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S. Thompson. Motif-index of folk-literature : a classification of narrative elements in folktales, ballads, myths, fables, medieval romances, exempla, fabliaux, jest-books, and local legends.

Revised and enlarged. edition. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1955-1958.


Grant support: INTAS project 05-1000008-7922, РФФИ #06-06-80-420a, РФФИ #07-06-00441-а

N. CHANCE AND FATE

DETAILED SYNOPSIS

N0--N99. Wagers and gambling

N0. Wagers and gambling

N10. Wagers on wives, husbands, or servants

N50. Other wagers

N90. Wagers and gambling--miscellaneous

N100--N299. The ways of luck and fate

N100--N169. Nature of luck and fate

N100. Nature of luck and fate

N110. Luck and fate personified

N120. Determination of luck or fate

N130. Changing of luck or fate

N140. Nature of luck and fate--miscellaneous motifs

N170. The capriciousness of luck

N200. The good gifts of fortune

N250. Persistent bad luck

N270. Crime inevitably comes to light

N300--N399. Unlucky accidents

N300. Unlucky accidents

N310. Accidental separations

N320. Person unwittingly killed

N330. Accidental killing or death

N340. Hasty killing or condemnation

N350. Accidental loss of property

N360. Man unwittingly commits crime

N380. Other unlucky accidents

N400--N699. Lucky accidents

N410--N439. Lucky business ventures

N440--N499. Valuable secrets learned

N440. Valuable secrets learned

N450. Secrets overheard

N500--N599. Treasure trove

N500. Treasure trove

N510. Where treasure is found

N530. Discovery of treasure

N550. Unearthing hidden treasure

N570. Guardian of treasure

N590. Treasure trove--miscellaneous motifs

N600--N699. Other lucky accidents

N610. Accidental discovery of crime

N620. Accidental success in hunting or fishing

N630. Accidental acquisition of treasure or money

N640. Accidental healing

N650. Life saved by accident

N680. Lucky accidents--miscellaneous

N700--N799. Accidental encounters

N700. Accidental encounters

N710. Accidental meeting of hero and heroine

N730. Accidental reunion of families

N760. Other accidental encounters

N770. Experiences leading to adventures

N800--N899. Helpers

N800. Helpers

N810. Supernatural helpers

N820. Human helpers

N.

N. CHANCE AND FATE

N0--N99.

N0--N99. Wagers and gambling.

N0. N0. Wagers and gambling. *Penzer II 232 n., VII 72 n. 2; Paton Encyc. Rel. and Ethics s.v. “Gambling”; *Fb “kort” II 278; Jewish: *Neuman.

N1. N1. Gamblers. Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 70--73, 210; Missouri French: Carriиre; Jewish: *Neuman.

N1.0.1. N1.0.1. Gambling caused by possession of men by evil demons. India: Thompson-Balys.

N1.1. N1.1. Hero makes fortune through gambling. Scotch: Campbell Tales II 253, 271.

N1.2. N1.2. Conquering gambler. Bankrupt gambler gets supernatural power and wins back his fortune. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 354 n. 276, (Zuсi): Benedict II 342, (Klikitat): Jacobs U Wash II 5.

N1.2.1. N1.2.1. The miracle of broken die at gambling saves man. Krappe Hispanic Review XIV (1946) 164ff.

N1.2.2. N1.2.2. Dice made from bones from graveyard. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N1.3. N1.3. Betting contest between two kings. Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 8.

N2. N2. Extraordinary stakes at gambling. Irish myth: Cross.

N2.0.1. N2.0.1. Play for unnamed stakes. Irish myth: *Cross; Scottish: Campbell-McKay Nos. 1, 17.

N2.0.2. N2.0.2. Stakes not claimed by winner, who insists on another game. Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 17.

N2.1. N2.1. Own body as stake: to be taken as slave. Missouri French: Carriиre; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 882; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 354 n. 277.

N2.2. N2.2. Lives wagered. *Fb “spille” III 487b; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys; Burmese: Scott Indo-Chinese 323; Hawaii Beckwith Myth 111, 459; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 354 n. 277; Africa (Fjort): Dennett 71 No. 15.

N2.3. N2.3. Bodily members wagered.

N2.3.1. N2.3.1. Head wagered. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N2.3.2. N2.3.2. Hand wagered. To be cut off. Penzer II 232n.

N2.3.2.1. N2.3.2.1. Hands and feet wagered. India: Thompson-Balys.

N2.3.3. N2.3.3. Eyes wagered. *Type 613; Christiansen FFC XXIV 48ff., 55; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 82.

N2.3.4. N2.3.4. Nose wagered. India: Thompson-Balys.

N2.3.5. N2.3.5. Intestines wagered. Africa (Wute): Sieber 212f.

N2.4. N2.4. Helpful animals lost in wager. India: Thompson-Balys.

N2.5. N2.5. Whole kingdom (all property) as wager. *Fb “spille” III 487b, “konge” II 264b; Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 429.

N2.5.1. N2.5.1. Right of succession to the throne lost in gambling. India: Thompson-Balys.

N2.5.2. N2.5.2. Half kingdom as wager. India: Thompson-Balys.

N2.6. N2.6. Wife as wager. *Fb “spille” III 487b; Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 216 No. 165; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 354 n. 276.

N2.6.1. N2.6.1. Sister as wager. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N2.6.2. N2.6.2. Daughter as wager. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N2.6.3. N2.6.3. Damsel as wager. India: Thompson-Balys.

N2.7. N2.7. Love wagered in game. Danish: Grundtvig No. 238; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N3. N3. Supernatural adversary in gambling (witch or giant). Norse: Boberg.

N3.1. N3.1. Gambling with a god. India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian (Zuсi) *Benedict II 338.

N4. N4. Devil as gambler. Fb “kort” II 279a, “klцr” II 204; Alphabet No. 450; Scala Celi 110b, 111a Nos. 615, 616; Irish: O’Suilleabhain 33, 36, Beal XXI 311, 313; Missouri French: Carriиre.

N4.0.1. N4.0.1. Devil cheated at card playing. Fb “fanden” I 267b.

N4.1. N4.1. Devil makes wager with builder of Cologne Cathedral. Wьnsche 83f.

N4.2. N4.2. Playing game of chance (or skill) with uncanny being. Irish myth: *Cross.

N5. N5. Card-playing parson. The parson plays cards all Saturday night, goes to sleep at church, and calls out the names of the cards. Type 1839A; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1785E*. Cf. Type 1839B.

N6. N6. Luck in gambling.

N6.1. N6.1. Luck in gambling from compact with devil. Scala Celi 24a No. 154; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 55 No. 408A*, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 70--73.

N6.2. N6.2. Cuckold loses luck. A man‘s wife is deceived in order that he may lose in gambling. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 81.

N6.3. N6.3. Saint helps gambler. Icelandic: Boberg.

N7. N7. Trained rat upsets pieces in gambling game: trained (or transformed) cat chases it away. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N8. N8. Gambler’s attention distracted by women. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N9. N9. Wagers and gambling--miscellaneous.

N9.1. N9.1. Gambler loses everything. (Cf. N2.5.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

N10. N10. Wagers on wives, husbands, or servants.

N11. N11. Wager on wife‘s complacency. Though the man has foolishly bargained everything away, she praises him and he wins the wager. Type 1415; *BP II 199; *Hdwb. d. Mдrchens I 187 n. 131.

N12. N12. Wager on the most obedient wife. The husband tames his shrewish wife so that he wins the wager. *Type 901; *Wesselski Mдrchen 216 No. 24; von der Hagen I lxxxii; *Kцhler-Bolte I 137; Shakespeare‘s “The Taming of the Shrew”; N. A. Indian (Zuсi): Boas JAFL XXXV 76.

N12.1. N12.1. Wager: raja’s daughter will bring servant dinner in field. Merchant ignorant that she is his wife. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N13. N13. Husbands wager that they will be able to do what wives tell them to do. One is told to drown himself: loses wager. England: Baughman.

N15. N15. Chastity wager. A man makes a wager on his wife‘s chastity. In spite of unsuccessful attempts to seduce her and of false proofs presented, he wins the wager. *Type 882; *Kцhler-Bolte I 211f., 375, 581; **G. Paris Romania XXXII 481ff.; *von der Hagen III lxxxiii; Boccaccio Decameron II No. 9 (Lee 42); Shakespeare’s “Cymbeline”; *Child V 500 s.v. “wager”.--Irish myth: Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 110; England: Baughman; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: bin Gorion Born [email protected] I 276ff., III 109, 304; India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 62, 253ff.

N15.1. N15.1. Chastity wager: woman succumbs. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 51.

N15.2. N15.2. Wager on nun’s chastity. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 996.

N16. N16. Wagers on unborn children.

N16.1. N16.1. Wager on sex of unborn child. India: Thompson-Balys.

N16.2. N16.2. Fathers whose unborn children are affianced wager as to mastery in the house. (Cf. N12.) India: Thompson-Balys.

N25. N25. Wager on truthfulness of servant. The servant is sent to a neighbor‘s where he is made drunk and is seduced by the neighbor’s wife. He tells the master all. *Type 889; Wesselski Mдrchen 200; Wesselski Mцnchslatein I No. 1; Fb “lyve” II 491a, “sandhed” III 157b; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N50. N50. Other wagers.

N51. N51. Wager: who can call three tree names first. The bear names different varieties of the same tree, so that the fox wins the wager. *Type 7; Dh I 193; Krohn Bдr (Wolf) und Fuchs (JSFO VI) 65ff.; Fb “trж” III 867b; N. A. Indian (San Carlos Apache): cf. Goddard PaAM XXIV 24.

N51.1. N51.1. Wager about tree names: learned and common names. Brahmin gives learned names but servant‘s common names are confirmed by illiterate peasants. India: Thompson-Balys.

N53. N53. Wager: it is an auspicious day. In spite of all misfortunes wagerer insists that he is right. (Cf. N127.) India: Thompson-Balys.

N55. N55. Shooting contest on wager. *Type 592; *BP II 490ff.; Spanish: Espinosa III 153.

N55.1. N55.1. Loser of shooting wager to go naked into thorns for bird. *Type 592; *BP II 490ff.

N56. N56. Wager: woman to turn somersault in middle of public square. It is performed not exactly in the center of the square; hence she loses. India: Thompson-Balys.

N61. N61. Wager that falsehood is better than truth. Left to unjust umpire, so that falsehood wins. *Type 613; *BP II 468ff.; **Christiansen FFC XXIV 47; Chauvin V 11 No. 8, 13 No. 9, 14 No. 158; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 489; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl II 395.

N63. N63. Wager: more doctors than men of other professions. The trickster feigns toothache. Everyone suggests remedies. He takes down their names as doctors and wins the wager. *Wesselski Gonnella 110 No. 11; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N66. N66. Wager: fortune made from capital or from working at vocation. Test: money given to workman is stolen or lost; lead for his work given him is lent to fisherman who rewards him with a fish in which is a diamond. *Chauvin VI 32 No. 202.

N67. N67. Wager: woman can be forced to give alms. Trickster announces that only those who have deceived their husbands are exempt. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N71. N71. Wager: to begin sermon with illustration from card-playing. Card-playing parson wins the wager. Type 1839B.

N72. N72. Wager on second marvelous object. First object has proved to be ordinary. King induced to make large wager that second is ordinary. He loses. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N73. N73. Wager: whose hunger is it more difficult to appease--that of man or that of beast? When nuts are strewn before master’s well-fed guests, they snatch and eat them. Herdsman wins wager. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1545*.

N75. N75. Wager: to swallow egg with one gulp. Tricksters give numskull egg with chick in it. Fool hears chick peep as he starts to swallow his egg, but he says that the chick peeped too late. Spanish: Childers.

N77. N77. Wager: bullock to defeat elephant. Elephant is frightened and flees. India: Thompson-Balys.

N78. N78. Ghoulish wager won. England: *Baughman.

N90. N90. Wagers and gambling--miscellaneous.

N91. N91. Purchase of box without knowledge of its contents. *Chauvin VI 17 No. 189 n. 2.

N92. N92. Wager to win or lose according to whether jackal howls or ass brays before game is finished. India: Thompson-Balys.

N94. N94. Father hides wealth to keep son from gambling it away. India: Thompson-Balys.

N100--N299.

N100--N299. The ways of luck and fate.

N100--N169.

N100--N169. NATURE OF LUCK AND FATE

N100. N100. Nature of luck and fate. Penzer V 182f.; *Kцhler Aufsдtze 99ff.; *Patch Fortuna 78; Irish myth: Cross.

N101. N101. Inexorable fate. *Cosquin Contes Indiens 126f.; Hdwb. d. Mдrchens II 63 s.v. Fatalismus; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N101.1. N101.1. Inexorable fate: no day without sorrow. A king, who has made decree against sorrow on a certain day is blinded by a swallow in his sleep. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 481.

N101.2. N101.2. Inexorable fate: death from violating tabus. (Cf. C920.) Irish myth: *Cross.

N101.3. N101.3. Man cannot die: snake will not bite him though it is provoked by him. (Cf. N146.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1030.

N101.4. N101.4. Man fated to become king becomes so despite fact he breaks his tooth in which his luck resides. (Cf. N113.2.2.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 860.

N102. N102. Fortune comes to deserving and undeserving. Jewish: Neuman.

N110. N110. Luck and fate personified.

N111. N111. Fortuna. Luck (fate) thought of as a goddess. **Patch Fortuna; *Penzer I 106f., 135, II 49, 116, III 24, 74, 298, VI 42, 72, 105 n. 1, 124, 156, 159, VII 70, VIII 87; Frazer Pausanias III 424; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N111.1. N111.1. Dwelling place of Fortuna.

N111.1.1. N111.1.1. Home of Fortuna in other world. Patch PMLA XXXIII 630.

N111.1.2. N111.1.2. Home of Fortuna on island (in otherworld). *Kцhler-Bolte II 412f.; *Patch Fortuna 129ff.; Hartland Science 199.

N111.2. N111.2. Appearance of Fortuna.

N111.2.1. N111.2.1. Fortuna blind. *Patch Fortuna 44 n. 2.

N111.2.1.1. N111.2.1.1. Fortune has one eye, watches over everybody. India: Thompson-Balys.

N111.2.2. N111.2.2. Fortuna with two faces. *Patch Fortuna 43 nn. 3, 4.

N111.2.3. N111.2.3. Fortuna half white, half black. *Patch Fortuna 43 n. 4.

N111.3. N111.3. Fortune‘s wheel. **Patch Fortuna 147ff.; *Kцhler-Bolte II 66; Irish: O’Suilleabhain 122, Beal XXI 336; Jewish: *Neuman.

N111.3.1. N111.3.1. Fortune‘s wheel turned by dead king in mountain. Armenian: Ananikian 34.

N111.3.2. N111.3.2. Fortune with pair of scales in his hands weighs man’s balance. India: Thompson-Balys.

N111.4. N111.4. Fortune‘s dealings with men.

N111.4.1. N111.4.1. Man thanks earth for saving his life; had he fallen into well he would have blamed Fortune. Wienert FFC LVI 81 (ET 470), 125 (ST 341); Halm Aesop No. 316; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N111.5. N111.5. Giant is clerk to God of Destiny and measures out mortals’ spans of existence. India: Thompson-Balys.

N112. N112. Bad luck personified.

N112.1. N112.1. Bad luck put into a sack. Kцhler-Bolte I 258.

N113. N113. Good luck personified.

N113.1. N113.1. Good fortune resides in an object. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1138.

N113.1.1. N113.1.1. Casket with Good Luck in it given to men by Zeus. Wienert FFC LVI 36; *Babrius No. 58.

N113.2. N113.2. Personification of Good Luck lives in man‘s forehead. India: Thompson-Balys.

N113.2.1. N113.2.1. Lucky right hand. Gaster Thespis 174.

N113.2.2. N113.2.2. Man’s luck resides in his tooth. (Cf. N101.4.) Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 860.

N113.3. N113.3. Personification of Good Luck leaves palace since king is destined to die that night. India: Thompson-Balys.

N113.4. N113.4. Luck can be found in certain place. India: Thompson-Balys.

N114. N114. Fortune as an old woman. India: Thompson-Balys.

N115. N115. Book of fate. India: *Thompson-Balys; Gaster Thespis 348.

N118. N118. Issues left to fate (luck).

N118.1. N118.1. Ship‘s course left to the winds that it might be carried where fate wills it. India: Thompson-Balys.

N119. N119. Luck and fate personified--miscellaneous.

N119.1. N119.1. Dog tries to catch its fate in its own tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

N119.2. N119.2. Buffalo’s fate in bamboo growing from head. India: Thompson-Balys.

N119.3. N119.3. Ill-omened face of king; harbinger of evil. India: Thompson-Balys.

N120. N120. Determination of luck or fate.

N121. N121. Fate decided before birth. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

N121.1. N121.1. Child born with objects that indicate fate. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

N121.1.1. N121.1.1. Spirit of new-born child in uniform. God has determined fates of everyone. Type 934*; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 934C*; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI No. 934I.

N121.1.2. N121.1.2. New-born child with a weapon and a game animal: fated to be hunter. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

N121.2. N121.2. Death forestalls evil fates. Mother shown what would have been the evil fates of her children if they had not died. BP III 472ff.; Irish: Beal XXI 336, O’Suilleabhain 120.

N121.3. N121.3. Newborn girl fated to be a courtesan. India: Thompson-Balys.

N121.4. N121.4. Seventh daughter predestined to be magician. (Cf. Z71.5.) Argentina: Jijena Sanchez 54, 64; Spain: ibid. 69; Portugal: ibid. 70.

N122. N122. Lucky or unlucky places.

N122.0.1. N122.0.1. The choice of roads. At parting of three roads are equivocal inscriptions telling what will happen if each is chosen. Brothers each choose a different road. Kцhler-Bolte I 537ff.; India Thompson-Balys.

N122.1. N122.1. Unlucky places. Jewish: *Neuman.

N125. N125. Choices by chance.

N125.1. N125.1. He upon whom feather (wisp) falls to be king‘s fool. Irish myth: Cross.

N125.2. N125.2. Luck determined by whether a crooked-necked demigod is looking at one. India: Thompson-Balys.

N125.3. N125.3. King to be victorious as long as he rides muzzled gelding. Irish myth: Cross.

N125.4. N125.4. Districts named from first person met in each. Irish myth: Cross.

N126. N126. Lots cast to determine luck or fate. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.

N126.1. N126.1. Lots cast to determine who shall undertake adventure. Irish myth: Cross.

N126.2. N126.2. Lots cast to determine father of illegitimate child. Irish myth: *Cross.

N127. N127. The auspicious (lucky) day (days). (Cf. N53.) Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

N127.0.1. N127.0.1. Different kinds of luck attending persons born on the several days of the week. Irish myth: *Cross.

N127.1. N127.1. Tuesday as auspicious day. Irish myth: *Cross.

N127.2. N127.2. Wednesday as auspicious (inauspicious) day. Irish myth: *Cross.

N127.3. N127.3. Thursday as lucky day. Irish myth: Cross.

N127.4. N127.4. Friday as auspicious day. Irish myth: *Cross.

N128. N128. Unlucky days (“cross-days”). Irish myth: *Cross.

N128.0.1. N128.0.1. Days of the week on which certain tragic deaths occurred. Irish myth: *Cross.

N128.1. N128.1. National disasters occur always at the same date. Jewish: Neuman.

N128.2. N128.2. Monday and Wednesday as unlucky days. Jewish: Neuman.

N130. N130. Changing of luck or fate.

N131. N131. Acts performed for changing luck. *Fb “lykke” II 474f.

N131.1. N131.1. Luck changing after cohabitation. Icelandic: Bуsasaga 23, Hrolfs saga Kraka 96ff.

N131.2. N131.2. Turning right-handwise in certain place brings luck. Irish myth: Cross.

N131.3. N131.3. Spilling salt brings bad luck.

N131.3.1. N131.3.1. Judas Iscariot spills salt at the Last Supper. England: Baughman.

N131.4. N131.4. Luck changing after change of name. Jewish: *Neuman.

N131.5. N131.5. Luck changing after change of place. Jewish: *Neuman.

N134. N134. Persons effect change of luck. Irish myth: Cross.

N134.1. N134.1. Persons bring bad luck. Jewish: *Neuman.

N134.1.1. N134.1.1. Unlucky to have man in house while cloth is being dyed. Irish myth: Cross.

N134.1.2. N134.1.2. Wife brings bad luck to the husband’s family. India: Thompson-Balys.

N134.1.3. N134.1.3. Persons lose luck as punishment. India: Thompson-Balys.

N134.1.4. N134.1.4. Spirit of adversity brings bad luck to house. India: Thompson-Balys.

N134.1.5. N134.1.5. Passenger brings bad luck to ship. Cast overboard. Jonah. (Cf. S264.1.)

N135. N135. Objects effect change of luck. India: Thompson-Balys.

N135.1. N135.1. Thirteen as unlucky number. **Bцklen Die “unglьckezahl” Dreizehn (Leipzig, 1913); Hdwb. d. Abergl. s.v. “Zahlen” B 13; *Fb “tretten”; **Kyriakiodos To Dysoionon tou Arithmou 13 (Athens, 1953).

N135.2. N135.2. Possession of money brings luck. Nothing escapes a mouse as long as she has in her hole a purse of money Chauvin II 94 No. 45; Bшdker Exempler 291 No. 49.

N135.2.1. N135.2.1. Discovery of treasure brings luck. Chinese: Graham.

N135.3. N135.3. The luck-bringing shirt. The king is to become lucky when he puts on the shirt of a lucky man. The only man who says that he is lucky has no shirt. *Type 844; **Kцhler Aufsдtze 119ff.; H. C. Andersen‘s “Lykkens Galocher”; Edwin Markham’s “The Shoes of Fortune.”

N135.3.1. N135.3.1. Feast for those who have not known sorrow. Dying Alexander’s letter to his mother orders such a feast. No one comes. *Kцhler-Bolte I 579; Kцhler Aufsдtze 130.

N135.4. N135.4. Lucky marks on body. India: Thompson-Balys.

N136. N136. The judge‘s bad-luck bringing boots. The wealthy merchant becomes a beggar, due to the judge’s boots he acquired through exchange (theft). Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 2447*.

N137. N137. Philosopher conquers evil fate. India: Thompson-Balys.

N140. N140. Nature of luck and fate--miscellaneous motifs.

N141. N141. Luck or intelligence? Dispute as to which is the more powerful. Man with intelligence remains poor (is brought into court). Saved by mere luck. *Type 945; BP III 53f.; Tille FFC XXXIV 254; Jewish: bin Gorion Born [email protected] IV 47, 128, 276, 281; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N141.1. N141.1. Which is more important, learning or wit? India: Thompson-Balys.

N141.2. N141.2. Which is more powerful, wealth or wisdom? India: *Thompson-Balys.

N141.3. N141.3. Which is more beautiful, nymph of Luck or of Ill-Luck (Luck when coming, Ill-Luck when going). India: Thompson-Balys.

N141.4. N141.4. Weaver married by Wealth to a princess to show Wisdom that he is the more powerful. India: Thompson-Balys.

N142. N142. Destiny better than work, show, or speculation. A peasant makes a little by his work; a nobleman more by his outward show; a merchant still more by speculation; but a prince most of all by his destiny. Chauvin II 109 No. 72; Bшdker Exempler 305 No. 76; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N143. N143. Luck only with money that is earned honestly. Icelandic: Boberg.

N145. N145. Cast-out princess prospers because of Good Luck. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N146. N146. Man not fated to die cannot be killed. (Cf. N101.3.) Jewish: *Neuman.

N170. N170. The capriciousness of luck. Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

N171. N171. Unprotected son makes fortune; protected son has bad luck. Type 935*.

N172. N172. Prodigal as favorite of fortune. *Type 935; Irish: Beal XXI 305, O’Suilleabhain 14.

N172.1. N172.1. Prodigal son favored over faithful son. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N173. N173. Disagreeable and disliked youth as favorite of Fortune. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N174. N174. Careful builder outside when storm comes is killed; careless builder saved. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 247 No. 58.

N177. N177. Beggar escapes from fire. Refused hospitality, he must sleep outdoors. The house burns down. *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 479; Jewish: Neuman.

N178. N178. Loss of eye saves man from execution. Man to be buried with king. Gets off because he lacks an eye. *Wesselski Mдrchen 230; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 480.

N178.1. N178.1. Broken leg saves man from fatal fight. King has ordered that he be killed in a fight. He breaks his leg and cannot take part. Meantime the king learns of his innocence. Chauvin II 152 No. 18; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N178.2. N178.2. Man chosen for execution because he is fat. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N178.3. N178.3. King‘s counselor expelled from a court thereby escapes accompanying the king, who is killed by robbers. India: Thompson-Balys.

N178.4. N178.4. Only crippled cow not driven away by robbers. India: Thompson-Balys.

N181. N181. Fortunes of the rich man and of the poor man. The Fortune of the rich brother tells the poor brother to seek his luck under a bush. The poor man goes there and Fortune tells him to become a merchant. He becomes rich. Type 735; India: Thompson-Balys.

N182. N182. Snake turns to gold in answer to dream. Woman tells dream of pot of gold. Robbers overhear but finding only snake in pot turn it loose on woman’s bed. It turns to gold. India: Thompson-Balys.

N183. N183. Money lost twice: recovered third time. Type 935**; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 946*; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 114 No. 945A*.

N185. N185. Fugitive woman burdened with child saved; childless woman killed. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 136 No. 92.

N186. N186. Man who derided another‘s faith in the stars becomes respected astrologer. (Cf. P481.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N187. N187. Hero fails to meet the man he seeks, though they are close to one another. Icelandic: Sterka 436, Boberg.

N200. N200. The good gifts of fortune.

N201. N201. Wish for exalted husband realized. Girls make wish that they may marry king (prince, etc.). It so happens. *Type 707; *BP II 380ff., 393; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl II 388.

N202. N202. Wishes for good fortune realized. Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 87, 420, II 824.

N202.1. N202.1. Wish realized that all women should fall in love with man at sight. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 724.

N203. N203. Lucky person. Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N211. N211. Lost object returns to its owner.

N211.1. N211.1. Lost ring found in fish. (Polycrates.) *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 635; *Wesselski Mцnchslatein 188 No. 146; *Chauvin V 17 No. 10, 141 No. 68, VI 32 No. 202; Fb “ring” IV 328b; Toldo VIII 40; Saintyves “L‘Anneau de Polycrate” Revue de l’histoire des religions (1912) 1--32; *Loomis White Magic 121.--Irish: Plummer clxxxiv, *Cross; Norwegian: Solheim Register 20; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman, *Gaster Exempla 210 No. 118, *bin Gorion Born [email protected] II 106, 344, III 51, 55, 300; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 29; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 7; Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 133.

N211.1.0.1. N211.1.0.1. Lost articles found in interior of fish through virtue of saint. Irish myth: Cross.

N211.1.1. N211.1.1. Lost pin found in fish. Irish myth: Cross.

N211.1.2. N211.1.2. Key (to fetters) found in fish. Irish myth: *Cross.

N211.1.3. N211.1.3. Lost sword found in fish. Icelandic: Boberg.

N211.1.4. N211.1.4. Lost trinket found in fish. Irish myth: Cross.

N211.1.5. N211.1.5. Brooch lost by saint found in fish. Irish myth: Cross.

N211.2. N211.2. Unavailing attempt to get rid of slippers; they always return. *Chauvin VI 130 No. 283.

N211.3. N211.3. Angel helps to find lost pin. Irish myth: Cross.

N212. N212. Money cannot be kept from where it is destined to go. Miser told that his hoard is to go to poor man. He hides it in a trunk and throws it into the sea but it drifts to the house of the poor man who tries in vain to restore it to its owner. *Type 745; *Chauvin II 129 No. 137; *Herbert III 234, 377 No. 61, 447; *Oesterley No. 109, Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 934B*; Russian: Andrejev No. 834B*; West Indies: Flowers 563.

N212.1. N212.1. Husband‘s magic gift returns to him. Wife gives husband’s magic gift (fruit) to lover, who presents it to a dancing girl, who sells it back to the husband. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N213. N213. Man fated to be rich. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 828, 931.

N215. N215. Child borne off by tiger, which is caught by griffin, which is killed by lioness, which rears child with her whelps. English: Wells 118 (Octavian); India: Thompson-Balys.

N221. N221. Man granted power of winning at cards. Irish: Beal XXI 329, O‘Suilleabhain 90; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 45, 52 Nos. 313, 345, Espinosa II Nos. 122ff., 168--171, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 70--73, 210.

N222. N222. First objects picked up bring fortune. India: Thompson-Balys.

N223. N223. Man must have drinking horn; stumble reveals one as he departs on search. Irish myth: Cross.

N224. N224. Man finds treasure he refused as gift. Irish myth: Cross.

N225. N225. Man robbed and penniless entertained by wealthy widow and enriched. Boccaccio Decameron II No. 2 (Lee 25); Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N226. N226. Wrecked man saved on coffer of jewels; becomes rich. Boccaccio Decameron II No. 4 (Lee 30); Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N227. N227. Man who is impoverished is given high post by princess in disguise. Marries her. (Cf. N251.3.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N228. N228. Leopard tied in bag in water floats to shore and finds a mate. Grateful to trickster who has tied him up. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N231. N231. The fourteen lucky daughters. The husband leaves his wife, who has given birth to fourteen girls, thinking he is persecuted by bad luck because of failure to have a son. On the seashore, the girls find precious stones. The wife, now prosperous, finds her husband among beggars. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1668*.

N234. N234. Boast of poor boy made good by fate: he boasts to elder brothers he will build a palace on a certain spot; accidentally comes on treasure trove and makes good his boast. India: Thompson-Balys.

N250. N250. Persistent bad luck. *Fb “ulykke” III 973a; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N250.1. N250.1. Bad luck follows man who shoots stork. *Fb “stork” III 592b.

N250.2. N250.2. Persecution by bad luck. Wishing to escape it, the luckless couple build themselves a new home. Scarcely do they establish themselves in the new home, when bad luck addresses them from the hearth: “I have already waited for you here three days.” Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 735B*.

N250.3. N250.3. Persecution by a god so that will of deity can be followed. India: Thompson-Balys.

N250.4. N250.4. Bad luck banished and freed. The poor man in some way banishes his bad luck and becomes prosperous. Out of envy his rich brother sets it free; it then follows him. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 735A*; Russian: Andrejev No. 735 I*.

N251. N251. Person pursued by misfortune. (Placidas, Eustacius.) His goods are destroyed, his wife carried off by a ship captain and his children by animals. *Type 938; Herbert III 241; *Oesterley No. 110; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXVIII 154f.; Alphabet No. 311; *Hibbard 3ff.; Boccaccio Decameron II Nos. 6, 8 (Lee 34, 39); *Loomis White Magic 112; **Gerould PMLA XIX 335ff.; Dickson 100 n. 7.--Irish: *Cross; O’Suilleabhain 42, Beal XXI 315; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: *Neuman, bin Gorion Born [email protected] I 374; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 113, 793; West Indies: Flowers 564.

N251.1. N251.1. Man captured by pirates is maimed, crippled, blinded. He is patient through it all. Finally he is elected ruler by his dead master‘s subjects. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N251.2. N251.2. Man who aspires to greater wealth loses all. When he is about to be rewarded by king the latter dies. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N251.3. N251.3. Man who loses fortune marries widow of his rich master. (Cf. N227.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N251.4. N251.4. Travelers pursued by misfortune. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N251.5. N251.5. Fortune of the lucky wife. A luckless man becomes successful in all his undertakings when he marries a lucky woman and lives by her luck. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 737B*.

N251.6. N251.6. The luckless son and his envious father. Seeing a luck-bringing animal at his son’s house, the wizard father orders it to be destroyed, but the grandchildren eat of its meat and become fortunate. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 738*.

N251.7. N251.7. Misfortune pursues farmer. U.S.: *Baughman.

N252. N252. Messengers announce successive misfortunes. Spanish Exempla: Keller; Greek: Aeschylus Agamemnon line 860; Jewish: Neuman. Cf. story of Job.

N252.1. N252.1. Messengers announce successive misfortunes to warrior as he sets out for war. Tells of death of father, mother, brother, and sister, but he refuses to turn back. Finnish: Kalevala rune 36.

N253. N253. Safety in shadow of wall. After many misfortunes the man is apparently safe. The wall falls on him. *Type 947; *BP III 289f.; Bшdker Exempler 277 No. 18; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N255. N255. Escape from one misfortune into worse.

N255.1. N255.1. Stag escapes from hunters to be eaten by lion. Wienert FFC LVI *49, 55 (ET 86, 152), 116, 136 (ST 261, 417); Halm Aesop No. 129, 252.

N255.2. N255.2. Ass gets progressively worse masters. Finally the farmer beats him living and will not spare his hide when he is dead. Wienert FFC LVI 77 (ET 435), 109 (ST 214, 390); Halm Aesop No. 329.

N255.3. N255.3. Halcyon builds nest on sea-cliff to escape land hazards. Tempest blows nest away. Wienert FFC LVI *63 (ET 266), 140 (ST 4623; Halm Aesop No. 29.

N255.4. N255.4. Fugitive slave takes refuge in mill house, where he must work harder than ever. Wienert FFC LVI *83 (ET 499), 116 (ST 260); Halm Aesop No. 121.

N255.5. N255.5. Daw fleeing from captivity caught in trees by thread around foot. Starves. Wienert FFC LVI 63 (ET 265), 116 (ST 259); Halm Aesop No. 202.

N255.6. N255.6. Old man burns self with gunpowder, and then burns himself worse when he pours hot water over his body. India: Thompson-Balys.

N256. N256. Unlucky classes.

N256.1. N256.1. Goldsmith unlucky. India: Thompson-Balys.

N258. N258. Train of troubles from lost horseshoe nail. Master tries to go on in spite of the loss. *BP III 335ff.

N261. N261. Train of troubles from sparrow‘s vengeance. A man runs over the dog, friend of the sparrow. Through the sparrow’s vengeance the man loses his horse, his property, and finally his life. *Type 248; *BP I 515; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 254 No. 34.

N261.1. N261.1. Train of troubles for seven brothers for having destroyed bird‘s nest. India: Thompson-Balys.

N264. N264. Whether man begs all day or for an hour he gets only a small basket of grain. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N265. N265. Person brings bad luck to others.

N265.1. N265.1. Girl brings ill luck and death to everyone she comes in contact with. India: Thompson-Balys.

N270. N270. Crime inevitably comes to light. Irish: Beal XXI 336, O’Suilleabhain 119; India: Thompson-Balys.

N271. N271. Murder will out. Missouri French: Carriиre; Spanish: Espinosa Jr Nos. 202--209; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N271.1. N271.1. The sun brings all to light. The murderer repeats as he sees the rays of the sun, the last words of the dying man, thus betraying the crime. *Type 960; *BP II 531; *Hdwb. d. Mдrchens I 98b, *Zachariae Kleine Schriften 134; *Basset 1001 Contes II 381.

N271.1.1. N271.1.1. Moon brings murder to light. (Like N271.1.) BP II 532.

N271.2. N271.2. Murder revealed by unusual names of boys. The dying man leaves message to name his sons “O God” and “O king” (or the like). This arouses the king‘s curiosity and brings the murder to light. BP II 336, 535; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 116 No. 960.

N271.3. N271.3. The Cranes of Ibycus. Murdered man calls on cranes, the only witnesses of the murder, to avenge him. The cranes follow the murderer and point him out. *BP II 532; *Amalfi Zs. f. Vksk. VI 115ff.; *Zachariae ibid. IX 336; Scala Celi 100b No. 539; Hertz Abhandlungen 334; Kцhler-Bolte II 563; Chauvin II 123, VII 146; *Krappe Bulletin Hispanique XXXIX 27. -- England: Baughman; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 209; Jewish: *Neuman.

N271.3.1. N271.3.1. Ravens pursue murderer who has killed two children. England: Baughman.

N271.4. N271.4. Murder discovered through knowledge of bird languages. Birds point out the murder. *Type 781.

N271.5. N271.5. Murderer through miracle suspected of theft; murder thus discovered. Type 761*.

N271.6. N271.6. Murder revealed by child.

N271.6.1. N271.6.1. Child‘s song reveals murder. Africa (Bantu): Torrend Specimens of Bantu Folk-lore from Northern Rhodesia (New York, 1921) 9ff. No. 1, 14ff. No. 2.

N271.7. N271.7. Murder discovered on digging foundations of house. House burns. Diggers discover body. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N271.8. N271.8. Murderer traced through victim‘s ring. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N271.9. N271.9. Tree follows murderer. Scotland: Baughman.

N271.10. N271.10. Ship will sink if murderer is aboard. England: Baughman.

N271.11. N271.11. Murder will out: murderers quarrel under influence of drink and reveal crime. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1216.

N275. N275. Criminal confesses because he thinks himself accused. *BP II 534, 412; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N275.1. N275.1. Criminal confesses because of misunderstood animal cries. BP II 534, 412; Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 66.

N275.2. N275.2. Criminal confesses because of misunderstanding of a dialect. BP II 534, 412.

N275.3. N275.3. Detection by accidental remark. Wife misunderstands husband’s remark and confesses. Cent Nouvelles Nouvelles No. 32.

N275.4. N275.4. Thief imagines that group of people in street are talking and laughing at him; he confesses. U.S.: Baughman.

N275.5. N275.5. Criminal in church mistakes words of service as accusation. (Cf. Type 1833.)

N275.5.1. N275.5.1. Sheep thief confesses when preacher says, “All we like sheep have gone astray.” U.S.: Baughman.

N277. N277. Oxen bear dead usurer to gallows to be buried. They are allowed to go where they will. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 197.

N278. N278. Supernatural voice points out criminal. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 352; *Wesselski Mцnchslatein 182 No. 140.

N300--N399.

N300--N399. Unlucky accidents.

N300. N300. Unlucky accidents. Norwegian: Solheim Register 21.

N310. N310. Accidental separations. Missouri French: Carriиre.

N311. N311. Separation of persons caused by looking for water. *M. Bloomfield in Penzer VII xxiv ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N312. N312. Separation of twins through being carried off by beast. Dickson 107.

N313. N313. Child follows bird and loses its mother. Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 71.

N314. N314. Persons fall asleep on rock, which magically shoots upward. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 76.

N315. N315. Separation by being on different banks of stream. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N316. N316. Separation in jungle (forest). India: *Thompson-Balys.

N317. N317. Separation of family by shipwreck. India: Thompson-Balys; Icelandic: Boberg.

N318. N318. Accidental separation of lovers.

N318.1. N318.1. Man, thinking it an enemy, flees as sweetheart comes after him in pursuit. India: Thompson-Balys.

N318.2. N318.2. Princess accidentally elopes with wrong man. India: Thompson-Balys.

N320. N320. Person unwittingly killed.

N320.1. N320.1. Man unwittingly causes death of daughter. English romance: Malory III 15.

N321. N321. Son returning home after long absence unwittingly killed by parents. (Cf. N338.3.) Type 939*; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 939*; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI No. 9391.

N322. N322. Eavesdropping person unwittingly killed. Icelandic: *Boberg. Cf. death of Polonius in Shakespeare’s “Hamlet”.

N322.1. N322.1. Eavesdropping man in disguise as devil killed unwittingly by daughter‘s lover. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 305 No. 4.

N322.2. N322.2. Eavesdropping wife hidden in bushes killed unwittingly by husband. Greek: Fox 72 (Prokris).

N323. N323. Parricide prophecy unwittingly fulfilled. *Type 931; *Krappe Balor 13 n. 45; Greek: *Grote I 206; India: Thompson-Balys. See all references to M343 (Parricide prophecy).

N324. N324. Man unwittingly kills prince. Exiled. *Boje 120f.

N324.1. N324.1. Transformed prince unwittingly killed. Irish myth: Cross.

N325. N325. Unwitting murder because of insane illusion.

N325.1. N325.1. Man kills son thinking that he is cutting a branch. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 329 n. 1.

N325.2. N325.2. Women, driven mad, devour their infants’ flesh. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 331 n. 4.

N325.3. N325.3. Mother kills son thinking him a wild beast. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 331 n. 3.

N330. N330. Accidental killing or death. Irish myth: Cross.

N331. N331. Things accidentally fall and kill person.

N331.1. N331.1. Dagger in wall above bed falls and kills girl. Has been placed there by her lover. Indonesia: De Vries’s list No. 219.

N331.1.1. N331.1.1. Knife accidentally strikes girl‘s throat and kills her. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N331.1.2. N331.1.2. Prince’s arrow accidentally grazes breast of merchant‘s wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

N331.1.3. N331.1.3. Bride lets dagger fall and kill husband. India: Thompson-Balys.

N331.2. N331.2. Bread accidentally dropped from tree on bear’s nose kills bear. Type 2006*.

N331.2.1. N331.2.1. Man hidden in tree so frightened of lioness he drops his sword and kills her. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N332. N332. Accidental poisoning.

N332.1. N332.1. Man accidentally fed bread which his father has poisoned. The wicked man puts poison in the bread he gives a beggar. The beggar gives his loaf to the son. Type 837; *De Vries Tijdschrift voor Nederlandsche Taal- en Letterkunde XLVII 63ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N332.1.1. N332.1.1. Poisoned bath prepared for another accidentally used by hero. India: Thompson-Balys.

N332.2. N332.2. Horse accidentally poisoned instead of master. An attempt is made to give the hero a poisoned cup. He is on horseback and spurs his horse away to avoid the cup. The poison is spilled and enters the horse‘s ear and kills him. *Type 851; *BP I 189; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 131.

N332.2.1. N332.2.1. Elephant on rampage accidentally poisoned instead of man. Man claims having killed elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.

N332.3. N332.3. Serpent carried by bird lets poison drop into milk and poisons drinkers. *Chauvin VIII 60 No. 25; *Krappe Balor 184 n. 12; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Jewish: Neuman, bin Gorion Born Judas III 96; India: Thompson-Balys.

N332.3.1. N332.3.1. Head of killed snake bites and kills king. India: Thompson-Balys.

N332.3.2. N332.3.2. Snake in jug bites would-be thief. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N332.4. N332.4. Boy accidentally drinks “poison” intended for his stepbrother. Doctor had substituted sleeping potion for the requested poison. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N332.4.1. N332.4.1. Youth accidentally takes the poison he intended for his father. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N332.5. N332.5. Woman unwittingly poisons her son. Mistakes poison for medicine. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N332.6. N332.6. Man eats food which is mysteriously poisoned. S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 177; Jewish: *Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 511.

N332.7. N332.7. Hidden fruit accidentally poisoned by snake. India: Thompson-Balys.

N333. N333. Aiming at fly has fatal results.

N333.1. N333.1. Person killed by hitting fly on his face. Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Indonesia: De Vries‘s list No. 285. Cf. Type 1586.

N333.1.1. N333.1.1. To give child a slap to stop its crying, numskull kills it. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N333.2. N333.2. Man accidentally killed by bear trying to chase away flies. *Chauvin II 118 Nos. 99, 100; India: Thompson-Balys.

N334. N334. Accidental fatal ending of game or joke.

N334.1. N334.1. Children play hog-killing: one killed. *Type 2401; *BP I 202; Wesselski Archiv Orientбlnн II 431; England, U.S.: Baughman.

N334.2. N334.2. Hanging in game or jest accidentally proves fatal. Wesselski Theorie 18; Fb “hжnge” I 731b; Danish: Christensen DF XLVII 200 No. 36; Icelandic: Boberg; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3309, Legends Nos. 605 609; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 122 Nos. 40, 41.

N334.3. N334.3. Practical joker asks doctor to castrate him. Doctor insists on the operation. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N335. N335. Unexpected death at hands of an animal.

N335.1. N335.1. Bird hunter killed by adder just as he is shooting bird. Wienert FFC LVI 65 (ET 295), 207 (ST 197); Halm Aesop No. 171; India: Thompson-Balys.

N335.2. N335.2. Blood bath causes woman to be carried off by bird. A pregnant woman demands a bath of blood: husband substitutes a bath of red dye. A Garuda bird attracted by the dye carries her off. Penzer I 97; Dunlop-Liebrecht 135.

N335.2.1. N335.2.1. Sick queen lying under red satin carried off by bird who thinks it is red meat. India: Thompson-Balys.

N335.3. N335.3. Death by rebounding bow. Ants gnaw a bowstring, so that the bow rebounds and cuts off head of man who is leaning on it. *Bloomfield in Penzer VII xx ff.

N335.4. N335.4. Accidental death from flying splinter of bone. Bone being gnawed by animal lets splinter fly and kills young animals. Africa (Larusa): Fokken “Erzдhlungen und Mдrchen der Larusa” ZsKS VII 82ff. No. 1, (Wachaga): Gutmann 87ff. No. 44, (Masai): Fuchs Sagen, Mythen und Sitten der Masai (Jena, 1910) 50ff., (Uganda): Rowling The Tales of Sir Apolo: Uganda Folklore and Proverbs (London, n.d.) 47ff., (Congo): Stanley My Dark Companions and their Strange Stories (New York, 1906) 161ff., Casati Ten Years in Equatoria and the Return with Emin Pasha (New York, 1891) II 45f.

N335.5. N335.5. Hound strikes unique vulnerable spot. Irish myth: Cross.

N335.6. N335.6. Series of accidental animal killings.

N335.6.1. N335.6.1. Attacking animal is killed by another in ambush. India: Thompson-Balys.

N335.7. N335.7. Tortoise lands on elephant‘s back so that elephant’s back is broken. India: Thompson-Balys.

N336. N336. Accidental death through dream. Man dodging blow in dream hits his head against wall and kills himself. Alphabet No. 285.

N337. N337. Accidental death through misdirected weapon. Irish myth: *Cross; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 63 n. 2; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 715; Africa (Fang): Tessman 135, (Congo): Grenfell 820.

N337.1. N337.1. Blind poet unintentionally kills friend. Irish myth: *Cross.

N337.2. N337.2. Hero, while measuring wild boar, accidentally wounded mortally by bristle. Irish myth: *Cross.

N337.3. N337.3. Axe thrown at one animal misses but kills another. India: Thompson-Balys.

N338. N338. Death as result of mistaken identity: wrong person killed. Irish myth: *Cross.

N338.1. N338.1. Saint changes places with charioteer; latter is killed. Irish myth: Cross.

N338.2. N338.2. Fool (person) disguised as (supposed) king killed. Irish myth: *Cross.

N338.3. N338.3. Son killed because mistaken for someone else. (Cf. N321.) Icelandic: Boberg; Italian Novella: Rotunda (N366); Greek: Grote I 242; Jewish: Neuman; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 98.

N338.3.1. N338.3.1. Father orders unrecognized son thrown into sea. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 480.

N339. N339. Accidental death--miscellaneous.

N339.1. N339.1. Man falls into jar of honey and is drowned. Chases a mouse. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 310 n. 2.

N339.2. N339.2. Flies caught in honey. Death from greed. Wienert FFC LVI 61 (ET 242), 146 (ST 512); Halm Aesop No. 293.

N339.3. N339.3. Foxes crowd into house and are suffocated. Eskimo (Koryak): *Jochelson JE VI 363.

N339.4. N339.4. Groom killed by lightning on wedding night. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N339.5. N339.5. Uxorious king is burned to death while taking an alcohol bath. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N339.6. N339.6. Man forgets to wear magic gown and is killed. Irish myth: *Cross.

N339.7. N339.7. Army drowned by unnoticed incoming tide. Irish myth: *Cross.

N339.8. N339.8. Accidental death from fall on own weapon (shield). Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

N339.8.1. N339.8.1. Accidental death of father from fall into the fire when taking down weapons for his son. Icelandic: Boberg.

N339.9. N339.9. Girl abducted by fairy left on shore, where she is accidentally drowned. Irish myth: *Cross.

N339.10. N339.10. Youth gazing at own image reflected in water falls and drowns. Irish myth: Cross.

N339.11. N339.11. Girl lets down her sari for hero to climb up by but, when he is halfway up, sari breaks and he is killed. India: Thompson-Balys.

N339.12. N339.12. Prefect, cursed by bishop, dies of fish-bone stuck in his throat. Irish myth: Cross.

N339.13. N339.13. Accidental death by striking head against lintel of door. Irish myth: Cross.

N339.14. N339.14. Wife throwing husband’s corpse into river (according to custom) is caught by corpse‘s arm and drowned. India: Thompson-Balys.

N339.15. N339.15. Thief crushed to death by fallen fragments of wall he has bored. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N339.16. N339.16. King mortally wounded on killed enemy‘s tooth. Icelandic: Boberg.

N339.17. N339.17. Bottle wherein jinn is imprisoned inadvertently opened and jinn escapes to kill his captor. India: Thompson-Balys.

N340. N340. Hasty killing or condemnation (mistake).

N340.1. N340.1. Suicide in remorse over hasty condemnation. Irish myth: Cross.

N340.2. N340.2. King hastily has 7,000 people put to death for stoning his judges to death. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N340.3. N340.3. Woman wrongly condemned for drunkenness when seen to take one drink. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N341. N341. Misunderstood message causes messenger to be killed (accused). BP II 366.

N342. N342. Hasty condemnation of man who accidentally becomes suspected of crime. India: Thompson-Balys.

N342.1. N342.1. Faithful servant guarding master’s wife from danger falsely condemned for betraying his master. *Type 516; *BP I 42ff.; *Rцsch FFC LXXVII 129; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 9; India: *Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 155ff. No. 68.

N342.1.1. N342.1.1. Faithful son guarding his father from monster falsely accused by stepmother. India: Thompson-Balys.

N342.2. N342.2. Stumbling over bloody corpse brings accusation of murder. Man gets blood on himself. *Chauvin V 136 No. 64.

N342.3. N342.3. Jealous and overhasty man kills his rescuing twin brother. *Type 303; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 7; India: Thompson-Balys.

N342.4. N342.4. False accusation overheard causes hasty killing. Irish myth: Cross.

N342.5. N342.5. Angry brother kills husband, thinking latter had killed wife (sister) and baby. Heptameron No. 23.

N342.6. N342.6. Woman mistakenly accused of cannibalism. She is seen biting off finger of corpse to get its ring. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N343. N343. Lover kills self believing his mistress dead. She has been frightened away by a lion. (Pyramus and Thisbe.) Kцhler-Bolte I 4; Irish myth: *Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Greek: Fox 201, **G. Hart Ursprung und Verbreitung der Pyramus und Thisbe-Sage (1889); *C. de Boer Pyramus et Thisbe (Amsterdam, 1911).

N343.1. N343.1. Mistress kills self, believing her lover dead. Irish myth: *Cross; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N343.2.1. N343.2.1. Wife dies, believing husband dead. Irish myth: Cross.

N343.3. N343.3. Woman feigns death to meet exiled lover. It leads to his death. Lover hears of her supposed death, returns and submits to execution. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N343.4. N343.4. Lover commits suicide on finding beloved dead. Heptameron No. 70.

N344. N344. Father kills self believing that son is dead. The son forgets to spread white sails, the prearranged signal of his safety. (Told also of lovers.) *Schoepperle II 437f.; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 137 n. 4.

N344.1. N344.1. Wrong sign put out leads to boys‘ leaving home. They are to be informed by a sign if a sister is born. *Type 451; BP I 70ff.; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 8.

N344.2. N344.2. Father causes death of innocent son, believing him guilty of adultery with father’s wife. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

N345. N345. The falcon of Sir Federigo. An impoverished suitor has only a falcon to catch birds with. His lady‘s sick son wants the falcon and she goes to ask for it. The suitor serves dinner for her--his falcon. When she makes her request it is too late. *Bйdier Fabliaux 153f.; Boccaccio Decameron V No. 9 (*Lee 170); Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N346. N346. Pigeon hastily kills his mate for stealing wheat. It has merely dried out and no longer fills the nest. When the dampness later swells the wheat, he sees his mistake and kills himself in remorse. Chauvin II 104 No. 66; Bшdker Exempler 302 No. 69; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys.

N347. N347. Innocent man accidentally suspected of crime. (Cf. N342.2.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

N347.1. N347.1. Clerk who enters tavern arrested with others for murder. Scala Celi 59a No. 326; Chauvin IX 19; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Icelandic: Boberg.

N347.2. N347.2. Saint who entered house of ill fame to reform inmates accused of going with evil intent. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N347.3. N347.3. Boy is hanged for cattle theft; the strayed cattle are discovered later. U.S.: Baughman.

N347.4. N347.4. Man having purchased stolen ornament unwittingly presents it to owner as gift; is thrown into jail as thief. India: Thompson-Balys.

N347.5. N347.5. Poor man presented rich robe by emperor is locked up as a thief. India: Thompson-Balys.

N347.6. N347.6. Man falsely accused commits suicide. India: Thompson-Balys.

N347.7. N347.7. Greedy disciple decides to remain in city despite learned teacher’s warning and is condemned to take the place of a thief. India: Thompson-Balys.

N348. N348. Jealous husband kills innocent wife. Suspicions aroused when villain leaves his handkerchief in her room. (Othello.) Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N349. N349. Hasty killing or condemnation--miscellaneous. Irish myth: Cross.

N349.1. N349.1. Warriors erroneously slay allies in night battle. Irish myth: *Cross.

N349.2. N349.2. Father kills his son in battle rage. Icelandic: Boberg.

N349.3. N349.3. King, seeing eldest son leaving room, decides that he is a rakshasa. India: Thompson-Balys.

N350. N350. Accidental loss of property.

N351. N351. Money (treasure) unwittingly given away. Unlucky man given a loaf which is filled with gold exchanges it for another loaf. *Type 841; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) Nos. 326, 327; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 185; Italian Novella: Rotunda; Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; N. A. Indian (Pochulata): Boas JAFL XXV 223.

N351.1. N351.1. Boy‘s servant takes pearl to his wife instead of to merchant; she throws it away. India: Thompson-Balys.

N351.2. N351.2. Beggar accidentally overlooks money put into his way. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N352. N352. Bird carries off ring which lover has taken from sleeping mistress’s finger. He searches for the ring and becomes separated from her. *Penzer IV 192 n. 1; *von der Hagen I cxxxiii; *Kцhler-Bolte II 351; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

N352.1. N352.1. Bird carries off jeweled veil with which girl had covered sleeping lover‘s face. Lover pursues bird and becomes separated from the girl. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N352.2. N352.2. Jewel (garment) carried off by bird from bather. Clothes have been left on bank of stream. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N352.3. N352.3. Serpent steals jewels: person falsely accused of theft. (Cf. N347.) India: Thompson-Balys.

N360. N360. Man unwittingly commits crime. U.S.: Baughman.

N361. N361. Sacred animal unwittingly killed.

N361.1. N361.1. Brahmin unwittingly kills calf. India: Thompson-Balys.

N362. N362. King (prince) unwittingly killed. Africa (Fulah): Frobenius Atlantis VI 182ff. No. 4.

N365. N365. Incest unwittingly committed.

N365.1. N365.1. Boy unwittingly commits incest with his mother. See all references to M344. Heptameron No. 30; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 117 No. 983; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Minehassa (Celebes): Dixon 158.

N365.1.1. N365.1.1. Man unwittingly falls in love with his own mother. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N365.2. N365.2. Unwitting father-daughter incest. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: Fox 198 (Myrrha); Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/116).

N365.2.1. N365.2.1. Father unwittingly falls in love with daughter. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N365.3. N365.3. Unwitting brother-sister incest. Irish myth: *Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 201; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/59); Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 516.

N365.3.1. N365.3.1. Brother and sister unwittingly in love with each other. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N365.3.2. N365.3.2. Boy says, “Whoever eats this mushroom is my wife.” His own sister eats it and he runs away. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N365.4. N365.4. Man unwittingly lies with mother-in-law. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N367. N367. Daughter unwittingly turns her own parents out of doors. India: Thompson-Balys.

N380. N380. Other unlucky accidents.

N381. N381. Drop of honey causes chain of accidents. Hunter drops honey in a grocery; weasel eats honey; cat chases weasel; dog chases cat; grocer kills dog: all the cause of a bloody feud between villages. *Taylor JAFL XLVI 87 No. 2036; BP II 104 n. 2; *Wesselski Hessische Blдtter f. Vksk XXXII 21; Chauvin VIII 41 No. 9; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N381.1. N381.1. Ant pinching frog causes chain of accidents. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N382. N382. Fugitive slave takes wrong road and is caught. Wienert FFC LVI 85 (ET 518), 116 (ST 264).

N383. N383. Man falls dead from sudden realization.

N383.1. N383.1. Man falls dead when he realizes that he has been riding over frozen sea. *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XVIII 91.

N383.2. N383.2. Man falls dead when he realizes that he has eaten bread from flour used for abscess plaster. Chauvin VIII 38 No. 6; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N383.3. N383.3. Mother dies of fright when she learns that she was about to commit incest with her son. He has disguised himself to test her chastity. *Krappe Balor 181ff.; Alphabet No. 710 (Secundus).

N384. N384. Death from fright. (Cf. N383.3.) Italian Novella: Rotunda; Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 228, 439, 452, Rasmussen I 148, II 334, III 61, 97, Holm 26.

N384.0.1. N384.0.1. Madness from fright. U.S.: *Baughman.

N384.0.1.1. N384.0.1.1. The cadaver arm. Medical students (or student nurses or hospital employees) play trick on one of their number by suspending a cadaver arm or leg from the light cord in the person‘s room (sometimes the object is placed in the person’s bed). Some circumstance keeps them from being on hand to observe the person‘s reaction; the next day they remember the joke and go to the victim’s room to investigate. They have to break down the door. They find the victim sitting on the bed--her hair is snow white--and she is gnawing on the cadaver arm. U.S.: *Baughman.

N384.1. N384.1. Mouse frightens man to death. Type 167*.

N384.2. N384.2. Death in the graveyard; person‘s clothing is caught; the person thinks something awful is holding him; he dies of fright. Ireland, England, U.S.: Baughman.

N384.3. N384.3. Wicked stepmother falls into the fire because of fright. (Cf. M431.6.) Icelandic: Boberg.

N384.4. N384.4. Fraternity initiate dies of fright. U.S.: *Baughman.

N384.5. N384.5. Queen dies from fright because of evil prophecy. Icelandic: Boberg.

N384.6. N384.6. Sham magician causes simpleton’s death. Is frightened to death by the impersonation of demons. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N384.7. N384.7. Sham execution proves fatal. Jester condemned to die on block. Pail of water used instead of axe. He dies. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N384.8. N384.8. Priest frightens boy by tying girl‘s corpse to bell-rope. In revenge the boy puts the body in the priest’s bed. Priest flees. Dies from injuries. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N384.9. N384.9. Lover frightens mistress as a joke. She dies from the shock. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N384.10. N384.10. Man playing ghost killed. Meaning to frighten son, father plays devil or a ghost. Son kills him. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3443, Legends Nos. 861ff.

N384.11. N384.11. Joker playing dead killed. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3443A, Legends Nos. 864f.

N384.12. N384.12. Woman playing dead to spy on husband killed. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 866.

N384.13. N384.13. Brothers fall dead at sight of long lost brother whom they sold into captivity. (Cf. N733.) Jewish: *Neuman.

N385. N385. Unintentional injuries bring unfortunate consequences. (Sometimes the injuries are mere breeches of tabu.) *Penzer II 147, VII 92 n. 1.

N385.1. N385.1. Person has successive misfortunes while making plans because he forgets to say, “If God wills.” (Cf. G224.1, J1217.1.) Irish myth: *Cross; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 848*.

N386. N386. Lover‘s wound breaks while he is in bed with mistress. He bleeds to death (or is discovered because of the blood). Schoepperle I 222; von der Hagen I cxxvii; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N386.1. N386.1. Lover’s spur catches in sheet when he tries to escape. Uncovers mistress. Heptameron No. 62.

N386.2. N386.2. Man pinned in bed by weapon caught in quilt. Irish myth: Cross.

N387. N387. Feud starts over trifle.

N387.1. N387.1. Quarrel over dog starts the Guelph-Ghibelline feud. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N388. N388. Blind men accidentally hurt each other. (Trying to kill pig, or the like.) Herbert III 71.

N391. N391. Lover who is detained away beyond stipulated time returns to find fiancйe married. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N391.0.1. N391.0.1. Hospitality enforced on hero keeps him overlong from home; meantime wife abducted. Chinese: Graham.

N391.1. N391.1. Mistress expecting lover accidentally exchanges places with her maidservant. Italian Novella: Rotunda (also K1856).

N392. N392. Robber attempting to steal cow at night seizes thieving tiger. Great fight in stable. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N392.1. N392.1. Escaping prisoner falls by accident onto tiger‘s back and is carried away. Korean: Zong in-Sob 175 No. 75.

N392.2. N392.2. Woman errs on to the road-of-the-tiger: carried off. S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 161.

N394. N394. Delay in bringing pardon allows deserved execution. Messenger, ignorant of contents of message, stops to view culprit’s execution. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N394.1. N394.1. Sign of prisoner‘s reprieve changed by wind. A flag to be flown in certain way, but wind catches it just at the wrong moment so that prisoner is executed. Korean: Zong in-Sob 61 No. 34.

N395. N395. Man blinded trying to heal girl. Powders blow into his one good eye. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N396. N396. The sleeping guard. Watchman falls asleep as enemy approaches. Irish myth: Cross.

N397. N397. Accidental self-injury. Irish myth: Cross.

N398. N398. Mistake in interpreting prophecy (oracle) brings misfortune. India: Thompson-Balys.

N399. N399. Additional unlucky accidents.

N399.1. N399.1. Shipwrecked man lands on deadly enemy’s territory and is attacked. Icelandic: Boberg.

N399.2. N399.2. Man‘s inordinate laughter brings unfortunate results. India: Thompson-Balys.

N399.3. N399.3. Man discovers he is married to wer-tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.

N400--N699.

N400--N699. LUCKY ACCIDENTS

N400. N400. Lucky accident.

N410--N439.

N410--N439. Lucky business ventures.

N410. N410. Lucky business venture.

N411. N411. Object unknown in a country sold for a fortune.

N411.1. N411.1. Whittington’s cat. A cat in a mouse-infested land without cats sold for a fortune. *Types 1650, 1651; *BP II 69ff.; *Fb “kat” II 108, IV 255b, “mus” II 632a; *Brueyre RTP III 36; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N411.1.1. N411.1.1. Cat as sole inheritance. *Types 1650, 1651, 545AB; *BP I 325, II 69ff., III 487; Missouri French: Carriиre; Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 4.

N411.2. N411.2. Sickle sold for fortune in land without sickles. *Types 1650, 1202; *BP II 69ff., 72 n. 1.

N411.2.1. N411.2.1. Sickle as only inheritance. *Type 1650; *BP II 69ff.

N411.3. N411.3. Fortune from informing foreign king of use of saddle, bridle, and stirrups. *Chauvin VII 19 No. 373D n. 2.

N411.4. N411.4. Salt in saltless land sold for fortune. Russian: Andrejev No. 1651*; India: Thompson-Balys.

N411.5. N411.5. Sandalwood merchant sells his product at high price in land lacking sandalwood. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N412. N412. Fortune from trifling sum sent abroad with merchant. *Chauvin VI 65 No. 233 n. 1.

N415. N415. King‘s example makes merchant wealthy. The king buys shoes for a high price and then has all his dinner guests buy them. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 137 No. 100.

N421. N421. Lucky bargain. *Types 571, 1415; Missouri French: Carriиre.

N421.1. N421.1. Progressive lucky bargains. (Opposite of J2081.) *Type 1415; BP II 199ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa: Werner African 219f.; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Friends 176 No. 24.

N425. N425. Abducted princess wishes that she were with rejected suitor; discovers that she is. Icelandic: Boberg.

N426. N426. Poor man carries unwittingly in his water jar a large scorpion which brings him fortune. India: Thompson-Balys.

N440--N499.

N440--N499. Valuable secrets learned.

N440. N440. Valuable secrets learned. Missouri French: Carriиre.

N450. N450. Secrets overheard. *Chauvin V 13, 293, VIII 61 No. 26; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 23; India: Thompson-Balys.

N451. N451. Secrets overheard from animal (demon) conversation. *Types 516, 517, 670, 673; BP I 42ff., 131f.; **Aarne FFC XV; **Rцsch FFC LXXVII 102, 114; Penzer I 48, III 60; Icelandic: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 131, 144, Boberg; Italian Novella: Rotunda, Basile Pentamerone IV No. 9; Greek: Grote I 105; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1138; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 150, 155.

N451.1. N451.1. Secrets of animals (demons) accidentally overheard from tree (bridge) hiding place. *Type 613; BP II 468ff., *481; **Christiansen FFC XXIV 60ff.; *Fb “bjшrn” IV 43a, “ravn” III 22b, “bro”, IV 62n; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3296, Legends No. 527; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 16, 23; Missouri French: Carriиre; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N452. N452. Secret remedy overheard in conversation of animals (witches). *Types 432, 613, 613*; BP II 261ff.; **Christiansen FFC XXIV 77, 81, 123; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 527; Italian: Basile Pentamerone II No. 2; India: *Thompson-Balys, Panchatantra III 11 (tr. Ryder) 346; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 150; Buriat: Holmberg Siberian 427; S. A. Indian (Chincha): Alexander Lat. Am. 230.

N452.1. N452.1. Remedy for lack of water in certain place overheard in conversation of animals (demons). *Type 613; **Christiansen FFC XXIV 86ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 527.

N452.1.1. N452.1.1. Reason for withering of tree overheard in conversation of animals (demons). Type 613; **Christiansen FFC XXV 89ff.

N452.2. N452.2. Secret remedy revealed by departing animal. House spirit (or bird) leaves saying, “If you knew what valerian is good for, the people would not die so fast.” **A. Martin “Die Pestage vom Vogel, der Bimbanelle und Baldrian als Heilmittel verkundet im Vogelsberg” Volk. u. Scholle IX No. 1.

N453. N453. Man transformed as ant, learns secret of freeing princess. French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule.

N454. N454. Conversation of objects overheard.

N454.1. N454.1. Speaking bed-legs overheard. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N454.2. N454.2. King overhears conversation of lamps. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N455. N455. Overheard (human) conversation. *Dickson 29 n. 1; Missouri French: Carriиre; Jewish: Neuman; Japanese: Ikeda.

N455.1. N455.1. Overheard boast about hidden money brings about robbery. Type 1577*; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N455.2. N455.2. Robbers‘ plans overheard: owner warned. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 325 No. 8; Missouri French: Carriиre; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N455.2.1. N455.2.1. Robbers’ secret overheard and later used in court against them. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N455.3. N455.3. Secret formula for opening treasure mountain overheard from robbers (Open Sesame). *Type 676; *BP III 137ff.; Missouri French: Carriиre; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 144; India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 339.

N455.4. N455.4. King overhears girl‘s boast as to what she should do as queen. Marries her. *Type 707; BP II 380ff., *393; India: *Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: Thompson CColl II 388.

N455.5. N455.5. Secret remedies learned from green-clad woman. Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 2.

N455.6. N455.6. Husband learns of wife‘s fidelity through conversation overheard. Irish myth: Cross.

N455.7. N455.7. Secret about prince’s father learned by eavesdropper from his mother‘s talking to him. Icelandic: Boberg.

N455.8. N455.8. Friend lingering in the kitchen learns of friend’s distress and helps him. Icelandic: Gцngu-Hrуlfs saga 307, Boberg.

N455.9. N455.9. Location of sought object learned from overheard conversation. Korean: Zong in-Sob 69; Tonga: Gifford 54.

N455.10. N455.10. By hiding, stupid son overhears conversation and claims magic power for bamboo cup. Chinese: Graham.

N455.11. N455.11. Servant overhearing conversation realizes the misery of his employment. India: Thompson-Balys.

N455.12. N455.12. Men hear father threaten to marry daughters to first comers. India: Thompson-Balys.

N456. N456. Enigmatical smile (laugh) reveals secret knowledge. *Type 670; **Aarne FFC XV 31ff.; Wesselski Mцnchslatein 93 No. 153; Wesselski Archiv Orientбlnн I 82; Krappe Revue Celtique XLVIII 401ff.; *Schoepperle I 198 n. 1; *Penzer I 46 n. 2; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 358; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N465. N465. Secret physical peculiarity discovered by barber. (Midas.) See all references to F511.2.2. and D1316.5. Alphabet No. 268; Irish myth: *Cross; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII No. 886 I*.

N465.0.1. N465.0.1. Secret physical blemish revealed by beaten handmaid. Irish myth: Cross.

N465.1. N465.1. Secret of person’s sleeplessness discovered by trickery. Irish myth: Cross.

N466. N466. Daughter lousing mother weeps and reveals secret. Chinese: Graham.

N467. N467. King in disguise to learn secrets of his subjects. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N468. N468. Newborn babe reveals secret; then becomes silent. India: Thompson-Balys.

N471. N471. Foolish attempt of second man to overhear secrets (from animals, demons etc.). He is punished. *Types 461, 503, 613, 676; *BP II 468ff., III 137ff., 324ff.; *Aarne FFC XXIII 169; *Christiansen FFC XXIV 103ff.; *Hdwb. d. Mдrchens I 230b s.v. “Belauschen von Dдmonen”. -- Missouri French: Carriиre; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 117; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda, Mitford 191; Korean: Zong in-Sob 151 No. 66; Indonesia: Dixon 216; N. A. Indian (Pochulata): Boas JAFL XXV 223; Africa (Yoruba): Ellis 249ff. No. 2.

N475. N475. Secret name overheard by eavesdropper. *Type 500; *Clodd TomTit-Tot; *Polivka Zs. f. Vksk. X 254ff.; *Von Sydow Tvе Spinnsagor; Icelandic: Boberg; Japanese: Ikeda; Jamaica: *Beckwith MAFLS XVII 247 No. 23, 267 No. 75, 279 Nos. 92, 93; West Indies: Flowers 564.

N475.1. N475.1. Secret age overheard by eavesdropper. Man masking as cuckoo in tree causes the surprised ogre to disclose secret. BP I 497.

N475.2. N475.2. Secret reason why hero does not want to eat the food of the foreign king overheard by eavesdropper. Icelandic: Boberg.

N476. N476. Secret of unique vulnerability disclosed.

N476.1. N476.1. Secret of vulnerability voluntarily disclosed. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N476.2. N476.2. Man vulnerable only in armpits shot as he stretches his arms. India: Thompson-Balys.

N476.3. N476.3. Secret unique means of killing ogre overheard from children. Chinese: Graham.

N478. N478. Secret wealth betrayed by money left in borrowed money-scales. *Type 676; *BP III 137ff.; *Fb “skjжppe” III 275b; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 70 No. 545C*; Missouri French: Carriиre; India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 336, 338; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 389.

N478.1. N478.1. Secret meat-eating betrayed by grease on mouth. Africa (Larusa): Fokken ZsKS VII 82ff. No. 1, (Masai): Hollis The Masai (Oxford, 1905) 212ff., (Mossi): Frobenius Atlantis VIII 239ff.

N481. N481. Secret escapes with man’s blood. Irish myth: Cross.

N482. N482. Secret learned by torture.

N482.1. N482.1. Secret learned by burning hand. *Cosquin Contes indiens 397ff.

N484. N484. Giant unwittingly reveals span of life to dwarf, who is thus emboldened to attack him. India: Thompson-Balys.

N500--N599.

N500--N599. Treasure trove.

N500. N500. Treasure trove. **Norlind Skattsдgner (bibliography 67f.); **Kittredge Witchcraft 204ff., 516ff.; *Fb “skat” III 234ff.; *Wehrhan 80f.; RTP XIV 71, 568, XVIII 418, XIX 306; *S. Hirschberg Schatzglaube und Totenglaube (Breslau, 1934); **Hurley WF X 197--216. -- Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 419ff., (1931) 293ff., A. Olrik Nordisk Aandsliv (Copenhagen, 1907) 8--87; Norwegian: Solheim Register 20; Irish myth: *Cross; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 69ff. Nos. 199--221; German: **Winter Die deutsche Schatzsage; Missouri French: Carriиre; U.S. (Texas): *Dobie Coronado‘s Children; Chinese: Graham.

N510. N510. Where treasure is found. Chinese: Graham.

N511. N511. Treasure in ground. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; U.S.: Baughman; Chinese: Graham.

N511.1. N511.1. Treasure buried by men. Irish myth: *Cross; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 692; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 425ff., (1931) 297ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.

N511.1.0.1. N511.1.0.1. Treasure buried by dying man. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 128 No. 63; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 5 No. 63.

N511.1.0.2. N511.1.0.2. Sword hidden by old man. Herrmann Saxo II 306.

N511.1.1. N511.1.1. Treasure buried in graves. *Winter 11; Icelandic: *Boberg; Chinese: Graham.

N511.1.2. N511.1.2. Treasure buried in ancient settlements. *Winter 16.

N511.1.3. N511.1.3. Treasure buried in extraordinary topographical formations. *Winter 27.

N511.1.4. N511.1.4. Buried treasure wanders from place to place. Indicated by a light. (Cf. N532.) *Winter 30.

N511.1.5. N511.1.5. Treasure buried in woodshed. Type 935***.

N511.1.6. N511.1.6. Treasure in cellar of ruined house. Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 7.

N511.1.6.1. N511.1.6.1. Treasure found in ruined wall. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N511.1.7. N511.1.7. Treasure hidden by retreating army. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3740.

N511.1.8. N511.1.8. Treasure buried in chest, cask, kettle, or cannon barrel. (Cf. N525.) U.S.: *Baughman.

N511.1.9. N511.1.9. Treasure buried under tree. U.S.: Baughman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N511.1.10. N511.1.10. Treasure buried under flower. U.S.: Baughman.

N511.1.11. N511.1.11. Treasure buried on top of mountain. U.S.: Baughman.

N511.1.12. N511.1.12. Treasure buried on island. Canada, U.S.: *Baughman.

N511.1.13. N511.1.13. Treasure buried under stump. U.S.: Baughman; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

N511.2. N511.2. Natural underground treasure. *Winter 35; Icelandic: Boberg.

N511.3. N511.3. Treasure placed in ground by supernatural beings.

N511.3.1. N511.3.1. Treasure of mountain spirit. *Winter 36.

N511.3.2. N511.3.2. Treasure placed in old fortifications by supernatural beings. *Winter 38.

N511.4. N511.4. Treasure found in snake hole. India: Thompson-Balys.

N511.6. N511.6. Treasure under stone. A. F. Schmidt DF XXXIX 106ff.

N512. N512. Treasure in underground chamber (cavern). *Type 676; *Winter 23; *Hartland Science 174, 176, 189; Irish myth: *Cross; U.S.: Baughman; Icelandic: Boberg; Missouri French: Carriиre; Jewish: *Neuman; Chinese: Graham, Eberhard FFC CXX 39f., 221; Japanese: Ikeda; West Indies: Flowers 564.

N513. N513. Treasure hidden under the water. *Winter 19; *Fb “skat” III 235a; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 442ff., (1931) 305ff.; Icelandic: *Boberg.

N513.1. N513.1. Man jumps into the sea, river or waterfall with his treasure. Icelandic: Boberg.

N513.2. N513.2. Sword hidden under water. Icelandic: *Boberg.

N513.3. N513.3. Treasure hidden in spring. U.S.: Baughman.

N513.4. N513.4. Treasure hidden in river. U.S.: *Baughman.

N513.5. N513.5. Treasure buried in sunken ship. U.S.: *Baughman.

N513.6. N513.6. Queen‘s jewel-box thrown into tank floats to top during first week of new moon; light or large jewel on top reveals it to passersby. It disappears when someone tries to get it. India: Thompson-Balys.

N514. N514. Treasure hidden in religious shrine. *Winter 14.

N514.1. N514.1. Treasure hidden in sanctuary. Icelandic: Boberg.

N514.2. N514.2. Treasure in temple. Jewish: Neuman.

N516. N516. Treasure at end of rainbow. *Fb “regenbue” III 31b, “skat” III 235a; African: Werner African 234.

N517. N517. Treasure hidden in building.

N517.1. N517.1. Treasure hidden in secret room in house. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

N517.2. N517.2. Treasure hidden within wall (under floor) of house. Irish myth: Cross.

N518. N518. Gold found, concealed in bricks and successfully secured. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1669*.

N521. N521. Treasure left in stick. It accidentally falls apart. *Chauvin II 129 No. 137; Icelandic: *Boberg; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 129 No. 67.

N522. N522. Treasure hidden in pillow under dead man’s head. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 129 No. 66; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3622; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 45 No. 66.

N523. N523. Treasure hidden in a stone. India: Thompson-Balys.

N524. N524. Treasure found in beggar‘s hat. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N524.1. N524.1. Money found in the dead beggar’s coat. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 842*; Russian: Andrejev No. 842 I.

N525. N525. Treasure found in chest (kettle, cask). (Cf. N511.1.8.) Type 968*; *Fb “skat” III 236b; Icelandic: Boberg; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 78 Nos. 652--656; Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: Thompson-Balys.

N526. N526. Treasure found in bundle of rags. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N527. N527. Treasure (money) carried by bird to nest. English: Wells 114 (Sir Isumbras); Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 937*.

N527.1. N527.1. Diamond in meat carried to eagle‘s nest. *Chauvin VII 11 No. 373B n. 1.

N527.2. N527.2. Talisman found in bird’s stomach. India: Thompson-Balys.

N528. N528. Treasure found in hollow of tree. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

N529. N529. Where treasure is found--miscellaneous. Irish myth: Cross.

N529.1. N529.1. Lump of gold appears in Arabia at Christ‘s birth. Irish myth: Cross.

N529.2. N529.2. Pearl found in fish. Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

N530. N530. Discovery of treasure. *Fb “skat” III 235a; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

N531. N531. Treasure discovered through dream. Type 834*; Scotland, England, U.S.: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 693; Icelandic: *Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 481ff., (1931) 323ff.; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas V 18; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Africa (Fjort): Dennett 39 No. 5; West Indies: Flowers 564.

N531.1. N531.1. Dream of treasure on the bridge. A man dreams that if he goes to a distant city he will find treasure on a certain bridge. Finding no treasure, he tells his dream to a man who says that he too has dreamed of treasure at a certain place. He describes the place, which is the first man‘s home. When the latter returns home he finds the treasure. *Type 1645; **Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XIX 289ff.; *Wesselski Mцnchslatein 120 No. 101; *Hauffen Zs. f. Vksk. X 432; *Tille in Veckenstedt’s Zs. f. Vksk. III 132ff.; DeCock RTP XV 294; *Fb “skat” III 235a, “bro” IV 62b; *Chauvin VI 94 No. 258; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3636; Japanese: Ikeda.

N531.2. N531.2. Dream brings treasure: trade vineyards with neighbor. A treasure is found in the new vineyard. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 328.

N531.3. N531.3. Dream of treasure bought. Treasure has been seen by man‘s soul absent in sleep in form of a fly. The purchaser of the dream finds the treasure. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3520; Persian: Lorimer Persian Tales 311 No. 49; Japanese: Ikeda.

N531.4. N531.4. Grateful king advises merchant in dream to take treasure from his grave mound. Icelandic: ASB 14 p. 76 n., *Boberg.

N531.5. N531.5. Man dreams of large jars full of wealth, which he can get if he will sacrifice his wife for the getting. India: Thompson-Balys.

N532. N532. Light indicates hidden treasure. (Cf. N511.1.4.) *Fb “lys” II 480b; *Norlind 34ff., 57; England, U.S.: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 691, 694; Icelandic: *Boberg; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 419ff., (1931) 293ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3632.

N532.1. N532.1. Half-moon close to the earth indicates hidden treasure. Icelandic: Boberg.

N533. N533. Treasure discovered by magic object.

N533.1. N533.1. Treasure discovered by clairvoyant vase. (Cf. D1323.2.) *Chauvin V 259 No. 154.

N533.2. N533.2. Treasure found by clairvoyant mirror. (Cf. D1323.1.) *Winter 83.

N533.3. N533.3. Treasure discovered by hand of unborn child. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 7 No. 645.

N533.4. N533.4. Consecrated wine used to discover treasure. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 77 No. 649.

N533.5. N533.5. Men find mines of copper, silver, gold and iron where balls fall. India: Thompson-Balys.

N534. N534. Treasure discovered by accident. Irish myth: Cross; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 78 Nos. 652--656; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; West Indies: Flowers 565.

N534.1. N534.1. Stumble reveals depository of treasure. Irish myth: Cross.

N534.2. N534.2. Gold hoard found by cow stepping into hole. India: Thompson-Balys.

N534.3. N534.3. Saint sticks crozier into sod and finds pound of gold. Irish myth: Cross.

N534.4. N534.4. Information about treasure received from overheard conversation. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N534.5. N534.5. Poor boy accidentally finds deserted city with treasure. India: Thompson-Balys.

N534.6. N534.6. Treasure found by man when he obeys call of nature. India: Thompson-Balys.

N534.7. N534.7. Man digging stones in the pavement finds a chest of treasure. India: Thompson-Balys.

N534.7.1. N534.7.1. Men digging hole to plant rose-tree find treasure. India: Thompson-Balys.

N534.8. N534.8. Jewel found accidentally on a bought donkey’s neck. Jewish: *Neuman.

N535. N535. Treasure indicated by statue (stone) with inscription, “Dig here”. *Spargo Virgil the Necromancer 363 n. 3; *Fb “skat” III 235a; *Oesterley No. 107; Danish: Blinkenberg Danske Studier (1928) 97ff.; Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N535.1. N535.1. Treasure indicated by stone cross on the ground. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N536. N536. Treasure pointed out by angels. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman, bin Gorion Born [email protected] I 188, 374.

N537. N537. Speaking bird tells where treasure is buried. Italian Novella: Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman, *bin Gorion Born Judas IV 29, 275; India: Thompson-Balys.

N538. N538. Treasure pointed out by supernatural creature (fairy, etc.). Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 75 No. 60; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 299, 624f., II 979.

N538.1. N538.1. Treasure pointed out by soul which has left body for this purpose. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N538.2. N538.2. Treasure from defeated giant. (Cf. F531.6.7, G610, D838.6.) Icelandic: *Boberg.

N541. N541. Treasure reveals itself only at certain times.

N541.1. N541.1. Treasure reveals itself only on Christmas at midnight (or Christmas Eve). Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 294--308 passim; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3611.

N541.2. N541.2. Treasure reveals itself once a century. Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 295 No. 21.

N541.3. N541.3. Treasure found on Hallowe’en. Irish myth: Cross.

N541.4. N541.4. Treasure discovered at the Nativity of Christ. Irish myth: Cross.

N542. N542. Special conditions for finding treasure. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 77 Nos. 642--644, 648; Japanese: Ikeda.

N542.1. N542.1. Treasure found if one goes with one-night old colt on to one-night old ice. Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 45 No. 65**.

N542.2. N542.2. Treasure to be found when three-legged cat shrieks over the burial place. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 129 No. 69.

N543. N543. Certain person to find treasure. Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. 3612, 3616, 3620.

N543.0.1. N543.0.1. Only particular persons see hidden treasure in its true form; others see it as coal, serpents, scorpions, etc. India: Thompson-Balys.

N543.1. N543.1. Treasure to be found by hand that hid it. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 77 Nos. 638, 639; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 45 No. 64; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3611; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 128 No. 64.

N543.2. N543.2. Treasure to be found by man who plows with cock and harrows with hen. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 693; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 45 No. 65; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3615; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 129 No. 65.

N543.3. N543.3. Treasure to be found by man who marries original owner‘s daughter. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 129 No. 68.

N545. N545. Man in despair digging own grave finds treasure. Jewish: bin Gorion Born [email protected] I 288, 378.

N545.1. N545.1. Man in despair preparing to hang himself finds treasure in the tree (beam). Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3623; Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N545.2. N545.2. Man ready to kill self hears voice directing him to buried fortune. India: Thompson-Balys.

N547. N547. Understanding of animal languages leads to discovery of a treasure. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 42.

N549. N549. Discovery of treasure--miscellaneous.

N549.1. N549.1. Four pots of rupees magically appear on horns of buffaloes stuck in pond, and poor owner becomes rich. India: Thompson-Balys

N550. N550. Unearthing hidden treasure. Irish myth: *Cross; Japanese: Ikeda.

N550.1. N550.1. Continual failure to find or unearth hidden treasure. Texas: Dobie Coronado’s Children passim.

N551. N551. Who may unearth a treasure.

N551.1. N551.1. Only weak-minded person may unearth a treasure. Fb “sжr” III 723b.

N551.2. N551.2. Treasure may be unearthed only by man who on the spot has sexual relations with a woman in the manner of dogs. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

N552. N552. Treasure opens itself.

N552.1. N552.1. Treasure opens itself for destined hero. Icelandic: Boberg.

N553. N553. Tabus in effect while treasure is being unearthed.

N553.1. N553.1. Tabu: incontinence while treasure is being raised. Winter 77.

N553.2. N553.2. Unlucky encounter causes treasure-seekers to talk and thus lose treasure. *Fb “skat” III 236b; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 78f. Nos. 659, 664--672; Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 439ff., 447ff., (1931) 304ff., 307ff.; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 692f.

N553.3. N553.3. Treasure finders must not take all of money. Fb “penge” II 803a.

N553.4. N553.4. Tabu: looking around while raising treasure. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 78, 80 Nos. 658, 668.

N553.5. N553.5. Tabu: fear of threatening animals while treasure is being raised. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 76 No. 636.

N554. N554. Ceremonies and prayers used at unearthing of treasure. *Winter 77.

N554.1. N554.1. Sacrifices at unearthing of treasure. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 76f. Nos. 637, 646.

N555. N555. Time favorable for unearthing treasure. *Winter 69.

N555.1. N555.1. Between midnight and cockcrow best time for unearthing treasure. Fb “midnat” II 587.

N555.2. N555.2. Treasure nearest to surface at full of moon. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 695.

N556. N556. Treasure-finders always frightened away. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 692; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3642; India: Thompson-Balys.

N557. N557. Treasure disappears after being uncovered. U.S.: Baughman.

N558. N558. Raised treasure turns into charcoal (shavings). If one takes it along it will turn back into gold. *Norlind 56; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 75f. Nos. 631--634; West Indies: Flowers 565.

N561. N561. Electric shock scares away treasure diggers. Scotland: Baughman.

N562. N562. Treasure removes itself from time to time. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 695.

N562.1. N562.1. Treasure having removed itself eventually returns. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 695.

N563. N563. Treasure seekers find hole from which treasure has recently been removed. (Often they have delayed searching for one reason or another, arrive too late.) U.S.: *Baughman.

N564. N564. Magic illusion prevents men from raising treasure. Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 447ff., (1931) 307ff.

N570. N570. Guardian of treasure. *Fb “skat” III 235b, 236a; *Winter 41; *Norlind 69ff.; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 73ff. Nos. 623--629.

N571. N571. Devil (demon) as guardian of treasure. *Fb “skat” III 235b, “djжvel” IV 99b; *Kittredge Witchcraft 204f., 517 n. 8; *Penzer III 133n.; *Winter 41; U.S.: Baughman; Icelandic: *Boberg; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 16 No. 9; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 678.

N571.1. N571.1. Ogre‘s son guardian of treasure trove. India: Thompson-Balys.

N572. N572. Woman as guardian of treasure.

N572.1. N572.1. “White woman” as guardian of treasure. *Norlind 69ff.; *Winter 47.

N572.2. N572.2. Swan maidens as guardians of treasure. *Norlind 71f.

N572.3. N572.3. Girl with ghostly treasure in boat. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3631.

N573. N573. Sleeping king in mountain as guardian of treasure. *Norlind 4ff.; Hartland Science 207.

N574. N574. Dwarf as guardian of treasure. *Winter 58.

N575. N575. Griffin as guardian of treasure. (Cf. B42.) Penzer I 104.

N576. N576. Ghosts prevent men from raising treasure. U.S.: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 693; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 4 No. 30; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3642; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 7; West Indies: Flowers 565.

N576.1. N576.1. Voice of ghost scares away treasure seekers. Canada, England, U.S.: *Baughman.

N576.2. N576.2. Ghostly lights frighten treasure seekers. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

N576.3. N576.3. Ghost of treasure’s human owner as guardian. Icelandic: *Boberg.

N577. N577. Blind man carrying lame man as guardians of treasure. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

N581. N581. Treasure guarded by magic object. (Cf. D1560.)

N581.1. N581.1. Treasure guarded by magic millstone. U.S.: Baughman.

N582. N582. Serpent guards treasure. India: Thompson-Balys.

N583. N583. Angel as guardian of treasure. Jewish: Neuman.

N590. N590. Treasure trove--miscellaneous motifs.

N591. N591. Curse on treasure. Finder or owner to have bad luck. *Fb “skat” III 234b, 235b; Icelandic: *Boberg; N. A. Indian (Wampanoag): Knight JAFL XXXVIII 134; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 185.

N591. N591. Treasure from striking animal or person and disenchanting him. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3627f.

N595. N595. Helper in hiding treasure killed in order that nobody may ever find it. Icelandic: Boberg.

N596. N596. Discovery of rich mine.

N596.1. N596.1. Rich mine discovered through dream. (Cf. N531.) U.S.: *Baughman.

N596.2. N596.2. Rich mine discovered by accidental breaking off of rock. U.S.: Baughman.

N597. N597. Discovery of underground oil pools.

N597.1. N597.1. Pools of underground oil discovered through dreams. (Cf. N531.) U.S.: Baughman.

N600--N699.

N600--N699. Other lucky accidents.

N610. N610. Accidental discovery of crime.

N611. N611. Criminal accidentally detected: “that is the first.” India: *Thompson-Balys.

N611.1. N611.1. Criminal accidentally detected: “that is the first”--sham wise man. The sham wise man employed to detect theft is feasted. As the servants enter with food he remarks to his wife, “That is the first” (course). (Or allowed to feast for three days remarks at end of first day “That is the first.”) The servants, thinking they are detected, confess. *Type 1641; BP II 401ff., *409; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 818; *Penzer III 75f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries’s list No. 302.

N611.1.1. N611.1.1. Name of criminal accidentally spoken out (identical with ordinary word in speech). India: *Thompson-Balys.

N611.2. N611.2. Criminal accidentally detected: “That is the first” -- sleepy woman counting her yawns. Robber hearing her flees. (Cf. N612.) *BP II 412; U.S.: Baughman.

N611.3. N611.3. Numskull bridegroom unwittingly sings out phrases that thieves mistake to mean he has detected them. India: Thompson-Balys.

N611.4. N611.4. Thief hears owner of house singing “Bore and throw out the earth” and thinks himself detected. Offers owner money to purchase his silence. India: Thompson-Balys.

N612. N612. Numskull talks to himself and frightens robbers away. *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 211 No. 428, *215 No. 446; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N612.1. N612.1. Man scolds his ass and frightens robber away. While the man is absent from his ass the robber steals the man‘s coat. The ass brays and the man scolds him. The robber thinking he is discovered flees and leaves the coat. Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin I 224 No. 62.

N613. N613. Numskull bribed to keep silent in elephant sale when he manifests interest, though utterly ignorant. India: Thompson-Balys.

N614. N614. Cane as evidence of robbery. A man believing that he has killed a robber forgets his cane. Later finds it in robber’s house. Type 961*; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 961*; Russian: Andrejev No. 961*.

N615. N615. Murder revealed to thieves climbing into bank. Type 951B.

N617. N617. Impostor accidentally gives king talking bed which reveals his identity. India: Thompson-Balys.

N618. N618. Officer comes accidentally to the same building where the fugitive sleeps. Jewish: Neuman.

N620. N620. Accidental success in hunting or fishing.

N621. N621. Lucky shot with arrow--foot and ear of deer. Deer is scratching ear. *Fischer-Bolte 203ff.; *Wesselski Mдrchen 226 No. 38; Japanese: Ikeda.

N621.1. N621.1. Arrow accidentally makes shot for which prize is given. India: Thompson-Balys.

N622. N622. Game killed by jumping on it from above. Icelandic: Boberg.

N622.1. N622.1. Tortoise jumps from tree and breaks rhinoceros‘s back. India: Thompson-Balys.

N623. N623. Lucky cast of spear (weapon). Irish myth: Cross.

N623.1. N623.1. Lucky cast of spear--animal’s mouth pinned shut. Irish myth: Cross.

N623.2. N623.2. Lucky cast of ball: boy throws ball into mouth of hostile hound. Ball carries out entrails. Irish myth: *Cross.

N623.3. N623.3. Lucky cast of ball made of human brains -- ball sticks in head of enemy. Irish myth: *Cross.

N623.4. N623.4. Lucky cast from sling slays hostile queen. Irish myth: *Cross.

N624. N624. Man falls into well and accidentally kills cobra: rewarded. India: Thompson-Balys.

N625. N625. Fish jumps into boat of disheartened fisherman. Wienert FFC LVI 67 (ET 311), 141 (ST 472); Halm Aesop No. 24.

N626. N626. Ass falls into water and catches fish in his ear. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 744.

N627. N627. Destructive elephant eats poison man has prepared for himself. Man rewarded. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N630. N630. Accidental acquisition of treasure or money.

N633. N633. The early pupil finds the gold. An innkeeper hears that education makes one rich and enters school. He is scolded for coming late. He comes very early and in twilight finds a purse of gold. Type 1645*; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1665*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1665*; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI No. [email protected]

N635. N635. The triple tax. A poet is given by the king the right to demand a coin of the first hunchback he meets, from the first man of a certain name, and from the first man of a certain city. He sees a hunchback and demands the coin. A quarrel arises in which it appears that the hunchback also has the required name and residence. With each revelation the poet demands a new coin. *Type 1661; *Wesselski Hodscha Nasreddin II 194 No. 382; *Basset 1001 Contes I 521; Herbert III 87f., 249, 329, 509, 671; *Chauvin IX 19 No. 5; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 285; Alphabet No. 234; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Icelandic: Boberg.

N640. N640. Accidental healing. India: Thompson-Balys.

N641. N641. Patient laughs so at foolish diagnosis of sham physician that his abscess breaks and he gets well. She has been told to examine the floor around the patient‘s bed for signs of what he has been eating. She finds the patient surrounded with pillows: he has eaten too many pillows. *Wesselski Mцnchslatein 19 No. 13, Theorie 163.

N641.1. N641.1. Patient laughs at monkey and cures himself. Monkey takes medicine and cuts capers as result. Nouvelles Rйcrйations No. 89.

N641.2. N641.2. Frog removed from queen‘s nose by telling such interesting story that she gives quick breath and dislodges him. India: Thompson-Balys.

N642. N642. Insane man accidentally cured by blow on head. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 36.

N642.1. N642.1. Blind and deaf cure each other by blow on head. India: Thompson-Balys.

N643. N643. Stinging of buttocks as cure for cough. Patient applies stinging medicine and makes himself sore. He represses his cough to keep from hurting his hindquarters and is finally cured. India: Thompson-Balys.

N644. N644. Cure by fall which causes bleeding. Irish myth: Cross.

N645. N645. Lost memory recovered in battle. Irish myth: Cross.

N646. N646. Man thinks to end life by drinking poisonous water, but it cures him. India: Thompson-Balys.

N647. N647. Thorn accidentally removed from cobra’s throat by woman‘s finger. Grateful cobra. India: Thompson-Balys.

N648. N648. King accidentally cured by doctor‘s ruse and excuses pretended inability to cure him. India: Thompson-Balys.

N650. N650. Life saved by accident.

N651. N651. Pet swan saves self by singing death song. Master about to mistake the swan in the dark for the goose that is to be slaughtered. Wienert FFC LVI 71 (ET 359), 143 (ST 487); Halm Aesop Nos. 215, 216.

N652. N652. Nut falls and wakes man about to be bitten by snake. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 38 No. 285B*, Espinosa Jr. No. 57.

N653. N653. Child falls from cliff; uninjured. Irish myth: Cross.

N654. N654. Hero catches spear hurled at him and kills serpent with it. Irish myth: Cross.

N655. N655. Waves break caul of abandoned child. He is rescued. Irish myth: Cross.

N656. N656. Angry man strikes king just in time to save his life. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N657. N657. Warriors discover in the last moment that it is their own chief they are about to murder by burning. Icelandic: Boberg.

N658. N658. Husband arrives home just in time to save wife and her father from being burned to death in their home. Icelandic: Boberg.

N659. N659. Life saved by accident--miscellaneous.

N659.1. N659.1. Poisoned cakes intended for man by his wife eaten by thieves: booty left to man. India: Thompson-Balys.

N659.2. N659.2. Youth accidentally absent when entire family is wiped out. Greek: Grote I 106.

N660. N660. Accidental escapes. Irish myth: Cross.

N661. N661. Sleeping king abducted by fairies wakes when his foot touches water. They free him. Irish myth: *Cross.

N662. N662. Storm blows down tree and frees marooned tortoise. Africa (Nyang): Ittman 53.

N680. N680. Lucky accidents--miscellaneous.

N680.1. N680.1. Lucky fool. India: Thompson-Balys.

N680.2. N680.2. Series of lucky successes. India: Thompson-Balys.

N681. N681. Husband (lover) arrives home just as wife (mistress) is to marry another. *Types 301, 400, 665; **Splettstцsser Der heimkehrende Gatte und sein Weib in der Weltliteratur; *Chauvin V 108 No. 40; **Rajna Romania VI 359ff.; *Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XII 59, XXVIII 74 n. 2; *BP II 318ff., 335ff., IV 168 n. 6; *Huet RTP XXXII 97, 145; *Oesterley No. 193; Deutschbein I 3, 187; Herrmann Saxo II 84f.; *Boje 105, 116; *Child V 488 s.v. “marriage”; Boccaccio Decameron X No. 9 (Lee 343); Herbert III 193; *Dickson 141, 221 n. 15; Malone PMLA XLIII 432; *Kцhler-Bolte I 117, 584. -- Icelandic: *Boberg; Norwegian: Solheim Register 21; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 509*; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI No. [email protected]; Russian: Andrejev No. 891*; Missouri French: Carriиre; French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 18; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 84, 107 Nos. 750A, 896, Espinosa II Nos. 133--135, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 63, 68; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: v. Ronkel Catologus der Maleische Handschriften 263; N. A. Indian: *Thompson CColl 323ff., 334ff.; Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 278 No. 90.

N681.0.1. N681.0.1. Return home to one‘s own funeral. Icelandic: Herrmann Saxo II 250, Boberg.

N681.1. N681.1. Wife finds lost husband just as he is to marry another. Type 425; Tegethoff 52; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N681.2. N681.2. Ruler makes ready to abandon barren wife and marry another. He remains with her when he learns that she is with child. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N681.3. N681.3. Incest accidentally averted.

N681.3.1. N681.3.1. Man about to consummate marriage with own mother; accidentally prevented. Italian Novella: Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N681.3.2. N681.3.2. Man in love with his own sister accidentally learns her identity. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N681.4. N681.4. Son returns on day his mother is to be married to another (though her husband still lives). India: Thompson-Balys.

N682. N682. Prophecy of future greatness fulfilled when hero returns home unknown. Parents serve him. *Type 517.

N683. N683. Stranger accidentally chosen king. Picked up by sacred elephant. *Cosquin Contes indiens 320 n. 4; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 68.

N684. N684. Naked soldier becomes general. Stripped for bathing he takes his place as guard when the king unexpectedly arrives. King invites him to come naked to the castle, where he is chosen as husband by a general‘s daughter. Type 1670*; Russian: Andrejev No. 1670*.

N685. N685. Fool passes as wise man by remaining silent. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 32; Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N686. N686. Hero’s (heroine‘s) identity established as he (she) is on the point of being executed. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N687. N687. Hero unwittingly helps fee’s sons: rewarded. Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 3.

N688. N688. What is in the dish: “Poor Crab”. A sham wise man named Crab is put to a test of his powers of divination. He is to tell what is in a covered dish (crabs). In despair he says, “Poor Crab!” and is given credit for knowing. *Type 1641; *BP II 401ff., 409; Louisiana French: Fortier MAFLS II 116; India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list No. 302; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 7f., 144; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Friends 24ff. No. 3; Cape Verde Islands: Parsons MAFLS XV (1) 182 No. 62.

N688.1. N688.1. Doctor know-all accidentally saves raja. Roof caves in after he has dragged raja out with the intention of killing him and putting an end to all of his questions. India: Thompson-Balys.

N691. N691. Objects accidentally picked up used to overawe ogress. India: Thompson-Balys; East Africa: Rattray Some Folk-Lore Stories and Songs in Chinvanja (London, 1907) 149ff. No. 24.

G570. Ogre overawed.

N691.1. N691.1. Numskull’s outcry overawes tiger who is carrying him on his back. Tiger thinks that words are the name of the “demon” riding him. India: Thompson-Balys.

N691.1.1. N691.1.1. Hero attempting to escape from tiger plays music and tiger follows. People marvel and give him money and he is rewarded with princess‘s hand. Korean: Zong in-Sob 149 No. 65.

N691.1.2. N691.1.2. Stupid man grabs tiger in the dark, ties it up, and saddles it, believing it to be a horse. It happens to be the tiger for whose capture a reward has been offered. India: Thompson-Balys.

N692. N692. Person reported lost joins unwittingly in search for himself.

N692.1. N692.1. Missing girl reveals identity and saves man condemned for kidnapping her. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 817.

N693. N693. Man sent away from battlefield to deliver message the only survivor of battle. Jewish: *Neuman.

N694. N694. Apparently dead woman revives as she is being prepared for burial. Cf. Type 990. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N694.1. N694.1. Apparently dead woman revives when dropped. Had swallowed a bone. Lover exhumes her. Stumbles as he carries her. She revives and later marries him. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N695. N695. Passengers on a boat are terrorized by a cutthroat. He turns courteous and leaves them unharmed. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N696. N696. Fugitive in tree urinates from fright: pursuers think it rain and leave. India: Thompson-Balys.

N696.1. N696.1. Man falls out of tree and frightens tiger away. India: Thompson-Balys.

N696.2. N696.2. Grinding stones carried by men seeking refuge in tree-top fall, killing their enemies below. India: Thompson-Balys.

N698. N698. Hawk carries off necklace from bathing queen and drops it by lucky girl, who gets reward. India: Thompson-Balys.

N699. N699. Other lucky accidents.

N699.1. N699.1. Father and brother accidentally return home just as they are most needed in fight. Icelandic: Boberg.

N699.2. N699.2. King‘s son comes home just at his father’s funeral, when the heritage has to be divided. Icelandic: Boberg.

N699.3. N699.3. Companions arrive as hero is about to be killed. Irish myth: Cross.

N699.4. N699.4. Orphan gets wife because swollen creek prevents marriage to someone else. Chinese: Graham.

N699.5. N699.5. Boy while cutting trees comes to one which happens to be bound up with the life of an ogre. Ogre bribes him with large fortune not to cut tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

N699.6. N699.6. Overheard wish is realized. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N700--N799.

N700--N799. Accidental encounters.

N700. N700. Accidental encounters.

N710. N710. Accidental meeting of hero and heroine.

N711. N711. King (prince) accidentally finds maiden and marries her. *Types 403, 451, 705, 709; *BP I 99ff., 295ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 99--103, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 80, 115; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 8; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N711.1. N711.1. King (prince) finds maiden in woods (tree) and marries her. *Types 450, 706, 710; Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Missouri French: Carriиre; French Canadian: Sister Marie Ursule; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N711.2. N711.2. Hero finds maiden in (magic) castle. *Types 304, 400, 408, 410, 590; Irish myth: *Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N711.3. N711.3. Hero finds maiden in (magic) garden. *Types 550, 551, 706; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. No. 106; India: Thompson-Balys.

N711.4. N711.4. Prince sees maiden at church and is enamored. *Types 510AB; Missouri French: Carriиre; Spanish: Espinosa III Nos. 111f., Espinosa Jr. No. 119.

N711.4.1. N711.4.1. Lovers meet at temple. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N711.5. N711.5. Prince (king) finds girl floating on water in basket: marries her. Hertel Zs. f. Vksk. XIX 83ff.; Penzer II 5; Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 2; India: Thompson-Balys.

N711.6. N711.6. Prince sees heroine at ball and is enamored. *Type 510AB; Missouri French: Carriиre; Spanish: Espinosa II 107--112, 154; Espinosa Jr. Nos. 123f.; India: Thompson-Balys.

N712. N712. Prince first sees heroine as she comes forth from her hiding-box. She has concealed herself until the favorable moment. *Cox 489; India: Thompson-Balys.

N712.1. N712.1. Princess concealed in trunk and sent to beggar, who marries her. India: Thompson-Balys.

N713. N713. King marries girl who finds lost object of his.

N713.1. N713.1. Princess catches raja‘s golden bird; he trails it to her palace. India: Thompson-Balys.

N713.2. N713.2. King marries girl who finds his lost ring. India: Thompson-Balys.

N715. N715. Lovers first see each other on shores of lake. M. Bloomfield in Penzer VII xxiii; India: Thompson-Balys.

N715.1. N715.1. Hero finds maiden at fountain (well, river). Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

N716. N716. Lover sees beloved first while she is bathing. II Samuel ch. 11; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N716.1. N716.1. Man stumbles on bathing maiden. Mono-Alu: Wheeler Nos. 8, 9, 31, 48.

N718. N718. Accidental meeting with the son of the only person who can overcome curse on hero. Icelandic: Boberg.

N721. N721. Runaway horse carries bride to her lover. Bridegroom unwittingly hires a horse belonging to his rival for his bride to ride to the wedding. A storm arises and the horse carries her to his master. *Bйdier Fabliaux 119, 473.

N723. N723. Girl sees man as he lies sleeping by wayside. India: Thompson-Balys.

N724. N724. Hunter accidentally discovers beautiful girl being secretly reared in a cave. Africa (Pangwe): Tessman 366.

N730. N730. Accidental reunion of families. *Chauvin VI 167ff. No. 327E; Boccaccio Decameron II Nos. 6, 8 (Lee 34, 39); Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carriиre; Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 947.

N731. N731. Unexpected meeting of father and son. Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carriиre Italian Novella: *Rotunda; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

N731.1. N731.1. Unknown son returns to father‘s court. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 119 (Paris).

N731.1.1. N731.1.1. King unknowingly adopts his own lost son. India: Thompson-Balys.

N731.2. N731.2. Father-son combat. Neither knows who the other is. (Sohrab and Rustem.) **Potter Sohrab and Rustem; Deutschbein I 232ff.; Potter FL XV 216ff.; Rank Inzest-Motif 164ff.; Hibbard 227 n. 5; *Kцhler-Bolte II 256ff.; L. Wolff Hessische Blдtter f. Volksk. XXXIX 54--63. -- Irish: *Cross, MacCulloch Celtic 145, 169 (Cuchulainn, Fionn), Thurneysen 403ff.; English: Wells 135 (Sir Degare); Icelandic: *Boberg; Greek: Fox 140 (Telegonos and Odysseus); Arabian: Burton Nights VII 89 n.; Persian Carnoy 332; Chinese: Werner Myths 315--319, Coyajee JPASB XXIV 179; Philippine: Dixon 235; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 508.

N731.2.1. N731.2.1. Hero fights with friend of father and then reveals himself. English: Wells 17 (Reinbrun, Gy son of Warwike).

N731.2.2. N731.2.2. Undesired combat between sworn (blood) brothers (foster brothers). Irish myth: *Cross.

N731.3. N731.3. Father unexpectedly meets abandoned son and reinstates him. Irish myth: Cross.

N731.4. N731.4. At execution block condemned man discovered to be king‘s unknown son. India: Thompson-Balys.

N732. N732. Accidental meeting of father and daughter. Missouri French: Carriиre.

N732.1. N732.1. Father unwittingly buys daughter who has been sold into slavery. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 389 n. 1 (Tisiphone).

N732.2. N732.2. Deserted daughter’s good fortune discovered by accident. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 348 n. 251.

N732.2.1. N732.2.1. Daughter‘s good fortune accidentally discovered by father who has become a beggar. Chinese: Graham.

N732.3. N732.3. Parents accidentally meet daughter who has survived their attempts to drown her. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N733. N733. Accidental meeting of brothers. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.

N733.1. N733.1. Brothers unwittingly fight each other. (Cf. N731.2.2.) Dickson 100, 109, 153; Icelandic: Boberg; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/317).

N733.2. N733.2. Brother unwittingly kills half brother in fight. Icelandic: Boberg.

N733.3. N733.3. Joseph and his brethren. Elder brothers unwittingly come to maltreated youngest in great need. Eventual recognition. India: Thompson-Balys.

N733.4. N733.4. Two returning brothers unwittingly purchase bird, which is transformed youngest brother, as present intended for him. India: Thompson-Balys.

N733.5. N733.5. Brothers accidentally reunited when wedding of one to a king’s daughter is celebrated and neighboring rulers are invited. India: Thompson-Balys.

N734. N734. Accidental meeting of brother and sister. Irish myth: Cross.

N734.1. N734.1. Slaves ordered married discover they are brother and sister. Irish myth: Cross.

N734.2. N734.2. Saint prays with woman; learns she is his sister. Irish myth: Cross.

N735. N735. Accidental meeting of mother and son. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

N735.1. N735.1. Begging ascetics beg alms of their own mother. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 511.

N736. N736. Accidental meeting of mother and daughter. India: Thompson-Balys.

N737. N737. Accidental reunion of lovers. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N738. N738. Accidental meeting of nephew and uncle. Hero takes refuge unwittingly at his uncle’s court. *Dickson 143 n. 143; Icelandic: *Boberg.

N738.1. N738.1. Uncle and nephew unwittingly about to kill one another. Icelandic: Boberg.

N741. N741. Unexpected meeting of husband and wife. Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carriиre; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 99--103; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N741.1. N741.1. Concealed wife. Unknown wife supernaturally conceals herself until the favorable moment to come forward. Italian: Crane 340; Greek: Garnett II 18; Hindu: Rouse FL V 85.

N741.2. N741.2. Husband and wife become separated in shipwreck. Wife unexpectedly meets husband on street. They are reunited. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N741.3. N741.3. Slandered queen chances to be in Rome at the same time as her estranged husband. Reconciled by the Pope. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N741.3.1. N741.3.1. Calumniated wife is forced to flee. (Cf. K2210.) Reunited by chance after many years at Emperor‘s court. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N741.4. N741.4. Husband and wife reunited after long separation and tedious quest. India: Thompson-Balys.

N741.5. N741.5. Maiden found in magic garden; prince’s wife in former life. India: Thompson-Balys.

N743. N743. Accidental meeting of sisters. India: Thompson-Balys.

N745. N745. Accidental meeting of seeker of exiled prince with prince at meal. Messenger in pilgrim garb invites unknown prince to eat with him. Recognition. *Boje 85.

N746. N746. Accidental meeting of cousins. Icelandic: borsteins saga Vнk. 446, Boberg.

N760. N760. Other accidental encounters.

N761. N761. Unexpected encounter in oasis. Malone PMLA XLIII 398.

N762. N762. Person accidentally met unexpectedly knows the other‘s name. Icelandic: *Boberg.

N763. N763. Hero captured by man he has formerly rescued: rewarded. *Type 953; Scottish: Campbell-McKay No. 25.

N764. N764. Unexpected meeting with wild man. (Cf. F567.) Dickson 122 n. 72; Missouri French: Carriиre.

N765. N765. Meeting with robber band. Dickson 68 n. 14.

N766. N766. Unwitting adultery with blood-brother’s wife. *Type 1364; Wesselski Mдrchen 187 No. 2.

N767. N767. Unwitting combat between sons of friends. Recognition and reconciliation. (Cf. N731.2.) Greek: Fox 128 (Glaukos and Diomedes).

N768. N768. Abandoned children accidentally discovered by villainess. India: Thompson-Balys.

N770. N770. Experiences leading to adventures.

N770.0.1. N770.0.1. Feast as occasion for the beginning of adventures or the arrival of questers. Irish myth: *Cross.

N771. N771. King (prince) lost on hunt has adventures. *BP I 432 n. 2; *Kцhler-Bolte II 408ff.; Dickson 93, 123 n. 75; Malone PMLA XLIII 398; Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 8, V No. 5; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N771.1. N771.1. King on hunt is taken prisoner. Icelandic: Юiрriks saga II 120 --40.

N771.2. N771.2. Girls going in the wood for nuts have adventures. Icelandic: *Boberg.

N772. N772. Parting at crossroads to go on adventures. *Type 303; *Ranke FFC CXIV (motif B2); India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

N773. N773. Adventure from following animal to cave (lower world). *Type 301; Irish myth: *Cross; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 66 No. 508 A*, Espinosa Jr. No. 67; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list No. 163; N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 74.

N773.1. N773.1. Adventure from following ogre to cave. India: Thompson-Balys.

N773.2. N773.2. Adventure from returning for forgotten comb. India: Thompson-Balys.

N774. N774. Adventures from pursuing enchanted animal (hind, boar, bird). (Guiding Beast.) Types 710 (Grimm No. 3), 425; *Tegethoff 14; **Pschmadt Die Sage von der verfolgten Hinde (Greifswald, 1911); Dickson 53f.; Clouston Tales I 215; *Fb “hjort” I 625a; Hibbard 244 (Chevalere Assigne). -- Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Lagerholm 25--26, Sveinsson FFC LXXXIII xxxiii, *Boberg; Italian: Basile Pentamerone I No. 9, *Rotunda; India: *Thompson-Balys; New Britain: Dixon 140.

N774.1. N774.1. Adventure from pursuing thieving birds. Type 610; India: Thompson-Balys.

N774.2. N774.2. Adventures from seeking (lost) domestic beast (bull). Type 511; Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys.

N774.3. N774.3. Adventures from pursuing animal (not magic). India: *Thompson-Balys.

N774.3.1. N774.3.1. Runaway ox leads pursuer to burial place of Adam and Eve. Jewish: *Neuman.

N775. N775. Race with fairies leads to adventures. Irish myth: Cross.

N776. N776. Light seen from tree lodging place at night leads to adventures. *Type 130, 327; *Aarne FFC XI 111; BP I 115ff.; Missouri French: Carriиre; Japanese: Ikeda.

N776.1. N776.1. Climbing tree to look around leads to adventures. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

N776.2. N776.2. Adventures from trying to strangle oneself in tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

N776.3. N776.3. Adventures from having slept beneath tree. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N777. N777. Dropped ball (basket) leads to adventures when recovery is attempted. Italian: Basile Pentamerone III No. 10 (Type 440).

N777.1. N777.1. Adventures encountered in running after cotton being blown away by wind. Type 480; *Roberts 130; India: Thompson-Balys.

N777.2. N777.2. Bucket dropped into well leads to adventures. Type 480; *Roberts 125.

N777.3. N777.3. Flax dropped into well leads to adventures. Type 480; *Roberts 125.

N777.4. N777.4. Spindle dropped into well leads to adventures. Type 480; *Roberts 125.

N778. N778. Taking refuge in a grave leads to adventure. Italian Novella: *Rotunda.

N781. N781. Hero embarks in rudderless boat. Kцhler-Bolte I 189; *Schoepperle Tristan and Isolt II 370ff.; Irish myth: *Cross.

N782. N782. Mother‘s parting gift to adventuring son: the two loaves of bread. One for hunger, one for overeating. India: Thompson-Balys.

N783. N783. Broken vessel (calabash, etc.) to be mended leads to adventure. Africa (Guinea Coast): Trautmann La Litterature а la Cфte des Esclaves (Paris, 1927), West Africa: Travйlй Proverbes et contes Bambara (Paris, 1923) 205ff., No. 66, Frobenius Atlantis VIII 274ff. No. 120.

N784. N784. Shouting after bathing: adventures follow. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 88.

N785. N785. Adventures from seeking water. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: Boberg.

N785.1. N785.1. Man hunting honey encounters lost maiden, returns her to her parents. Africa (Fang): Tessman 121.

N786. N786. Anchor catching in oratory of submarine monastery leads to adventures. Irish myth: Cross.

N788. N788. Incidents when wife takes food to husband in field or forest. India: Thompson-Balys.

N791. N791. Adventures from pursuing object carried off by river. Type 480; Roberts 129.

N792. N792. Adventures from pursuing objects carried off by bird. Type 480; Roberts 130.

N800--N899.

N800--N899. Helpers.

N800. N800. Helpers.

N801. N801. Helper grateful for being bought from slavery. Type 516; Rцsch FFC LXXVII 97.

N810. N810. Supernatural helpers. Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carriиre; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 111f., Espinosa Jr. Nos. 117, 138, 140, 149, 202--204; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N810.1. N810.1. Invisible guardians. Hindu: Tawney I 193, 544; Icelandic: *Boberg.

N810.2. N810.2. Helper‘s beard and eyebrows cut. Only after hero has performed this service is help forthcoming. *BP II 392.

N810.3. N810.3. Hero’s divine father as helper. India: Thompson-Balys.

N810.4. N810.4. Supernatural helper comes from sky. Korean: Zong in-Sob 65 No. 35.

N810.5. N810.5. Supernatural person disguised as servant as helper. Irish myth: *Cross.

N810.6. N810.6. Saint disguised (as poor man) as helper. Irish myth: Cross.

N811. N811. Supernatural godfather. A king chooses as the godfather of his son the first man he meets. The godfather proves to be supernatural. *Type 652; *BP I 377ff., II 121ff., III 18.

N812. N812. Giant or ogre as helper. *Types 531, 709; Bцklen 84ff.; BP III 18ff.; Malone PMLA XLIII 412; Irish myth: *Cross; Missouri French: Carriиre; India: *Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 471; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 44, (Benga): Nassau 208ff.

D812.11. Magic object received from giant.

N812.0.1. N812.0.1. Giant‘s help secured by feeding him. *Type 531; BP III 18ff.

N812.1. N812.1. Wise giant as foster father of hero. Icelandic: Olrik Sakses Oldhistorie I (1892) 40ff., *Boberg.

N812.2. N812.2. Giantess as foster mother and helper of hero. Icelandic: *Boberg.

N812.3. N812.3. Grateful giantess as helper. Icelandic: *Boberg.

N812.4. N812.4. Giantess helps the man she loves. Icelandic: *Boberg.

N812.5. N812.5. Monster grateful to hero for being spared becomes helpful. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N812.6. N812.6. Ogre magically produces water for caravan. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 15.

N812.7. N812.7. Chief with three supernatural ogre helpers. Marquesas: Handy 76.

N813. N813. Helpful genie (spirit). *Types 561, 562; *Aarne MSFO XXV 3--82; *BP II 535ff., 547ff.; *Fischer-Bolte 215.--Missouri French: Carriиre; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1302; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 182; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 67, 140, 142; Samoa: Beckwith Myth 438, 442; Easter Island: Mйtraux Ethnology 319, 369, 375; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 3/1007, 13/174, 221), Henry Ancient Tahiti (Honolulu, 1928) 520f., Beckwith Myth 450; S. A. Indian (Mura): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 36; Africa (Fang): Tessman 194.

N814. N814. Helpful angel. Hdwb. d. Mдrchens I 535b; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

N814.1. N814.1. Man carried through air by angel. Icelandic: Boberg; Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas I 117, 374.

N815. N815. Fairy as helper. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N815.0.1. N815.0.1. Helpful tree-spirit. (Cf. F441.2.) India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 534.

N815.0.2. N815.0.2. Helpful water-spirit. (Cf. F420.) India: Thompson-Balys.

N815.0.2.1. N815.0.2.1. Gift of gold bracelet from river goddess. (Cf. A4215.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.

N815.1. N815.1. Fairy nurse as helper. Irish myth: Cross.

N816. N816. Santa Claus as bringer of Christmas gifts. *Hoffman-Krayer Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 121 nn. 7--9.

N817. N817. Deity as helper. Greek: Iliad and Odyssey passim; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 840, II 504.

N817.0.1. N817.0.1. God as helper. Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 22, 111, 174.

N817.0.2. N817.0.2. Goddess as helper. Greek: Grote I 54; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 979.

N817.1. N817.1. Gods discuss means of settling dispute among girl’s suitors. Venus has girl make her own choice. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N818. N818. Sky as helper. Africa (Thonga): Junod 266ff.

N818.1. N818.1. Sun as helper. India: Thompson-Balys.

N819. N819. Supernatural helpers--miscellaneous.

N819.1. N819.1. Immortal as helper. Chinese: Graham.

N819.2. N819.2. Transformed person as helper. Chinese: Graham.

N819.2.1. N819.2.1. Transformed mother as helper. Chinese: Graham.

N819.3. N819.3. Helpful vital heads. India: Thompson-Balys.

N819.3.1. N819.3.1. Helpful speaking skull. India: Thompson-Balys.

N819.4. N819.4. Supernatural medicine-man as helper. S. A. Indian (Tupenamba): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 168.

N820. N820. Human helpers.

N821. N821. Help from little man. *Types 513B, 570; *BP III 267ff.

N822. N822. Lame boy (girl) as helper. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 35, 58, 248, 280.

N825. N825. Old person as helper. Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 99--103, 119--121, 126--132.

N825.1. N825.1. Childless old couple adopt hero. Malone: PMLA XLIII 399.

N825.2. N825.2. Old man helper. *Types 307, 329, 480, 512*; *BP III 365ff., 534ff.; *Chauvin VI 109 No. 273 n. 1; Roberts 150. -- Irish myth: Cross; Missouri French: Carriиre; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 75, 99 --103, 138f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Japanese: Ikeda; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/174); Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 461; N. A. Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 88 No. 4; Africa (Kaffir): Theal 83.

N825.3. N825.3. Old woman helper. *Types 316, 400, 480, 707; *BP II 380ff., 466; *Cosquin Йtudes 563; Hdwb. d. Mдrchens I s.v. “Alte im Walde”; Roberts 150. -- Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Finnish: Kalevala rune 7; Breton: Sйbillot Incidents s.v. “vieille”; Missouri French: Carriиre; Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 9, Rotunda; Spanish: Espinosa II Nos. 99--103, 126--132, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 107, 109; India: *Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 63, 166; Polynesia (general): Beckwith Myth chapt. 17 passim; Hawaii: ibid. 257--264, 491; Tahiti: ibid. 251; Tonga: Gifford 156; Maori: Dixon 59; Eskimo (Greenland): Rasmussen II 162; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 327 n. 180; Africa: Werner African 233, (Ekoi): Talbot 18, 207, 235, 364, (Basuto): Jacottet 118 No. 17, 142 No. 20, 204 No. 30, 226 No. 33, (Kaffir): Theal 48ff., 82, 145, (Zanzibar): Bateman 128 No. 7, (Angola): Chatelain 47 No. 1, 57 No. 2, 93 No. 5, (Zulu): Callaway 217.

N825.3.1. N825.3.1. Help from old beggar woman. *Hdwb. d. Mдrchens I 248b; BP III 206 (Grimm No. 150.)

N825.3.2. N825.3.2. Old woman by spring as helper. *Type 480; Roberts 151; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 7.

N825.3.3. N825.3.3. Help from grandmother. N. A. Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 69.

N826. N826. Help from beggar. (Cf. N825.3.1.) *Type 531; Fb “tigger” III 794b; India: Thompson-Balys.

N827. N827. Child as helper. (Cf. N832.) Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 105 No. 860; Chinese: Graham; Korean: Zong in-Sob 47.

N828. N828. Wise woman as helper. Italian: Basile Pentamerone V No. 3.

N831. N831. Girl as helper. Types 311, 313; Dickson 52f.; Tobler Epiphanie der Seele 71; Missouri French: Carriиre; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N831.1. N831.1. Mysterious housekeeper. Men find their house mysteriously put in order. Discover that it is done by a girl (frequently an animal transformed into a girl). *Type 709; **Bцklen Sneewittchenstudien 89ff.; MacCulloch Childhood 261; *BP I 450ff.; Hatt Asiatic Influences 96--102. -- Breton: Sйbillot Incidents s.v. “menage”; Missouri French: Carriиre; Spanish: Espinosa Jr. Nos. 71--74, 81, Espinosa II No. 114, Boggs FFC XC 48 No. 327D*; Italian: Basile Pentamerone IV No. 6; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Korean: Zong in-Sob 30; Indonesia: DeVries‘s list No. 152, Dixon 218; New Britain, Philippine, Melanesia: Dixon 110 n. 25, 224 nn. 27, 28; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 34; Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XVI 88, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 223; N.A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 335 n. 207; S. A. Indian: *Jijena Sanchez 23, (Surinam): Alexander Lat. Am. 274; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 134, 136, (Basuto): Jacottet 110 No. 16, (Kaffir): Theal 74, (Congo): Weeks 215 No. 11, (Zulu): Callaway 124.

N831.1.1. N831.1.1. Mysterious housekeeper is fairy mistress. Irish myth: *Cross.

N832. N832. Boy as helper. (Cf. N827). Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

N832.1. N832.1. Boy as mysterious housekeeper for buffalo herd. (Cf. H831.1.) India: *Thompson-Balys.

N832.2. N832.2. Sons as helpers. Type 551; Icelandic: Boberg.

N835. N835. Wealthy (powerful) man as helper. French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 14.

N836. N836. King as helper. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

N836.1. N836.1. King adopts hero (heroine). English: Wells 8 (King Horn), 11 (Horn Childe and Maiden Rimnild), 17 (Reinbrun, Gy sone of Warwike), 20 (William of Palerne), 115 (Sir Eglamour of Artois), 117 (Sir Torrent of Portyngale); Icelandic: Boberg; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N836.2. N836.2. Each of four kings does something to save dying falcon. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N836.3. N836.3. King helps princes in exile to avenge their father and take their homeland back. Icelandic: Boberg.

N837. N837. Queen as helper. Icelandic: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Zulu): Callaway 239.

N838. N838. Hero (culture hero) as helper. Irish myth: *Cross.

N841. N841. Shepherd as helper. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 54 No. 405A*, Espinosa Jr. No. 215; Chinese: Graham.

N842. N842. Cook as helper.

N842.1. N842.1. Cook as foster father. Arabian: Burton I 226.

N843. N843. Hermit as helper. Irish myth: Cross; Icelandic: Boberg; English: Wells 66 (Ywain and Gawain); Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 70 No. 535, Espinosa Jr. Nos. 129, 139; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hindu: Tawney I 486, II 146.

N844. N844. Dervish as helper. Malone PMLA XLIII 400.

N844.1. N844.1. Sadhu as helper. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N844.2. N844.2. Fakir as helper. India: *Thompson-Balys.

N845. N845. Magician as helper. Dickson 121 n. 64; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3669, Legends No. 621; India: *Thompson-Balys; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 3/1386, 13/203, 317).

N846. N846. Cleric as helper.

N846.1. N846.1. Palmer as helper. Dickson 63.

N846.2. N846.2. Priest as helper. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 3/1174).

N847. N847. Prophet as helper. Moreno Esdras (N829); Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

N848. N848. Saint (pious man) as helper. Irish myth: *Cross; Icelandic: *Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

N848.0.1. N848.0.1. Holy man as helper. India: Thompson-Balys.

N848.1. N848.1. Hero ransoms maltreated picture of a saint. As reward he gets help from the grateful saint. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 506C*.

N848.2. N848.2. A wise man (saint, brahmin) recognizes that a man unwittingly carries a venomous serpent in his proviant sack and warns him. Krappe Moyen Age (1937) No. 4.

N851. N851. Merchant as helper. Malone PMLA XLIII 409; India: Thompson-Balys.

N852. N852. Soldier as helper. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

N854. N854. Peasant as helper. Icelandic: Бsmundar saga Kappabana 472, Boberg.

N854.1. N854.1. Peasant as foster father. Icelandic: Boberg.

N855. N855. Helpful smith. Missouri French: Carriиre.

N855.1. N855.1. Smith as foster father. *Von Sydow Sigurds strid med Fеvne 19ff.; Icelandic: Boberg.

N856. N856. Helpful forester. English: Wells 96 (Chevalere Assigne).

N856.1. N856.1. Forester as foster father. *Type 652; BP II 121ff., *122; Icelandic: Boberg.

N856.2. N856.2. Cowherd as foster father. Irish myth: Cross.

N857. N857. Enemy’s servant as helper. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

N861. N861. Foundling helper. Type 516; Rцsch FFC LXXVII 96; Icelandic: Boberg.

N863. N863. Slave (swineherd) as helper of princess. Icelandic: *Boberg.

H38.3. Slave recognized by his conversation, habits and character.

N864. N864. Leper as helper. Irish myth: *Cross.

N884. N884. Robber as helper. West Africa: Nassau Fetischism in West Africa (London, 1904) No. 2.

N884.1. N884.1. Robber helps king. *Type 952; *BP III 450ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

N886. N886. Blind man carries lame man. They thus combine and are able to get along. *Type 519; *Wesselski Arlotto II 255 n. 1; Herbert III 192; Oesterley No. 71; Scala Celi 23b No. 151. -- Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 68, *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine: Fansler MAFLS XII 53; N. A. Indian (Navaho): Alexander N. Am. 174.

N886.1. N886.1. Hunchback leads blind man. India: Thompson-Balys.