited by absurd truth. A woman plants fish in the field where her husband is sure to plow them up. He finds them and believes that the fish got there by itself. People take him for mad..

m39a6. Misunderstood instructions: to cut a road. A wayfarer asks his companion in an allegorical form to tell a story. The companion takes his words in the direct sense and acts stupidly or thinks that his companion is a fool.

m39a6a. The captive khan and his clever daughter-in-law. After an extensive search powerful man finds a smart wife for his son. Being caught by his enemies he sends some a message to his daughter-in-law, the messengers being chosen among the enemies. The young woman understands the real meaning of the received text, destroys the enemies and releases her father-in-law.

m39a6b. A leaned tower and the builderís daughter-in-law. A master builder gets to know that the king is going to kill or maim him. He asks the king to send a messenger to his home to bring an ostensibly forgotten tool or something else. His daughter-in-law understands the real meaning of the message, takes the messenger as a hostage and saves her father-in-law.

m39a6Ů. King the craftsman. A poor girl agrees to marry a prince only if he learns some craft. He does it, marries the girl and then gets into hands of the robbers. He promises them to produce valuable object that they can sell for good money. His wife or (rare) his father recognizes his work or read secret signs of the object. The king is released, the criminals killed.

m39a6d. A coded message. A person sends to his or her kinsmen or spouse through other persons a text or an object. Only the receiver understands the real meaning of words or of the object, saves the sender and/or destroys his enemies.

m39a6e. The basket maker. A man learns a trade (basket-making, painting) in order to support a wife. She is abducted (if they are both abducted, husband and wife are separated). She recognizes her husband when she sees his baskets or other works displayed.

m39a6f. To sell a sheep and to bring the sheep and the money. Father tells his son to sell a sheep (goat) and to bring back both the sheep and the money. Usually a girl teaches the boy to sell the wool.

m39a6g. Four coins (The sharing of bread or money). Man explains that one part of his incomes he puts out at interest while another part is used to pay debts, i.e. he cares for his children and keeps up his parents.

m39a6h. To pluck a goose. King asks a commoner to pluck (skin, milk, cut) a goose (geese, other birds, animals) that he sends him. The commoner understands correctly that he is allowed to fleece a courtier.

m39a6i. Answer betraying a theft. Person asks a servant to bring another some food or object and to pass certain words which for the servant have no meaning. Hearing these words, the recipient understands that the servant had appropriated part of what he had to bring.

m39b. Fool attacks his own dwelling. Person does not put attention to which direction his canoe goes. As a result he returns to his own dwelling, attack its inhabitants killing his own kin.

m39b1. Paddling in both directions. Persons sitting in a canoe paddle in opposite directions and the canoe does not move.

m39c. Pumpkin sold as a donkeyís egg. A numskull finds or buys an unknown fruit (pumpkin, melon, etc.). He mistakes it for an egg of a donkey (mare. camel, etc.). When he drops it or throws it off he scares a hidden hare (rabbit, fox, mouse, etc.). The fool thinks the fugitive is a young animal hatched from the egg.

m39d. Series of clever unjust decisions. In succession and unintentionally a man causes damage to others. All of them together bring him to the court. In each case the judge makes decisions that are formally logical but patently unacceptable and saves the man.

m39e. What sort of a tree?. Asking about minor details of the case, a judge demonstrates that the plaintiff (or the defendant) lies because he does (not) know about them .

m39e2. The speaking tree. Two men hide a treasure together but one of them steals it and accuses another. He suggests the judge to interview the tree and asks his father to hide in the hollow of the tree and to tell that another man is the thief. When the tree is ordered to be burned and the old man cries, the real thief is exposed .

m39e1. The eaten up iron and the kidnapped child. A man steals money or property trusted to him by another. The latter has no proves but gets his property back after he or his helper puts the theft in such a position when the best choice for him becomes to return the money (usually the first man kidnaps a child of the second one).

m39e1a. The iron-eating mice. Person claims that iron or gold disappeared being eaten by mice.

m39f. Certainly he had a hat but had he a head?. A fool loses his head (usually bitten off by a bear). His wife or companions cannot say had he his head before but remember that he certainly had a hat (beard).

m39h. Husband pretends to become blind (The faithless wife). A married woman is eager to get rid of her husband and usually asks a spirit (God, saint, etc.) to make him blind. The husband hides in a tree, behind the alter, etc. and usually tells her that good food will make her husnad blind, or the husband himself tells his wife that the good food is dangerous for him. He pretends to become blind, kills the love (and his wife).

m39g. Girl bewails the loss of her child before she has any (Clever Elsie). Girl bewails the loss of her future child before she has any or thinking about an event that could have been tragic. Or she thinks out the name of her child that does not exist instead of coming to meet her fiancee..

m40. The distorted instructions. Person is sent to receive something of relatively low value. He asks to give him quite different object (to provide a service) and asks one who had sent him to confirm the demand. Usually a person or animal comes to a wife or a son of a powerful one and tells her or him that her (his) husband or father tells to give him food, to make love to him, to marry him, etc..

m41. The eye-juggler. Person plays throwing his eyes or (Alaska Athabascans) his tooth up or away. Eyes or tooth first come back to eye sockets or mouth but eventually are lost.

m42. Eyes: lost and found. Person loses his eyes because of his playfulness or negligence. He makes new eyes of some substance or/and takes eyes of another person.

m42a. Eyes of berries. Person (usually after losing his own eyes), makes new eyes of berries and is able to see again.

m42b. Eyes of gum. Person loses his eyes, makes new ones of gum and is able to see again (though usually not well).

m42c. Falling from a bluff, eats his own marrow. Breaking his leg after falling from a bluff, person becomes to eat his own bone marrow.

m43. Doll as a decoy. To kill or catch a monster, human figure of wood or clay or alive woman is exposed as a bait. Usually monster's claws or sharp leg get stuck in the wood.

m44a. Thieves of food: the first people. Person discovers that somebody steals game or fish from his trap or devastates his garden. He or his guards catch the thieves who prove to be the first humans beings or the first men.

m44b. Thieves of food: the women. Person discovers that somebody steals game or fish from his trap or devastates his garden. He or his guards catch the thieves who prove to be (the first) women or the thief is the water being whom the hero lets go after receiving a woman for ransom.

m44c. Thieves of food: a young hero. A boy or young man comes to steal food of a person who is elder than he. Usually he is caught but not punished and invited to live with the elder person.

m45. A predator tricks animals to gather around him. A predator animal falls asleep or pretends to be dead (seriously ill) or sleeping. A lot of animals gather around him, he kills many or they run away in panic.

m45a. Old man and animals. A man falls asleep or pretends to be sleeping or dead. Animals take him for dead: mourn, carry to bury, are going to eat up, etc. The man kills a lot of animals or obtain valuables otherwise .

m46a. Picked up baby. Person turns into baby, is picked up by the owner of valuables, steals the valuables or makes love to a woman. The baby is not a demonic creature and does not plan to kill those who picked him up (cf. motif L60).

m46b. Baby born by woman. Person turns into tiny object or creature. Touching or swallowing it, the woman conceives and gives birth to a baby-boy. The boy steals valuables or make love to the woman.

m46c. Swallowed conifer-needle. Person turns into conifer-needle, a tiny particle, a small insect. Swallowing it by chance, the woman becomes pregnant and gives birth to a boy.

m46d. Child cries for a toy. A small child cries and becomes satisfied only when he gets a particular object to play with. This object is of high value and is hidden in the house. As soon as the object is given to the child, the fate of his mother or of whole humanity changes.

m47. Head put to bottoms. Punishing a person or animal or restoring his or its body after its disin¨teg¨ration, a powerful being intentionally or by chance puts head to bottoms.

m48. Trickster turns into buffalo. Trickster asks an animal to transform him but breaks condition of transformation and acquires his original guise. Usually he asks a big horned animal (buffalo, elk) to turn him into buffalo (elk) too. Animal charges, trickster is scared. Next time he remains on the place, turns into buffalo but trying to transform the same way another person, turns back into his own self.

m49. Man in a skin of another. Hero comes across a (animal-)person from an enemy group and takes his or her appearance, usually dressing himself in a skin of his victim; after this he penetrates the enemy camp.

m49a. The substituted medicine-woman. The hero has to come unrecognized to the meeting place of his enemies. He meets an old woman (usually a shaman, a medicine-woman) who goes there, puts on her skin and acquires her appearance.

m50. Man follows stars. A man tries to join a group of persons who are or become stars (usually the Pleiades) but suffers a reverse; or he pursues the stars to have sexual contact or to be reintegrated with members of his family.

m51. Meat in a tree. One of two animal-persons kills game, another claims it for himself. The weaker one deceives the stronger, carries the meat to a high tree or rock, throws down something inedible instead of meat. Usually this object is sharp or heavy, the stronger one is killed or injured. In some variants meat is carried to a tree not by the person who originally got it but by one who tried to appropriate it).

m52. Butchered carcass. A small animal (not a predator) or a weak person kills a big game. He asks another (animal-)person to skin or butcher the carcass. The latter is willing but takes or tries to take all the meat for himself.

m53. Hoodwinked dancers. Person invites birds or animals (usually geese and ducks) to dance or stand around him and concentrate their attention on some activity (usually to dance with their eyes shut), kills them, usually one by one. Or (rare) he dances himself with his eyes shut and then kills water fowl who gather around him.

m53a. Raven and seals. Raven tricks seals or other water mammals to gather around him and kills them by deception.

m53b. Bag with songs. Trickster pretends to have songs in his bag.

m53c. Red eyes. Trickster suggests water fowl to dance around him with their eyes shut, kills them one by one. He warns that eyes of a bird who would open them become red. In some versions, the bird who opened its eyes got them really red.

m53d. Would believe enemies. Person creates figures that look like enemies or pretends that enemies come. People run away, person gets all valuables for himself.

m53e. Would believe evil omen. Person (always a raven) kills a whale. When people come, he tells them about some circumstances that can make the meat dangerous. People do not dare to touch the meat and the deceiver eats it alone.

m53f. Disguised trickster eats up all the food. Taking part in storing up food, person pretends to go away for some reason, returns disguised as a monster or predator, people are scared and run away, the deceiver eats up all the food but is ultimately unmasked.

m54. Runway awakes in the same house. A man runs away from the house of powerful person but in the morning awakens in the same house again.

m55. Sprinkling hot coals. A man or a weaker animal leads the stronger one to a place that is allegedly dangerous (hot coals, ashes, sticks, etc. can fall there at night). When his companion is asleep, man throws sticks, sprinkles hot ashes or coals on him pretending that they fall on them both.

m56a. Alligatorís secret. A man or an animal beats alligator but it remains unharmed and says that he would be killed if stricken in one special place on his body. The next time the same person strikes alligator this way and kills it.

m56b. To bring tears and skins. A weak person's demand will be granted if he brings a skin (paw, tears, etc.) of animals stronger than he. He fulfills the task using tricks (but usually does not receive the promised reward).

m56c. To measure a snake. Person promises to bring a snake. The snake agrees to let him measure it. He ties the snake to a measuring stick or during the measuring finds a vulnerable place on the snakeís body.

m56d. To fill container with flies. Person promises to fill container with small flying creatures which are alive. When he expresses his doubts that the creatures are numerous enough to fill the container, they fly in and he closes the lid.

m57a. Bears discharged from body. Instead of common body discharges man or woman urinates, spits, etc. beads, flowers, gold and other valuables.

m57b. Sweat of the Sun and tears of the Moon. Beads or metals are discharged by bodies of deities.

m57c. Ass defecates gold. A domestic animal (ass, cow, horse) defecates gold or food.

m57d. Beat, cudgel!. Person first gets magic objects that bring food or treasure and after this he receives a cudgel (a whip, etc.) that beats people, usually those who have stolen the first objects. (In Greek text the stealer of magic objects is punished otherwise).

m57d1. Bird gives magic objects. A bird gives a man several magic objects in succession or it gives one object which helps to get others.

m57d2. Tree grants a wish. When a man is going to fell a tree, the tree or a bird who lives on it asks him not to do it and grants the manís wishes.

m57d3. Wind grants a wish. Wind person grants a wish to a man.

m57d4. Frost grants a wish. Frost grants a wish to a human person.

m58. Plant or trail saves from fire. World is ablaze, fire pursues a person. Some objects or elements do not resist the heat and cannot hide him. The last named gives protection. Earth becomes cool, person continues his travel.

m59. Treacherous rider kills ferry animal. A small animal asks bigger one to bring him across the stream, rejects one by one all possible places to sit; finds the position that lets him kill the big animal after crossing the stream.

m59a. Porcupine waiting for ferryman. Porcupine asks other animal to ferry him across river, rejects different places to sit, occupies a place where he can easily kill the animal after crossing the river and really kills him.

m60. Sham doctor: finished off enemy. Hero wounds monstrous enemy, then masks as a doctor, kills his patient instead of curing him.

m60a. Unrecognized hero comes to one whom he wounded. Hero wounds an animal or a supernatural creature, then masks as a doctor, comes unrecognized to the one whom he wounded, either cures or kills him.

m60a1. Herdsman explains how to ferry. To come unnoticed to his adversaries, the hero takes the guise of a servant (usually a herdsman) and before that gets know from the real herdsman how to act and to speak with his masters (usually what should be said to ferry the cattle across a river).

m60a2. False servant licks soles. A servant has to lick soles or a wound of his master or mistress. The hero comes disguised as the servant and instead of licking the soles rubs them (rubs the wound) with a cut off animal tongue.

m60b. False doctor: a finished off victim. The deceiver who promised to cure a sick or wounded person or animal devours him or suggests a remedy that makes the sick one to feel ever worse.

m61a. To obtain valuables, quarrel provoked. To obtain valuables person provokes a quarrel between their owners. When the owners become to fight with each other, the valuables fall out.

m61a1. Person provokes a quarrel between two birds. To provoke a quarrel between a gull and another bird, person (always a raven) tells each one that the other was insulting him.

m61a2. Person provokes a quarrel between two birds. To provoke a quarrel between two different stones, person (always a raven) tells each one that the other was insulting him.

m61a3. Person provokes a quarrel between two fish. To provoke a quarrel between two different fish, person tells each one that the other was insulting him.

m62a. Quarrel provoked by action. Hero imperceptibly causes detriment to two persons or creatures. They accuse each other and fight.

m62b. Trying to hit the hero hit each other. Two or more personages direct their weapons against the hero who is between them but hit each other.

m62c. Pulling a rope. A weak animal-person agrees separately with two strong ones to pull a rope with him. They do not know that are engaged into tug-of-war with each other or that the rope is tied to a tree. (In New World motif borrowed from Afroamericans).

m62d. Hare in rotten hide. Trickster puts on a rotten hide of an animal and, being unrecognized, pretends to be victim of hareís magic. Animals are frightened and decide not to pay the hare back for his tricks.

m62e. One field and two workers. A weak person makes a separate agreement with two strong ones to cultivate a field. The strong ones do not know about each other, and ultimately the weak one takes all the harvest himself..

m62f. Every next assistant kills previous one. Person invites in succession others to help him in his work, to receive a debt, etc. Every next one is stronger than the one who came before and eats him up (or the previous one runs away), the last two perish when they begin to fight.

m63. Body parts enumerated. Before finding a part of the body that is the best for some particular function, other parts are proven or enumerated.

m64. Person pretends to possess resources. To get valuables (food, fire) concealed by their owner, person pretends that the valuables are already in his possession.

m65. Trickster jammed, meat stolen. Trickster cooks meat got by deception but is unexpectedly jammed between trees or stuck to a stone. An animal (usually fox, wolf or coyote) steals all the meat.

m65a. Squeaking tree . Trees squeak in the wind. Trickster hears a noise, climbs up the tree and is caught between limbs.

m65b. The lost quarry. Person kills game (usually by deception), gets to see how thieves carry it away but is unable to intervene.

m66. Itch after artichoke eating. After eating certain plant, small animal, or rubbing it over his body, person suffers from itch, diarrhea, or from breaking wind.

m67. Trickster gone with a wind. Imprudent trickster produces wind that carries him away.

m68. Breaking wind scares game. Because of his own obstinacy, person suffers of breaking wind permanently and starves because a loud noise produced by him scaring game.

m69. Getting fast in an animal skull. Small animals or insects dance or feast inside a big animal skull or food is there. Person inserts his head into the skull and cannot take it out for a long time.

m70. An elder person poisons a younger one with intestinal gas. Old person tricks a young man into smelling her or his intestinal gas.

m70a. Old woman is pierced through. An old woman defecates or breaks wind over a man. He kills her inserting a cutting object into her anus or vagina.

m71. Picked up piece of wood. Trickster floats down the river or falls from the height and turns into a piece of wood or into a wooden object. Somebody picks it up. Eventually, the trickster acquires his real self, usually in the host's absence.

m72. Hand in animalís anus. Person puts (for different reasons) his or her hand into the anus of a tapir or other herbivorous animals and is unable to extract it back. Animal starts to run and drags the person behind him for a long time.

m73. Exchanged excrements: who is stronger. Two (animal) persons compare their feces or vomits to know about the diet and habits of each other (who is the strongest). The weaker one gets to exchange the feces (vomits).

m74. Exchanges vomits. Two animals or persons compare their vomits to know about the diet and habits of each other. The weaker one gets to exchange vomits, to swallow the unusual food before, or to swallow his partner's vomits.

m74a. Strange names of the babies. An animal person pretends to be invited to be godfather or he gives names to different places along which he travels in a sledge, boat, etc. The names look strange but become understandable when other people or animals get to know that their companion has devoured all the supplies.

m74aa. Theft of food by playing godfather. An animal person pretends that he has to make a visit (that he has been invited to be godfather at a baptism or invited to a funeral or wedding) but instead eats secretly food supplies.

M74ab. Fox in a boat. Travelling in a boat or on a sledge, animal person (always the fox) steals food supplies or ruins objects and accordingly to his deeds, names different places. These names seem strange to the personís companions (ďRiver of broken arrowsĒ and the like).

M74b. Who has eaten up the fat?. To demonstrate that the thief who had eaten food supplies is somebody else or to declare somebody else as a victim to be eaten up, animal person smears his sleeping companion with remains of the food or body excretions (exchanges the excretions) .

m75a. Revenge for falling from the sky. Vulture suggests person to carry him in the sky but drops to earth. The person attracts vulture to revenge on him. Or the vulture drops the person (or abandons him on a high rock) to revenge on him for his attempt to catch him.

m75b. Man crawls into carcass and is carried away by bird. A man hides in a skin or carcass of a big animal. A bird carries it to its nest without knowing that the man is inside.

m75b1. Marco the Rich. A respected man gets to know that a poor boy must inherit all his property or become a king and tries to prevent it, but the fate cannot be changed. .

m75b1a. The predestined wife. A man (usually of high social position) learns by a prediction that a (newborn) girl will be his future wife. Not willing to marry, the man tries to kill her but she survives, grows up, becomes beautiful and marries him. After the wedding he understands that prediction has been fulfilled.

m75b2. Bird tries to avert predetermined marriage. When a boy and a girl are still small children, a bird gets to know about their predetermined marriage. All its attempts to prevent the marriage fail..

m75b3. The Trojan Horse. To penetrate into the guarded place, the hero hides inside an animal or a figure of an animal which is brought there.

m75c. Treasure on mountain top. A man sends another one to top of a mountain or a tree to obtain treasure for him. To go back is impossible but the man survives.

m75d. Vultureís knife. A man bereaves vultures of their hunting weapons or amulets.

m76. Person climbs a tree, leg is cut off. When a man climbs a tree, a woman cuts his leg off or when a woman climbs a tree, a man cuts her leg off.

m77. A soiled bed. While person is asleep, another smears with excrements or something that reminds excrements his or her bed or clothes. The ashamed person runs away or agrees to make what the trickster wants in exchange of his silence.

m78. Thumbling. A childless couple (old woman, old man) gets for a son tiny boy as big as a thumb. He taunts people, predator animals, ogres.

m78a. Tail-boy. A wee boy is a transformed tail of a sheep or goat.

m79. Dancing with reeds. Person joins dancers but then understands that these are trees or reeds moved by the wind.

m80. Quail scares trickster. Person insults a partridge-like bird, kills or injures her chickens. The partridge scares him, he falls, usually into a river or lake.

m81. Blind persons. A man travels and comes to two or several blind (usually old) persons.

m81a. Blind duck-women cured. A man meets two blind women, makes them see, they are or become birds (geese, ducks, grouses or the like).

m81b. Not to climb after an arrow stuck in a tree. Despite a warning not to do so, person climbs in a tree to get his arrow that was stuck and gets into trouble.

m81c. Blinds met in the sky. Getting to the sky or (rare) to the lower world a man comes across one or two blind persons, then returns to the earth. Usually he cures their eyes.

m81d. Blind persons cured. A man comes across (often in the sky) one or two blind persons and cures their eyes.

m81e. Not to graze animals on the ogreís land. The young man takes the job of grazing animals and is warned not to cross the border of the ogreís land. The hero ignores the warning and overcomes the ogre.

m81e1. The hero cures eyes of the blind couple. Young man comes to blind people (usually old man and his wife) to graze their animals. The old couple warns him not to cross the border of the ogreís land. The hero ignores the warning, overcomes the ogre and cures the eyes of old couple.

m81f. Blind robber paid back. A blind trickster steals from (does not return some money to) a harmless man. The injured man follows the blind man and steals his whole hoard of money. Often he robs (tricks) several blind men.

m82. Animal person ties rattles to its tail. An animal person sees that another has something tied to his tail, wants the same tail for himself and has a trouble as a result.

m82a. Animal person ties rattles to the tail of another. One animal person inconspicuously ties rattles to the tail of another. The latter thinks that he is pursued and runs in panic.

m83. Who is older?. Somebody claims that he has been born before present world came into being. His opponent claims the same, and they argue who of them is the older.

m83a. Crying for his dead children. Persons or animals argue who of them is older, some claim that they lived in such and such time, but the last one says that he remembers this day because a certain event had taken place at this time.

m83b. Whose dream is better?. Two (or more) (animal)-persons agree that whichever of them has the most wonderful dream may eat all the food. The first one tells about a feast that he participated in his dream. His companion answers that he was sure that after such a feast (after getting into the paradise, etc.) the first one would not need the food, so he has eaten it alone.

m83c. Who becomes drunk easier?. Animals argue who of them gets drunk easier. The last one falls down because he becomes drunk as soon as somebody talks about alcohol.

m84. Revived from bones. Person, animal, fish or (rare) a fruit is eaten up. After this all bones (all seeds) are put together and the eaten up is revived.

m84a. Goat resuscitated. Supernatural beings kill and eat a deer, ram, cow or goat, then put all the bones in the animal's skin and the revived animal runs away.

m84b. Bones into the water. Butchered and eaten animal, bird or fish revives after its bones are thrown into the water.

m84c. Guest of spirits. A man spends a night in a forest or desert where spirits live. One of them explains to the others that he has a guest (i.e. this same man) tonight.

m84d. Conversation of trees. A man listens in conversation of trees one of which is mortally ill.

m85. The fox bluffs. An animal person (usually a fox or a jackal) threatens to cut down a tree on which mother bird (squirrel) made its nest unless she will throw down one of her nestlings (squirrel children) or eggs. Another bird lets the mother bird know that the predator is unable to realize his threat.

m86. Rock punishes trickster. Rock chases or otherwise punishes person who has offended it (usually deceived it or has taken objects that belong to Rock).

m87. Invisible ghosts. Person enters a seemingly empty house and attempts to take certain things. Invisible beings prevent him from doing it or objects themselves hurt him.

m88. Involved into dance. A man joins a group of dancing women and is killed or injured as a result.

m89. Melted wax. Person dies or is humiliated after some object that he or she made of wax, resin, excrements and/or took for something worthy are melted down.

m89a. Horns of hyena. Only horned animals are invited to a feast. Hyena makes itself false horns but is disguised.

m90. To guess of what material an object is made. Somebody suggests to guess what sort of material a certain object is made of. Another person (usually a monster) gets to know the secret and the hero or the heroin must do what they have promised.

m90a. To marry a man who would give a correct answer. A girl is promised to a man who would know her name or whose finger would fit her ring, or who would guess a material from which certain object is made or grown. Person finds a correct answer by deception.

m90a1. The louse skin. It should be guessed the nature of a big animal or its skin, the content of a box. The correct answer is that the animal is a louse (o flea), a louse is in the box.

m90a2. From what did the plant grow&. It should be guessed that the plant grew from a part of the body of a man or a snake or from dirt scraped off from the body.

m90a3. Tree grows from snake. A plant grows from a killed snake or part of snakeís body.

m90b. The sunrise in the West. Person was wrong being sure that the Sun never rise from the West or set after the midnight.

m90c. Ladder instead of wife. Person lost a bet and must give to another the first thing in his household that the winner would touch. The winner is going to take the loserís wife but when he touches a ladder the host tells him to take it and go away.

m91. The killed corpse. Person pretends that a person (often his or her mother, spouse or lover) who recently died is alive, claims that the death of the false alive resulted from negligence of others and gets a reward.

m91a. Simulating killing (a bag with blood). Person conceals under clothes a bladder with blood or red juice and piercing it, simulates killing or suicide.

m91b1. The sold skin. A man goes to sell a skin of domestic animal and on his way, by trick or thanks to chance, gets a big sum of money. Usually coming back he explains that this was the price of the skin but when other people kill their animals they cannot sell skins for such a sum.

m91b. Sold ashes. Using trick, a man sells or exchanges for treasure ashes. Another person tries to sell ashes and is ridiculed.

m91c1. Herd from the river bottom. Person gets other personís possessions by trick (or pretends to get it; usually another person is drowned instead of him) and then demonstrates his possessions (usually a herd) and explains that he had received everything at the river bottom. His enemies believe him.

m91c2. Put into bag. Person is put into a bag (a cage, tied up, etc.) to be drowned, burned, etc. He pretends to be in this situation by his own will or because he refuses to marry a princess, to become a chief and the like. Another person is willing to take his place and is killed.

m91c3. Hare the messenger. After warning his wife about the planned trick, person lets free a wild animal or bird asking it to pass a message to his wife. Seeing the same (actually another) animal or bird in his companionís house another man buys the animal for a lot of money.

m91c4. Pot that does not need fire to cook. Man takes a pot from the fire but it is still boiling or he cooks the food beforehand and tells that his pot cooks it in no time (or that his stick touching ground creates the food). Another man buys the pot (the stick).

m91c5. The wager that sheep are hogs. A man (a boy) drives his cow (or any other domestic animal of a big size) to market. A trickster who would like to buy the animal cheaply tries to convince him that it is a sheep (or any other smaller and cheaper animal). Tricksterís accomplices confirm his opinion and the man sells his cow for the price of a sheep.

m91d. Drowned shaman. Person deceives the other (giving out a corpse for alive person, accusing incent people of murder, etc.). When a shaman (almost) gets to know the truth, the trickster kills her or him and gets to avoid any punishment.

m92. Red eyelashes. Girls stick something red to old man's eyebrows and he thinks it is a fire.

m93. Body part as a guard. Before falling asleep, person tells his eyes (which he extracts and puts aside) or his anus to awake him in case of danger. Eyes or anus do not make an alarm or person himself does not react to it. As a result he suffers a damage.

m93a. Guard punished. Person punishes the part of his body which he selected as his guard for the time of his sleep or absence (he burns his buttocks, breaks eyes).

m94. Sliding downhill. Being provoked or forced by another or because of his own light-mindedness, person slides down a hill and dies or gets into trouble (falls on sharp pole, into the water, etc.).

m94a. Wolf in a basket. Person tricks another to crawl into a basket and closes it. One in a basket is killed or badly injured (usually rolled down a hill).

m94b. Wolf under the mill wheel. Animal person is tricked to creep under the mill wheel, he is killed or badly injured .

m95. To take a present to personís kin. A weaker person asks the stronger one to take present to his or her kin and hides himself or herself in a bag. The stronger one brings the bag to the weaker one's relatives thinking that there are but some objects inside. Usually a girl deceives the ogre into carrying her sisters and then herself in a sack (chest) back to their home.

m96. Imagined guests. Person does not want to share his meal with his close relatives and pretending to have many guests, eats food alone.

m97. Blind directed by trees. Person becomes blind or loses his way. He walks asking different trees their names, makes decisions accordingly to their answers and ultimately reaches his destination.

m98. Who are more numerous?. Person reckons up number of members in two enormous and alternative multitudes (alive trees and dead trees, men and women, etc.). Usually numbers prove to be equal but one member possesses the qualities of the both multitudes. Adding it to one of them, person demonstrates his case.

m99. Intention to exterminate birds. Person is going to exterminate all the birds but thanks to a wise adviser decides not to do.

m99a. Palace of birds bones. Person is going to build a palace (tower, etc.) made of birdsí bones.

m99a1. Holes in the birdsí beaks. Person is going to make holes in the beaks of birds (to thread them).

m100. Sleep at the edge of a cliff. One animal-person suggests another to lie asleep at the edge of a bluff or cliff. At night he tells him to move a little, the companion falls down and dies.

m100a. Jump from a cliff. An animal-person provokes another to jump from of a bluff or cliff (tree) because his father (grandfather, etc.) could do it. The one yielded to provocation jumps and dies or is caught by the provoker.

m101. Some are afraid of men, and some of partridges. One animal (the fox, rare sable or wolf) tells that he is afraid of the men, another (the bear) that of the partridges when they fly up suddenly. When Bear attacks a man, he is wounded or killed, Cf. motif M101A.

m101a. Animals learn to fear men. A big predator (bear, lion, tiger) boasts about being stronger than a man. Being told that itís not so, he finds a man and suggests to struggle but is killed or badly injured as a result. Cf. motif M101.

m101b. Three men: the former, the future, the present one. A big predator is eager to see a man. He comes across a boy but gets to know that he will be a man later, then an old person who is not a man anymore. The encounter with the real man (hunter, soldier) has for the animal the unpleasant consequences .

m102. Person lets his leg or head to be cut off. A bird stands with one leg tucked under it, putting its head under its wing; turtle draws its head and limbs under its shell. Person decides that the bird has one leg, no head, turtle has neither head nor limbs, asks to cut him his head and limbs off.

m103. Children with pretty spots. Person asks another how her or his children got their pretty colors. Another answers that she or he put them into the fire. roasted, etc. The first person believes, kills his or her children.

m104. Make believe killing of kinsfolk. Person conceals his or her close relatives (children, mother, brothers) and tells another that he or she has killed them. Another believes and agrees to kill his or her own children, mother, etc..

m105. Make believe killing of mother. Person conceals his mother or (rare) wife or mother-in-law, tells another that he has killed or sold her, another really kills or sells his mother (wife, mother-in-law).

m105a. Make believe killing of children. .

m106. Meaningful name. Person lies that his name is so and so. His enemy, victim or other people, demons or animals understand it not as a name but as a common word and behave accordingly.

m106a. ďMyselfĒ and ďNobodyĒ in a demonís house. After doing damage or injury to his antagonist, person lies that his name is so and so. Other demons understand it not as a name but as a common word and it makes them believe that the injured one was the trouble-maker himself.

m106b. ďLast yearĒ in a demonís house. After doing damage or injury to his antagonist, person lies that his name is so and so. Other demons understand it not as a name but as a common word and it makes them believe that the injury had been done so long ago that there is no sense to investigate the case.

m106c. My name is ďThe GuestĒ. Person lies that his name is ďThe GuestĒ or so and eats all the food suggested to the guests.

m106d. My name is ďSon-in-lawĒ. Person deceives other people telling them that his name is ďSon-in-lawĒ or the like. His victims do not find sympathy because his behavior is acceptable if he is a member of the family.

m106e. For the long winter. A man has accumulated a store of provisions (saved some money, etc.) and tells his wife that it is for the long winter (Christmas, emergencies, etc.). A trickster (beggar) comes to the woman and tells her that his name is Long Winter, etc. She gives him the provisions.

m106f. The guest from paradise. A stranger tells a woman that he comes from the other world and had seen there her dead relative. The woman gives him money and goods for the latter. Usually when her husband goes after the trickster to retrieve the money, the trickster steals his horse.

m106g. The cow is taken to the roof to graze. A cow (donkey, ox, etc.) is taken to the roof to graze grass that was grown there. Or the wife is raised with a rope on her neck .

m107. Turtle bites penis off. A smaller animal kills or maims a big mammal (jaguar, tapir) seizing him by his penis.

m108. Trickster carries away property. Person suggests to do some work (usually to ferry people's property across river) but carries away the property that he was entrusted to control.

m108a. Trickster as an adopted child. An old couple live alone and adopt a boy (a trickster-animal) as a son. He steals their property and runs away.

m109. The tail-fisher. Animal person sits putting his tail down to get something edible and then cannot pull it back. He loses his tail or dies. Cf. m109a, m109c.

m109a. To sit on the ice waiting for food. An animal suggests another to sit on the ice till some food will fall from the sky. Waiting this way for food to fall down the anima is frozen to the ice.

m109a1. Sham brains. Animal person covers his head with a milky substance or dough and convinces another that he has been so badly injured that his brains are coming out.

m109b. Sick animal carries the healthy one. A healthy animal tricks an injured one (a wolf, a bear) into carrying him on his back by pretending to be injured himself.

m109c. The tail is quietly tied . When an animalís tail had been tied quietly, the animal tried (successfully or not) to free itself.

m109d. Caught by tail by the sea creature. Animal puts its tail or tongue into the water which is caught and firmly hold by some sea creature. The tide begins and the animal drowns.

m110. The forgotten liver. An animal is tricked to be carried across the water by those who are going to eat or to use as a medicine a part of its body. The animal tells that forgot to take just that part which is needed, is carried back to take it, escapes.

m111. Monkey on the banana tree. An animal person who can climb trees (usually a monkey) suggests another (a turtle, a crab) to harvest bananas. He climbs the banana, throws down but peels, rotten fruits and the like. His companion revenges on him.

m112. Animals dig a well. An animal person refuses to dig or clean a source of drinking water together with other animals or birds but takes advantage of the results of the work.

m112a. Turtle catches the thief. Animal are guarding some food or water or come after water. The deceiver takes what he needs or does not let the others to use the water. Turtle, toad or frog proves to be smarter than the deceived and catches him.

m112b. Animals build a road. When animals build a rode, some of them (mole, shrew, earthworm) refuses to take part in the work and are punished: cannot live under the sunshine.

m113. Water is taboo for a certain bird. During the hottest month of the summer or permanently birds of certain species are prohibited to drink from the water bodies. Usually they can quench their thirst only from rain drops and dew on leaves and cry calling for rain.

m113a. Bird sees blood instead of water. Bird of a certain species cannot drink from rivers and lakes because sees there blood (fire, etc.) instead of water.

m114. Rope of sand. Person is suggested to twist (or he really twists) a rope or make other object of sand, ash, smoke, etc..

m114a. Clothes of stone. Person is suggested to make clothes of stone or iron or to skin a stone.

m114b. Not clothed and not naked. Person is suggested to make something and simultaneously not to make it (to come clothed and naked, to stand indoors and outdoors, etc.).

m114b1. What is the fattest, sweetest, swiftest?. Answering to a question what is the fatties, sweetest, swiftest, etc., a fool names particular objects or creatures and the clever one abstract notions and non-material values..

m114c. To protect from rain by his own body. Person cannot understand why the clothes (firewood, etc.) of another are dry after the rain Ė he protected them with his own body.

m114d. The boiled eggs: eaten last year. Person eats a meal of eggs and leaves without paying. Some years later when he returns to pay his debt, the innkeeper claims the value of all chickens that would have hatched from the eggs in the meantime. On the day of the trial another person pretends to have cooked seeds for planting and the judge agrees that chicken could not be hatched from the boiled eggs.

m114d1. The boiled eggs: chicken should hatch tomorrow. Person wants another to receive chickens from (boiled) eggs (and grow a hen) during one day. The opponent suggests equally impossible task.

m114e. To tether a horse to the summer. A girl asks a man who arrived by horse to tether it to the summer or to the winter, i.e. to a sleigh or to a cart.

m114f. A crooked chimney. A girl has a minor body defect. A man tells that the house is nice but the chimney is somewhat crooked. The girl answers that this chimney has a good draught.

m114g. The camel is high, the goat has a long beard. Only a young boy gives clever answers to the questions or riddles of a powerful man. When this man asks why they sent to him a boy and not a higher and elder person, the boy says that if the man needs somebody who are high and whose beard is long, these are camel and goat.

m114h. To build a house in the air. Powerful person orders to build a house in the air. The man finds a clever solution for this puzzle.

m114i. Asked about their relatives, girl or boy answers with wit. When a girl or a boy is asked where are her or his father, mother, brother or other relations or what they are doing she or he answers in such a way that only a smart person is able to understand what it is about (father went to make an enemy from a friend, mother went to make one out of two, etc.); or the girl explains corresponding answers of other person.

m114j. All women are similar. When a (married) man cultivate a (married) woman she demonstrates him that all women are alike (like eggs painted in different colors). The man is ashamed and let the woman in piece.

m114k. Water which is not from the earth and not from the sky. A liquid which usually should not be used for drinking or cooking once is used for these purposes. A person who is told that this liquid is neither from the earth must guess what is the source of this liquid.

m115. The eaten up wolf. Using a trick, (animal)-person kills dangerous predator. Kinsmen and friends of the killed animal get to know about it and come to avenge its death. The person has narrow escape.

m116. Wisdom of hidden old man saves kingdom. People are ordered to kill their fathers or (rare) mothers or (the Nyoro) to deprive them of power and property). A man conceals his father. Later the old man helps to resolve difficult problem.

m116a. Ungrateful son reproved by naive actions of own son. When an aged father is banned from the table and served his meals in a wooden cup by his son and his daughter-in-law, the little grandson starts to build a similar cup for his parents to use when they grow old. Thereupon the couple starts to reflect on their undignified behavior. Thinking of their own old age, they bring the old father back to the family table (previously type 980B). A son gives his father half a blanket (carpet, cape, cloth) to keep warm. Thereupon the little grandson keeps the other half of the blanket and explains that he will save it for his parents for when they are old (previously type 980A.). An aged father is abandoned by his son in the wilderness (abyss) in a cart (sledge, basket). The grandson keeps it in order to use it in the same way for his parents when they have grown old. They reflect on their behavior. (previously type 980C). The ungrateful son drags his old father out of the house. At the threshold the father says, "Do not drag me further; I dragged my own father only this far!". The son reflects on his bad behavior.

m117. Head under wing. Fox or other predator asks a bird what does it do when the wind blows. When the bird demonstrates how it puts its head under its wing, the fox kills it.

m118. Source of values is destroyed imprudently. Person or animal uses values that are inside of an animal, a tree, a rock or other enclosure. Another person or animal tries to do the same but destroys source of values, blocks access to it or makes it too dangerous.

m118a. Open, sesame!. Chief of thieves brings his men into some peopleís yard hiding them in empty jars, casks, etc. The plan to kill members of the household at night. A girl (a young woman; rare: somebody else from the family) gets to know about the danger and kills the thieves one by one (usually pouring boiling water into the jars).

m118b. Repository inside a cow. Penetrating into an animal, a person or other animal gets food without injuring the animal itself .

m119. Demonstrated many times. Trickster suggests to be a nurse or a shepherd, kills and eats children or animals, demonstrates to the parent (the owner) one and the same child or animal as many times as was their number in the beginning.

m120. Cannibal baby-sitter. Animal person promises to take care of another animal's children but do not fulfill obligations and usually eats the young ones.

m120a. Cannibal mourner . Somebody dies, animal person suggests to be a mourner, eats the corpse.

m120b. Baby-sitter with a nice voice. Being in search of a baby-sitter (mourner, shepherd, etc.) person rejects those whose voice does not like. The one chosen by him or her has a nice voice but later eats up the baby (the deceased, sheep, etc.).

m120c. Shared children. Two animals agree to care for their children together. The stronger one devours the children of the weaker one and pretends to be angry when the latter asks whose were the lost children.

m121. Louse as a spy. Louse or other tiny creature (flee, tuck) is sent to spy on a person.

m122. Advisers inside. In a difficult situation animal person asks for advice his tail, anus or some beings that are inside him (excrements, parasites, his "sisters", etc.).

m123. Raven marries goose. A bird of prey or a carrion-eater (raven, owl, hawk; coyote) marries or tries to marry goose-person or other water bird. This marriage is not realized or is a short one.

m123a. Three-toed foot. Raven marries or tries to marry a girl pretending to be handsome chief. They notice that somebody is eating carrion. Usually when everybody have to take off there footgear, raven's three-toes feet are exposed. He is driven away or runs away being ashamed.

m123b. Trickster tied to a boat . A man gets a woman thanks to a trick, carries her away in his canoe. She asks permission to go to shore to relieve herself, runs away.

m123c. Unlucky flight with migratory birds. A bird-person who usually does not fly away in the autumn makes attempt to fly with migratory birds but is unable to reach destination.

m123d. Raven the filth-eater. Raven is going to marry a girl but is rejected after they see that he eats filth.

m124. A bullís tail. Person buries a tail or head of a bull or other domestic animal with a tail or horns outside. He explains that the animal sank into the ground and usually asks the others to pull the tail (horns). When they are ďtorn offĒ, he tells that people are guilty of the animal being lost.

m125. Eating his own eyes. Person lies to another that he is eating his eyes. The companion agrees to be blinded. The first person extracts one of companionís eye but gives him to eat something delicious instead. The companion believes that his eyes are good to eat and agrees to be deprived of another eye too.

m126. Silent skull. Person comes across speaking head, skull or tortoise and tells others about his experience. When the information is controlled, the skull keeps silence and the man is punished as a liar.

m127. Lost tail of fox. (Animal) person has a narrow escape and loses his tail (ear). To make himself unrecognizable among other animals of his species or other people of his group, he tricks them to lose their tails (ears) too.

m127a. The quail makes the fox laugh. Trickster animal asks a bird to make him laugh. The bird sits on the head of a woman (child, cow, etc.), other person tries to kill the bird, hits the wife (breaks cow's horn, etc.). Or the bird distracts person attention to let the trickster steal the personís food.

m127b. A jug as trap. Animal person attaches a vessel or its part to his body, puts it into the water, the vessel is heavy and drags him into the water.

m127c. Frightened without reason. An animal person mistakes an object abandoned by chance or intentionally for an evidence of a danger and behaves inadequately.

m128. Variegated animals. Hero comes to an agreement with antagonist that he can take animals of particular color. He gets to change color of the animals and takes all or most of them.

m129. Lost primogeniture. Father or mother is going to give primogeniture to the son he or she has chosen. Another son comes in disguise of the chosen one, receives primogeniture.

m130. Fox and bird in one hole. Fox and bird hide from a hunter together in one and the same hole. The bird makes believe he is dead and escapes (with the fox or alone).

m130a. Bird helps animal to escape from snare. A predator animal lures a herbivorous animal into the hunter's trap and hopes to feast on its entrails. A bird advices the herbivorous animal to sham dead and helps him to escape.

m130b. Traitor killed instead of a victim. A herbivorous animal gets into hunter's trap. A predator animal refuses to free his companion because he hopes to feast on entrails. A bird makes the herbivorous animal free. The hunter tries to kill the bird but hits the predator instead.

m130c. The mouse and the lion (the help of the weak). When a lion (tiger, elephant) gets into a trap, a mouse (rat) makes him free (usually bites through the ropes).

m131. Biting tree-root. A stronger (animal)-person gets to seize a leg or tail of a weaker one. To get free the weaker one pretends that his pursuer got hold of a tree root, and the pursuer lets his enemy free.

m132. Ears as sandals. Enemy is ready to cease person who asks him first to throw away his clothes and shoes and exposes his ears. The enemy takes him by ears and throws away, the person escapes.

m132a. Ears, not horns. Predator animal believes that an ungulate has dangerous horns and then understands that these are but ears.

m133. Wind saves situation. Cumulative tale: a small bird cuts itself with a sharp blade of grass or a thorn and asks the others to punish the plant. Everyone finds an excuse why they cannot do anything (sheep, wolves, boys, etc.). The last one is the wind, it blows making all other persons act.

m134. A tower of wolves. Animals stand one on another making a tower. When the lowermost moves, the tower collapses.

m134a. Blowing the house in. Predator animal/ogre blows and destroys a fragile house but cannot destroy a strong one. Usually two or three weak personages build three houses only one of which is strong enough..

m134b. Wolf measured by tailor. When a predator is going to eat a man, the latter asks permission first to measure him and beats with his (feigned) measuring tool.

m134c. The wolf overeats in the cellar . The wolf or other wild animal gets into the cellar (storehouse, vineyard, etc.) and eats so much that cannot leave.

m135a. Wolf regrets for being so stupid. Wolf (rare: jackal, fox) comes to different domestic animals to eat them but agrees to fulfill their demands. As a result he remains hungry and usually beaten and accuses himself that his ways were so stupid (ďAm I a mollah to read?Ē) .

m135. Wolf and two rams. Two ungulate animals (rams, bull, etc.) run from the opposite directions and butt the wolf killing or injuring him.

m136. Sickle as an unknown beast. Grain is harvested with inappropriate tools. Seeing sickle for the first time, people take it for a dangerous animal.

m136a. Sunlight carried in a bag. Fools carry sunlight (darkness, smoke) in bags, sieves, etc. and carry it into the room or out of it.

m136b. Cutting off the branch. Man sitting on branch of a tree cuts it off and similar variants (man climbs a rope and cuts it off; men cut a tree and climb on it to fell it; man climbs with difficulty on a dead branch of a tree, which breaks off).

m136Ů. The man takes seriously the prediction of death. A passer-by tells a numskull that he will dies when his donkey breaks wind three times or the like. The prophesied event occurs and the fool thinks he is dead.

m136d. The air castles. A person plans to turn his (future) possessions into a great wealth (milk, eggs, small money, animal to be killed, etc.) but imagining this wealth, he destroys what he already has (eggs are broken, the animal runs away, etc.). Or two persons are involved into quarrel about possessions that they do not yet have.

m137. The wolf imitates the Lion. The stronger predator demonstrates the weaker one the right way to behave before attacking the game.. The weaker one does the same (eyes are bloody, hindquarters trembling, etc.) but instead of killing a herbivorous animal is usually killed himself.

m138. Human and animal life spans are readjusted. God originally gives 20 or 30 years to everybody. Some animals refuse some of their years because of their sufferings. Man wants to have more years and takes them from the animals.

m139. The released birds. Fox catches birds, puts them into a bag and goes away for a moment. Another animal-person opens the bag and puts thorns instead of the birds.

m140. The theft of fish. Trickster pretends to be dead or sick and is picked up by those who carry something edible in a cart (sledge, boat, bag). The trickster secretly eats the food, often after throwing it out of the cart (sledge).

m140A. The fox ties his companion. The fox lives with an old man or the wolf, ties him by deception and runs away.

m140B. The wolf decorates a bird. The fox by deception ties the wolf. Released by a bird, the wolf decorates its plumage.

m141. Animals in a pit. Several different animals get into a pit (well) and cannot climb out from it, They eat each other up until only one (usually the fox) is left and escapes from the pit.

m141a. And the Mouse? For us he is nobody. One of the animals tells about each of the other that he is a particular relation to all of them or has a particular profession (social status). When it is a turn of the youngest and weakest one, the organizer of the discussion tells that he is nobody for them or just a food. This way all the animals besides the last one and the organizer are eaten.

m141b. The animals flee in fear of the end of the world. A small bird or animal (chicken, cat, mouse, etc.) takes a trivial event (a leaf or an acorn falls, etc.) for a catastrophe (a war, the end of the world, the fall of the sky, etc.) and flees. Other animals share its fear and go along with it..

m142. Fox blames his tail. Fox blames his tail for being useless when escaping from the pursuers (usually he punishes his tail and gets killed himself as a result).

m143. Fox in a well. Getting into a well or pit and being unable to climb out animal person tricks another to descend and thanks to this gets out while the second person remains below.

m144. The wasp nest as kingís drum. One animal person gets to convince another that dangerous or disgusting objects are attractive and delicious (a wasp nest is a drum, a snake is a girdle, a heap of dung is a delicacy, etc.).

m144a. Burning thatch on the back of a tiger. A trickster (always hare or rabbit) asks a big and dangerous animal (tiger or elephant) to carry some thatch and puts it on fire. After this the same trickster or other animal gives the victim advice to run not to river but up the slope.

m145. The lion in a well. A weak animal person demonstrates a strong one his reflection in water. The latter believes that an animal like he contests his supremacy, invites him for a visit, etc., usually jumps in and drowns.

m146. The fox gets bait from trap by luring wolf into it. An animal knows that food is in a trap or poisoned and tricks another to take it.

m147. The fox runs in front of the tiger. The weak animal tells the strong one that all the other are afraid of him, the weak one. To prove it, the weak one walks in front of the strong one and the latter believes that forest dwellers run away seeing not him but the weak one.

m147a. Foxes will meet at the bazaar. When foxes (wolves) meet and dogs begin to chase them, one of the foxes says that their next meeting will be at the bazaar where pelts are sold.

m147b. The fox rids himself of fleas. When foxes (wolves) meet and dogs begin to chase them, one of the foxes says that their next meeting will be at the bazaar where pelts are sold.

m148. Agrees to be eaten up. One animal person persuades another to agree to be eaten up, usually promising a reward after the resurrection. The fool agrees and is eaten up.

m149. Tell them that I am a stump. Strong antagonist is going to kill the hero (a person or a weak animal). Another person or animal pretends not to know about the situation and tells that the antagonist is in search to be killed. The hero is saved. Usually the latter asks the man not to give him out and answer that it is a stump, a log and the like near him. This opens possibility to treat the antagonist as a corresponding object (to cut it with an axe, to tie up, etc.).

m149a. Treaty with the tiger. A man, light-mindedly or against his own wish, makes an agreement with a dangerous predator. He does not want (cannot) keep it or breaks it and the predator is going to kill him but the man remains alive.

m149b. Dogs inside. A man tells that there are dangerous animals inside him (or in a box he has) that can come out. A predator who was going to eat the man up (or to bite him) believes him and runs away.

m150. The deceitful herdsman`. An animal person becomes a herdsman but eats the entrusted animals up.

m151. Hello, house!. Dangerous animal pretends to be an inanimate object, dead or absent. The potential victim sais aloud that the real dead (object, place) has to act in a particular way or to say particular words. The animal does accordingly betraying himself..

m152. Why only one wolf?. Deceived by a weak person, a predator animal or an ogre is frightened and runs away. Another animal is eager to explain his mistake and leads him back. The weak one repeats former trick or pretends to be angry: why the animal (ogre) brought to him is lean (small; only one instead of several, etc.). The predator (ogre) again runs away.

m152a. Animal tied to another for safety. A stronger and a weaker predator animals (ogre and an animal) tie together for safety. When the stronger one runs away, he drags the weaker one along with him.

m152b. Brave donkey and cowardly lion. Getting to see a donkey or horse a strong predator thinks that this animal is dangerous. His further interpretation of the herbivorousí behavior supports this impression.

m152c. The donkey and the lion crossing a river. A weak companion of a big predator pretends to be strong and brave. Almost drowned Ůrossing a river and saved by the predator, he pretends to be angry (ďBecause of you I let a fish goĒ, etc.).

m152d. Whose voice is louder (the elephant and the tiger). The elephant and the tiger (lion) make a competition (usually argue whose voice is louder). The tiger wins and is going to eat the elephant. A small trickster animal saves the elephant.

m153. Letter on a hoof. The wolf (lion, etc.) is going to eat a horse (mule, etc.). The horse asks him to look at his hoof (for different reasons) or eat him from his hindquarters forward; then he kicks him.

m153a. The clean pig. The predator wants to eat a person or animal; the victim asks for a favor to let him first wash himself and escapes.

m153b. Wolf rides a horse. Wolf is killed or injured when he accepts a suggestion of the horse (donkey, etc.) to ride it.

m154. The animal language and the stubborn wife. A man obtains knowledge of animal languages but if he reveals the secret, he must die. Once he hears animals talking and laughs. His wife thinks that he laughs at her or at her mother. The man is ready to open his secret and either does it and dies or hears how animals (usually a cock) blame him for being so foolish. So he keeps his secret..

m154A. A donkey induces overworked ox to feign sickness. One of domestic animals induces another who is overworked to feign sickness. When the next day he must do the work of the ďsickĒ one, he persuades him to stop being ill.

m154B. The man who does his wifeís work. Husband remains home instead of his wife (rare: son instead of his mother) but does everything wrong so as he suffers a series of accidents.

m155. Sleeping parent covered with a cloak. A man or a woman falls asleep in the nude or pretends to do so. Only one of his or her children covers him or her with a cloak and is considered to be the most noble.

m156. The ungrateful one returned to captivity. An (animal) person saves a dangerous animal from a snare or the like. The saved one is going to kill his savior but the third person saves the second (usually tricks the first one to captivity again).

m157. Impossible giving birth. Person proves the absurdity of the claims of another person claiming in response something equally absurd. One or the both say that a man or a male animal had given birth (or is menstruating) or that a female gave birth to a young of another species or that a woman gave birth to an animal.

m157a1. Father is giving birth. Person proves the absurdity of the claims of another person saying that his or her father (or other man or a male animal) had given or is giving birth or is menstruating.

m157a2. Bull and cart give birth. Person claims that a calf (colt, kid, etc.) was born not by the cow (mare, etc.) of another person but by his own bull (stallion, etc.) or inanimate object (usually a cart) .

m157a3. To milk a bull. Person demands from the other to bring him an offspring or milk of a male animal.

m157a4. To fish on a hill. Person demonstrates the absurdity of the claims of another person saying that he (or somebody else) was fishing on a hill, putting out a fire spilling straw, looking how the fish fly etc. or he is imitating such an activity. Either the place chosen for the activity or the means are irrational.

m157a5. The golden mortar. A man finds a mortar (rare a bell, etc.) of gold (rare: of marble, etc.) and brings it to a powerful person. The latter is not thankful at all but orders the man to bring a pestle too (the bellís clapper, etc.).

m157b. To take the one thing she holds dearest. Husband casts his wife out but allows her to take the one thing she holds dearest. She takes her sleeping or drunk husband with her and thus moves him to forgive her.

m157c. You are hens and I am the cock. To put a person into an awkward position, others demonstrate chicken eggs that they prepared beforehand. Having no egg with him, the person says that he is the only cock while all the others are hens.

m158. Tops or buts. Two animals (an animal and a person, an ogre and a person, etc.) agree to divide a crop in such a way that one would take what is above the ground and another what is beneath ground. One of them (several times makes a wrong choice (takes turnip tops and wheat roots).

m159. The lionís share. The strongest predator (usually a lion) and two other animals hunt together. One shares the booty and is killed or badly injured by the strongest one. When the third one becomes to share, he gives everything to the strongest one and explains that the injured one taught him the right way of sharing.

m160. Unkind words are more painful than wound. A strong predator animal and a man become friends. The animal hears how the man or his wife complains about him (e.g. criticizes the bad smell of his mouth) and asks the man to strike him with an axe, knife and the like. Later he comes to demonstrate his healed wound and explains that the physical wound can be healed unlike the psychological one. Or the animal dies because of his wounded feelings as soon as he understands that the man betrayed him.

m161. A dog in the bag. Person gives another (often a fox) a bag putting inside a dog instead of food; or he makes free a girl who was kept in the bag and replaces her with a dog. The dog attacks the one who opened the bag.

m162. Eats his own innards. Person pretends to eat his own innards or flesh and persuades the other to do the same. Other believes and kills themselves.

m162a. Cuts off his genitals. Person pretends to eat his own genitals. Another one believes him and cuts off his genitals.

m162b. Sour sap into the bearís eyes. Person makes believe to rub sour berries into his eyes. Another (always a bear) suggests to rub the same sap into his eyes and is blinded. The person kills him.

m163. The precious cat. Person gets to a country where rats or mice are a plague and receives a fortune selling a cat .

m164. All tracks going into the den and none coming out. Animal person refuses to enter the den of a strong predator seeing that all tracks go into it but none come out.

m164a. Stinking mouth of the lion. The lion asks animals does his mouth stink (or his den dirty) and kills both those who answer, Yes, and flatterers who answer, No. The smart one tells that he has the sniffles and is unable to answer.

m165. Fur coat for the wolf . One animal person promises to sew a fur coat (or boots) for another and asks to bring him ever more sheep. He eats the meat and sews nothing.

m166. Piece among animals. To lure his potential victim down from a tree, a predator pretends not to be dangerous (usually announces that it has been decreed that all animals are united in piece). The victim is dubious and usually asks the predator to announce the same news to the dogs. The predator runs away.

m167. A tiger taken for a bull. During the night a strong predator (a tiger, a lion, etc.) and a thief not knowing about each other get into stable to steal a domestic animal. The thief takes the predator for domestic animal or for a person and acts accordingly.

m167a. The tiger who is afraid of Twilight. A strong predator (usually a tiger) overhears a person saying that he fears something worse than a tiger The word is unknown to the tiger (twilight, etc). Thinking it must be a terrible thing he hides and then runs away .

m168. More cowardly than the hare. The hare is in despair because he is afraid of all creatures but is delighted when he sees other animals (sheep, frogs, dusks) being afraid of him.

m168A. The master taken seriously. An animal or a bird who makes use of a peasantís property (lives in his field) does it till the very moment when the danger becomes critical. Usually a mother fox or bird does not command her children to leave a field (vineyard) until the master himself (and not his sons, farmhands, etc.) comes to cut the vines or to harvest the field.

m168B. A crooked stick. A bird or a person who turns into a bird must bring a stick that should be not crooked and not straight. This bird is still in search of it..

m169. Medicine for the sick lion. In the presence of powerful person one of his subjects is plotting against the other. The other answers that the problem can be resolved if the first one would be maimed (usually a part of his body used as a medicine). The schemer is killed or injured.

m170. Pilgrimage of the animals. Animal person pretends to confess his sins and become vegetarian, kills those who believed him.

m170a. Sinful camel and pure wolf. A predator sais that a herbivorous is a great sinner and must be eaten up.

m171. The profitable exchange: from a pea to a horse. Person or animal stays for a night and the next morning declares that his possessions (which value is none or negligible) are lost. Or other persons whom the trickster meets really use or spoil objects that the trickster gives them. Every time he receives in compensation objects or animals with ever bigger value, the last acquisition usually being a costly animal or a girl. (All texts with motifs M171A and M171C contain also the motif M171) .

m171a. The profitable exchange: gets a bride. Person or animal gets to exchange less valuable goods for ever more valuable and ultimately gets a bride.

m171b. Shoulder-blade with no meat. Person pretends that he has not a bare should-blade but a good piece of meat, asks people to cook it and then blames them for stealing the meat.

m171c. In exchange for a thorn. Somebody pulls out a thorn from a personís body and throws it away or slightly injures the person. As a result the person is compensated with something more valuable than the thorn.

m171d. The profitable exchange: gets a drum. Animal person gets to exchange less valuable goods for ever more valuable and ultimately gets a drum.

m172. The hare makes the lion his horse. To demonstrate that a strong animal is his slave or his riding animal, a weak animal tricks the strong one to carry him. People believe that the strong one is really a slave of the weak one.

m173. Pretending dead several times. An animal person pretends to be dead and lies down on a road in front of a traveler who carries something valuable. The traveler passes by but returns to pick up the animal when he sees another one, i.e. the same trickster who ran ahead. The trickster steals the possessions that the traveler abandoned for a time.

m173a. The thief drops matched objects. The thief drops first one, then the other, of a pair of matched objects (shoes, boots, sword and sheath, knife and folk) in the road. A person passes by the first object but, when he sees the second, he goes back for the first, leaving the animal (or other possessions) behind. The thief takes the animal.

m174. Eats from behind. A week animal person immobilizing a strong one becomes to eat him from behind and refuses to come to the head where the stronger one can still bite him; or is waiting till the strong animal dies.

m175. A dead lion behind the hyena . Seeing a dead lion (or other big predator) behind him, the hyena thinks that the lion is alive and runs away in panic.

m176. A test: to jump across a brook. (Animal) persons agree to jump across a brook or streamlet, to cross it walking along a log, a rope and the like. One or all of them fall down.

m177. But he had no heart at all. A weak predator eats part of a body of a killed animal and explain to the strong one that this animal did not have such a part at all.

m178. The lying goat. A man sends others one after the other to pasture the goat. Back home, the goat always complains it did not get anything to eat. The man angrily sends away or kills his shepherds (who usually are his family members). When he himself pastures the goat he realizes that it lies. He is going to kill the goat, usually skins it, but it escapes.

m179. A house of bark and a house of ice. Two animal persons live nearby, the house of one of them is destroyed, he asks another to let him in and usually drives the host out of his house. Strong animals are afraid of the intruder but a weak or small one succeeds to return the house to its original owner.

m179a. The owner driven out of his house. Using a trick the intruder occupies other personís house and refuses to let the owner in.

m179b. Guest makes the house unfit for its owner. One animal person asks another (or a man) for a temporal refuge (because of rain, cold, approaching hunter, etc.). Soon he makes the life difficult for the owner. Usually when the owner reproves him, the intruder shows him the way out since he is unhappy where he is.

m180. Fox and crane invite each other. An animal person invites another and serves his food in such a way that he is unable to taste it. Then the other invites the first animal and puts him in similar situation.

m180a. The unwashed monkey. An animal person invites another but asks him to wash his hands or feet before dinner. This proves to be impossible and the hungry guest goes away.

m181. Two companions go to a feast. Two animal persons are invited to a feast. Both along the way and at the place of destination one deceives another .

m181a. Fire at the sunset. Person persuades another to mistake unachievable natural phenomena for the objects of culture. Usually he sends the other to bring a fire indicating a false source of it (a sunset, a firefly).

m182. The tar baby. To catch a thief, a deceiver, the owner of property puts a sticky figure to which the thief sticks (usually mistaken it for alive being and usually touching it with all his body members in succession).

m182a. Wild animals stick to the stuffed animal. Person smears with pitch a domestic animal (a stuffed animal, an object); wild animals stick to it .

m182a1. Captured wild animals ransom themselves. A man catches several wild animals but lets them go after they promise to bring him something valuable or to help him. The animals fulfill their promise.

m182b. The wild animals on the sleigh. Wild animals ride on a sleigh, which breaks. To repair it the animals bring unsatisfactory material from the forest. When the sleigh owner goes for good material they eat the horse (or the bull) and build a dummy to replace it.

m183. A race: one against many. Many animals of one species that all look identical together fulfill the task that would be impossible for any of them if he were alone; the competitors believe that the task was fulfilled by only one animal. Usually a slow and a fast animals agree to race. The slow one puts others who look like him at the finish or along the distance, each one answering the fast one that he is ahead of him. The fast one accepts his loss.

m184. The slow one is ahead of the sleeping one. A slow and a fast animals agree to race. The fast one is sure that he will win and is not in a hurry at all while the slow one is moving persistently to his aim and wins.

m185. On the tail of the fast one. A slow and a fast animals agree to race. The slow one imperceptibly sticks to the fast oneís body (or to a vehicle) and getting to the finish pretends to come there simultaneously with the fast one or before him (animals).

m185a. On the tail of the winner (all versions). Birds, animals or fish compete as about who is the fastest or can fly higher than others. A weak one imperceptible sticks to the body of the fastest or strongest and wins.

m186. Race competition: a fish and an animal. An animal (fox, wolf, leopard) runs along the shore while a fish (burbot, goby) swims in the water. The animal calls him and every time hears his voice from ahead. (Usually the fish puts other fish along the distance but in the Negidal version the competition motif is absent).

m187. Snail is a participant of the race. Snail is a participant of the race and wins.

m188. The painted jackal . Animal person is highly respected by others after he changes his looks by chance; is smeared with a paint or gets a necklace-like object around his neck which he is unable to pull off.

m188a. Jackal the king. Animal person claims to be the king (usually sitting on a garbage heap). One of the animals unmasks him.

m189. To thread a spiral shell. To thread a spiral shell (a stone with tiny opening, a horn, etc.) person ties the thread to an ant and lets it go through the opening.

m190. The beaver and the porcupine. The beaver ferries the porcupine and usually throws him into water or abandons on an island.

m191. Cat and wild animals. The fox (dog, squirrel) lives with the cat and poses him as a strong and dangerous animal. The wild predator animals are scared and bring him meat.

m191A. Belling the cat. The mice decide to tie a bell on the cat, so they can hear when the cat comes. Usually they cannot find anyone to tie it on her.

m192. Trapped in the animal hide. An animal or person who crawled into a fresh carcass or put on a fresh animal skin cannot free himself when the carcass or the skin becomes dry. He gets free when the skin becomes soft again or somebody tears it open.

m192a. The dried up straps. Animal person agrees to put on a fresh skin of another animal or to be tied up with raw straps. The skin or straps dry up making the person suffer.

m193. Flight inside pumpkin. To pass unnoticed dangerous animals on his or her way back, person crawls into a gourd, a big cattle, etc. and is rolling inside it along the road, or he walks transforming his appearance in a bizarre way.

m194. Travelerís possessions divided. Several animals get objects possessed by a person. Dividing their booty, one animal takes all the food for himself giving the others objects that can be used only by people. Animals that received them suffer or die.

m195. Two horses: which is older?. Person should guess which of two horses is older. He does it considering peculiarities of the habits of horses.

m195A. Which end of a stick is a butt?. Person should guess which end of a planed stick or log was nearer to the butt.

m196. The silence wager. A man and his wife make a wager: Whoever speaks first must do certain trivial work or get a bigger portion of some simple food. They or one of them continue to keep silence even being exposed to violence or taken by others as the dead.

m196a. Corpses that became to speak. Making a wager because of a trivial thing, spouses (or only one of them) lie without movement and are taken for dead. People bury them but at the last moment they become to speak, people run in panic; or the pretended dead is really buried.

m197. The effectiveness of fire. Seriously or demonstrating absurdity of the situation, a person tries to cook something using a fire (a source of light) that is far away from the object to be cooked.

m197a. The pot has a child and dies. A borrower returns a cattle (pot) together with a small one, claiming that the cattle gave birth to a child. He borrows the pot again but does not return it, claiming that the pot dies.

m197b. The neighing stallions and the mares who foaled. A powerful man claims that after his stallions neighed his neighborís mares foaled, that all foals in his land are born by his mare, etc. A youth comes to kill dogs of the man because they did not drive wolves in due time (because they scared game, etc.). The dogs were far away from the place of the event and the man recognizes that his trick failed.

m197c. Sham physician: using the flea powder. A huckster sells powder that he guarantees will kill fleas (rats, etc.). When someone asks how to use it, he relies that one has to catch the flea, hold its mouth (eyes) open and put powder in it. When the customer says that it would be easier simply to crush, the seller agrees with him .

m197d. The shortened stick. A judge gives sticks to all the suspects in a court case and tells them that the guilty oneís stick will grow during the night. The guilty man cuts a bit off his stick and thus is discovered.

m197e. Wife as an unknown animal. A man demonstrates to a devil (dangerous animal) his wife (rare: grandfather) who is covered with tar (honey) and feathers, moves on her hands and knees with her buttocks as the head, etc. Because the devil cannot understand what an animal it is, he loses a contest, is scared, etc..

m197ŗ. Why hair of head is gray before the beard. A man answers the question why the hair of his head is gray (white) and the hair of his beard is black. ďThe hair of the head is twenty years older than the beardĒ.

m198. Wise brothers (the king is bastard). When three brothers are Invited to khan (judge, king, etc.) and served delicious food, they claim that the food and drink have a taste (smell) of a corpse, dog, goat etc. and their host is of a low descent or a bastard. Investigation confirms that their deduction was correct .

m198a. Wise brothers (the strayed camel). Three or four brothers (rare: one man) see the track of a domestic animal and are able to deduce how it looked like (lame, had no tale, carried oil and honey, etc.).

m198a1. The eldest: it is round, the middle: it is hard, the youngest: it is a nut!. Three brothers in succession and without obvious reason describe an object or a person which or whom they have never seen.

m198a2. Rubin with a flaw. A wise man demonstrates that an object considered by others as valuable (a precious stone, a sword, etc.) have a flaw and is worthless.

m198a3. Who did steal the ruby?. One of the brothers steals a treasure for which all of them have equal rights or he is a bastard. Brothers come to a powerful person and want him to say who of them is the thief or the bastard. Usually the person tells a story and discovers the guilty one considering his reaction.

m198a4. Which was the noblest act?. Listeners of a story must answer whom they liked more: a husband who let his wife go to another man, a robber who did not harm her, or the other man who immediately sent her back to her husband.

m198b. The pretended astrologer. A king (landlord, etc.) suggests to guess what he has in his hand (in a box, etc.). A man gives the correct answer pronouncing by chance the name of an object or creature that was in the box.

m198b1. Crab by name, the astrologer . A king (landlord, etc.) suggests a man whose name was Crab to guess what is in the box (on the plate under a cover, etc.). It is a crab (crabs) there. The man says that now you, Crab, is caught. People think that he gave the correct answer.

m198b2. Grasshopper by name, the astrologer . A king (landlord, etc.) suggests to guess what he has in his hand (in a box). It is an insect there (usually a grasshopper). The man says that now you, Grasshopper, is caught. People think that he gave the correct answer.

m198b3. Roof of the mosque falling in. A pretended diviner finds by chance stolen objects, he is generously rewarded. Once he, for some reason, pushes in the most impolite way the ruler (the people) out of the building. Immediately after this the roof of the building falls in. The prestige of the diviner becomes higher than ever.

m199. Squeezing the (supposed) stone. A man or a weak animal and an ogre (giant, devil) have a contest to see which of them can squeeze a stone. The man squeezes a cheese (egg, turnip) and thus intimidates the ogre.

m199a. Extracting brain from the earth. A man buries something half-liquid and soft (animal bowels, eggs, etc.). He stamps (shoots an arrow) at this place and claims that got to extract brains (bowels, etc.) from the earth.

m199b. Not a stone but a bird is thrown. An ogre (devil etc.) and a man compete to determine who can throw a stone higher or to a greater distance. The man throws not a stone but a bird..

m199c. Throwing a club. A man pretends that he had thrown or is going to throw a heavy object to the sky (to the clouds). His adversary asks him not to do it..

m199c1. Throwing contest. An ogre (devil etc.) pretends to throw a stone or other heavy object so far that it will destroy people beyond the sea (mountains, etc.) (where ogreís relatives live).

m199d. Wrestling and running contests. An ogre (devil, etc.) challenges a man to a wrestling and/or running contest. The man sends his ďrelativeĒ Ė a bear to wrestle and a hare to run.

m199d1. Climbing contest (ogre and squirrel). An ogre (giant) challenges a man to a climbing contest. The man persuades the ogre to compete with the manís child Ė a squirrel Ė instead of himself. The squirrel wins.

m199e. Carrying the horse. An ogre (devil, etc.) and a man take turns in carrying a horse. The ogre carries it on his back and is soon exhausted and the man ďtakes the horse between the legsĒ, i.e. rides it.

m199f. Pulling the lake together. Person threatens the devils (water dwellers, etc.) that he will deprive them of their home (pull together or stir up a lake, dry the sea, build a church where the devils live, etc.). The devils (fish, etc.) fulfill personís demands.

m199g1. Carrying a tree with an ogre. An ogre (devil, a strong animal, etc.) and a man (a weaker animal) carry a tree. The man tricks the ogre who carries the heavy bottom-end while the man sits on a branch or walks pretending to carry his burden .

m199g2. Carrying a thorny pole. A man and a tiger carry meat on a pole. The man tricks the tiger to take the thorny end of the pole and the tiger suffers from pain.

m199h. The disemboweled ogre. Person hides a bag under his clothes and puts their food that he is supposed to eat. Cutting the bag open he pretends that disembowels himself to get rid of extensive food. His adversary tries to do the same and kills himself.

m199i. Screaming or whistling context. A man (boy) and an ogre (devil, etc.) have a screaming or whistling context. The man binds ogreís eyes and strikes him on his head with a heavy object or he pretends to bind their heads that they would not break because of his whistling. The ogre acknowledges the man to be the stronger.

n1. Initial formula: when Altai was but a small tussock. Epics and folktales begin with an initial formula in which it is claimed that objects that are huge now were tiny.

n2. Initial formula: when a goat was a colonel. Epics and folktales begin with an initial formula in which it is claimed that animals fulfilled social or economic roles of the people.

n3. Hungry fingers. One of the fingers says that he is hungry and/or suggests to steal something. Other fingers express their opinion on this behalf..

n4. Ribs grown together. Strong men have ribs grown together to form a kind of an armor or shell.

n5. They recognize winter by rime, summer by rain. Long trips, campaigns, flights or battles are described using cliche which contain expressions like ďthey get to know that it is winter seeing rime, that it is summer, seeing rainĒ and the like.

n6. Horse tells to whip him strongly. A horse tells his rider to whip him with such force that his blood would splash out, skin would come off, flesh would be gashed to the very bone, etc. The rider follows these instructions.

n7. Three apples. Closing formula of the folktale: three apples fell from heaven or a tree; the storyteller got at least one of them. Or it is said that somebody gives / ought to give to the storyteller one or three apples.

n8. Storyteller instead of a cannonball. Closing formula of the folktale: characters put the storyteller into a cannon or rifle and made the shot or he jumped onto a cannonball that has been shot from a cannon and so arrived at the place of performance.

n9. Who is coming?. Two persons see a horseman who is ever nearer to them. One of the higher social position explains that what seems to be crows are clods flying from under the hooves of the horse and what seems to be snow, cloud or fog are lather dripping from the horseí mouth or its breath .

n10. The transparent body. A woman (rare: a man) with transparent body is described. This transparence is an evidence of the beauty.

n10a. The transparent bones. A woman (rare: a man) with transparent body is described: bones are seen through the skin and marrow through the bones. This transparence is an evidence of the beauty.

n10b. The transparent neck. A girl (rare: a youth) with transparent neck is described, food or drinks swallowed by her or him are seen. Such a neck is an evidence of the beauty.

n10c. Inner organs are seen through the body. Inner organs of a girl or food that she swallowed are seen through her body. This transparence is an evidence of the beauty. .

n11. As snow and blood. Person is eager to get a pink-cheeked and white-skinned child (spouse) who would be likened to blood and snow (milk).

n12. Cloak of beards. A powerful person makes or orders to make for him a cloak or a mantle from human beards and/or moustaches.

n13. Girl is the scissors. Girl is associated with scissors (and boy with a knife or an axe).

n14. Storyteller on the wedding. Closing formula of the folktale: the teller represents himself as being present at the wedding and/or feast, which were organized by characters of the tale.

n15. It ran down onto my moustache, but didnít get into my mouth. Closing formula of the folktale: the teller ate some food and/or drank some alcohol but it did not get into his mouth and/or stomach.

n16. The ice horse. Closing formula of the folktale: the teller had a horse and/or harness of wax, ice, flax, vegetables, etc. Usually they are melt, eaten, etc..

n17. The paper clothes. Closing formula of the folktale: the teller met characters of the tale and had clothes made of paper, glass, butter, etc..

n18. Gifts are taken away. Closing formula of the folktale: the teller received food, drinks, money or other real-world objects from characters of the tale, but lost them because of a meeting with dogs or people (robbers, youths, children or his neighbor).

n19. Still limping. Closing formula of the folktale: one or two people who met the teller after the tale feast or were present at this party became bald and/or lame because of a hot food get on the head and/or a thrown bone or bowl.

n20. They attained their desires. Closing formula of the folktale: the teller says that the characters attained their desires, goals and/or happiness or that God satisfied their desires.

n21. The Dough-hero. The warrior-hero was made of dough and then became alive (his name is ďThe DoughĒ).

n22. If they are not dead, they are still alive. Closing formula of the folktale: the teller says that the characters are still alive if they are not already dead.

n23. They stayed there, and I came here. Closing formula of the folktale: the teller says that the characters stayed there (i.e. at the place where the action happened) or were left there by him, and that he returned home and/or came here (i.e. to the place of the performance).

n24. Like another Moon. Light is seen that looks like the second Moon or the second Sun. Itís source is a beautiful woman.

n25. The length of a needle as a long distance. It is said that tale characters have been on the road for a long time (days, weeks, months, years), but passed in the end a distance no more than a grain, needle or another small object.