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S. Thompson. Motif-index of folk-literature : a classification of narrative elements in folktales, ballads, myths, fables, medieval romances, exempla, fabliaux, jest-books, and local legends.

Revised and enlarged. edition. Bloomington : Indiana University Press, 1955-1958.

Grant support: INTAS project 05-1000008-7922, РФФИ #06-06-80-420a, РФФИ #07-06-00441-а


A0-A99. Creator.

A0. A0. Creator.--For a general bibliography of creation myths, see Alexander N. Am. 278 n. 15. For bibliographies of North American Indian mythologies arranged by areas, see Thompson Tales 272 n. 1; **Feilberg Skabelses og Syndflodssagn; Jewish: Neuman.--Mexican Indian: (Tarascan) Alexander Lat. Am. 85, (Zapotecan) ibid. 87; Guarayъ: Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 147; Polynesia: Dixon 21 n. 47; Hawaiian: Beckwith Myth 42; Mono-Alu: Wheeler 28, 66f., 70; Easter Is.: Mйtraux BMB CLX 313; Marshall Is.: Davenport Folk Tales 221f.; Tahiti: Henry Ancient Tahiti 335ff.; New Hebrides: Codrington II 365.--Armenian: Ananikian 20; African: Werner African 127ff., **Frobenius and Fox, (Loango): Pechuлl-Loesche 267; Hindu: Penzer I 10; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 338; Icel.: Boberg, MacCulloch Eddic 326; Irish myth: Cross.

A1. A1. Identity of creator.

A1.1. A1.1. Sun-god as creator.--Egyptian: Mьller 69; Persian: Carnoy 260.

A1.2. A1.2. Grandfather as creator.--S. Am. Indian (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 359, (Guarayъ): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 147.

A1.3. A1.3. Stone-woman as creator.--Paressi: Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 359.

A1.4. A1.4. Brahma as creator.--Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 338.

A2. A2. Multiple creators.

A2.1. A2.1. Three creators.--Icel.: Boberg, MacCulloch Eddic 327.--Oceanic: Dixon 24; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 42.

A2.2. A2.2. First human pair as creators. (Cf. A1270.) Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 115 No. 70.

A3. A3. Creative mother source of everything.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A5. A5. Reason for creation.

A5.1. A5.1. Gods make earth to have place to rest their feet.--Hawaiian: Beckwith Myth 43.

A7. A7. Creator’s descendants. (Cf. A32.)

A7.1. A7.1. Creator has two sons.--Guarayъ: Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 147.

A10. A10. Nature of the creator.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A11. A11. Invisible creator.--Jewish: Neuman.--Ackawoi: Alexander Lat. Am. 269.

A11.1. A11.1. Invisibility of creator learned from the impossibility of staring at the sun, his servant.--Jewish: Neuman.

A12. A12. Hermaphroditic creator. The creator is half man and half woman or is thought of as both male and female.--*Lang Myth I 200f., 299; Gьntert 324.--Greek: Eisler 396; Egyptian: Maspйro Histoire ancienne des peuples de l‘Orient classique 141; Indian (Hindu): Keith 75.--Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 88.

A12.1. A12.1. Male and female creators. Japanese: Anesaki 222; Hawaii: Henry Ancient Tahiti 345.

A13. A13. Animal as creator.

A13.1. A13.1. Beast as creator.

A13.1.1. A13.1.1. Cow as creator. *Schrцder Altgermanische Kulturprobleme 132; *Gьntert Weltkцnig 365ff.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 63, 324.

A13.2. A13.2. Bird as creator. Hawaii: Henry Ancient Tahiti 345.

A13.2.1. A13.2.1. Raven as creator. Eskimo: Nelson RBAE XVIII 454; Koryak: Jochelson JE VI 218.

A13.2.2. A13.2.2. Eagle as creator of man. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 94.

A13.2.3. A13.2.3. Black-winged bird as creator. Greek: Fox 4.

A13.3. A13.3. Insect as creator.

A13.3.1. A13.3.1. Spider as creator. India: Thompson-Balys.

A13.3.2. A13.3.2. Beetle as creator. So. Am. Indian (Lengua): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367.

A13.4. A13.4. Reptile as creator.

A13.4.1. A13.4.1. Snake as creator. Mono-Alu, Fauru, Buin: Wheeler 67.

A13.4.2. A13.4.2. Worm as creator. Guarayъ: Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 437.

A15. A15. Human creator.

A15.1. A15.1. Female creator. Chibcha: Kroeber BBAE CXLIII (2) 908.

A15.1.1. A15.1.1. Old woman as creator. Lepers Is.: Codrington II 372f.

A15.2. A15.2. Brothers as creators. So. Am. Indian (Guaporй River): Levi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 379.

A15.3. A15.3. Old man as creator.

A15.3.1. A15.3.1. Old man with staff as creator. (cf. A1.2.). Inca: Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 316.

A15.4. A15.4. Artisan as creator.

A15.4.1. A15.4.1. Potter as creator. India: Thompson-Balys.

A17. A17. Angel as creator. Jewish: Neuman.

A18. A18. Pictorial representations of creator.

A18.1. A18.1. Creator with dragon’s head. Chinese: Werner 77.

A18.2. A18.2. Creator with two horns on head. Chinese: Werner 76.

A18.3. A18.3. Dwarfish creator. Chinese: Werner 76.

A18.4. A18.4. Creator clothed in bear-skin (or in leaves). Chinese: Werner 76.

A18.5. A18.5. Creator with hammer and chisel in hands. Chinese: Werner 76.

A18.6. A18.6. Creator with sun and moon in hands. Chinese: Werner 76.

A19. A19. Nature of creator--miscellaneous.

A19.1. A19.1. Sun and moon (man and wife) as creators. So. Am. Indian: (Cashibo) Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 594.

A19.2. A19.2. Creator with appearance of Negro. Africa (Luba): Danohugh V 180.

A20. A20. Origin of the creator.

A21. A21. Creator from above.

A21.1. A21.1. Woman who fell from the sky.--Daughter of the sky-chief falls from the sky, is caught by birds, and lowered to the surface of the water. She becomes the creator.--*Iroquois: Thompson Tales n. 27.--Cf. Finnish: Kalevala rune 1.

A21.2. A21.2. Old man from sky as creator.--Old man with his wife comes from the sky. Are the first couple on earth. Have seven sons and seven daughters. Each son marries a daughter.--Ekoi: Talbot 366.

A22. A22. Creator comes out of chaos. Chinese: Werner 76, Ferguson 57.

A23. A23. Creator offspring of dual powers of nature. (Male and female principles.)--Chinese: Werner 76.

A25. A25. Creator from below. God rises from beneath (the center of the spiritual world) and creates the world.--Hottentot: Bleek 74 No. 35.

A25.1. A25.1. Creator emerges from lake. So. Am. Indian (Chibcha): Kroeber BBAE CXLIII (2) 908, (Aymara): Tschopik BBAE CXLIII (2) 570.

A26. A26. Creator comes from certain direction.

A26.1. A26.1. Creator comes from east. Africa (Luba): Donahugh V 80.

A27. A27. Creator born from egg. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 98f.

A30. A30. Creator‘s companions. Inca: Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 315; Tahiti: Henry 342; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45.

A31. A31. Creator’s grandmother. Casually mentioned in the course of the creation myth.--American Indian: *Thompson Tales 275 n. 13.

A32. A32. Creator‘s family. (Cf. A7.)

A32.1. A32.1. Creator’s son. India: Thompson-Balys.--So. Am. Indian: (Chibcha): Kroeber BBAE CXLIII (2) 908.

A32.2. A32.2. Creator‘s daughter. India: Thompson-Balys.

A32.3. A32.3. Creator’s wife. India: Thompson-Balys.--So. Am. Indian (Munderucъ): Horton BBAE CXLIII (3) 281.

A32.3.1. A32.3.1. Creator‘s wife seduced by his son. So. Am. Indian (Munderucъ): Horton BBAE CXLIII (3) 281.

A32.3.2. A32.3.2. Creator beats his wife while intoxicated from beverage he invents. So. Am. Indian (Guarayъ): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 147.

A33. A33. Animal as creator’s companion. India: Thompson-Balys.

A33.1. A33.1. Beast as creator‘s companion.

A33.1.1. A33.1.1. Creator’s dog. The creator is accompanied by a dog (cf. A63.4.).--*Dh I 98--111 passim, especially 108.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 347.--Kato: Goddard UCal V 183ff.

A33.2. A33.2. Bird as creator‘s companion. India: Thompson-Balys; Sumatra: Dixon 160; Samoa, Tonga: ibid. *164 n. 33, 34.

A33.3. A33.3. Insect as creator’s companion.

A33.3.1. A33.3.1. Bee as God‘s spy. God, the creator, sends a bee to overhear the devil’s secrets.--*Dh I 3, 127ff.

A33.4. A33.4. Other animal companions of creator.

A33.4.1. A33.4.1. Armadillo as creator‘s companion. So. Am. Indian (Munderucъ): Horton BBAE CXLIII (3) 281.

A36. A36. Creator’s companions: unicorn, phoenix, tortoise, and dragon. Chinese: Werner 76.

A37. A37. Joint creators.

A37.1. A37.1. Falcon and crow as joint creators. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 54.

A38. A38. Heavenly bodies as creator‘s companions.

A38.1. A38.1. Creator’s companions: sun and moon. Jewish: Neuman.

A40. A40. Creator‘s advisers. Jewish: Neuman.

A41. A41. Men as God’s advisers. *Dh I 3.

A42. A42. Angels as God‘s advisers. Dh I 3, 31ff., 55, 187; Jewish: Neuman.

A42.1. A42.1. Seraphim as creator’s advisers. Jewish: Neuman.

A42.1.1. A42.1.1. God consults two angels on creation. Jewish: Neuman.

A42.2. A42.2. God consults mercy on his right and justice on his left. Jewish: Neuman.

A43. A43. Devil as adviser of God. *Dh I 2f., 6, 12, 28, 31, 42, 44, 127ff., 144, 240, 388.--Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 313ff.

A44. A44. Tora as God’s adviser. Jewish: Neuman.

A45. A45. Souls of pious as Creator‘s advisers. Jewish: Neuman.

A50. A50. Conflict of good and evil creators. *Dh I 1--89 passim, 172ff.--Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Persian: Carnoy 261f., 275.--Banks Island: Dixon 106.

A50.1. A50.1. Creation of angels and devils. Jewish: Neuman.

A51. A51. Creation of devil(s). (cf. A63).

A52. A52. Creation of angels.

A52.0.1. A52.0.1. Angels created to execute God’s will. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.0.2. A52.0.2. Degraded gods become angels. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.0.3. A52.0.3. Angels existed prior to creation. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.0.4. A52.0.4. Angels are transformed souls of the pious. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.0.5. A52.0.5. Angels created from three elements. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.0.6. A52.0.6. Angels created from words uttered by God. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.0.7. A52.0.7. God drops water from his finger and the drops become angels. Lucifer imitated God and created devils.--Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 2.

A52.0.8. A52.0.8. God created angels by striking one small stone with another. Lucifer created devils by imitation. Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 1, 3.

A52.1. A52.1. Creation of individual angels.

A52.1.1. A52.1.1. Angel of death created by God. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.1.2. A52.1.2. Angel Michael created from fire. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.1.3. A52.1.3. Angel Gabriel created from snow. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.1.4. A52.1.4. Angel Raphael created from water. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.1.5. A52.1.5. Angel of destruction created from hail and fire. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.2. A52.2. Time of creation of the angels.

A52.2.1. A52.2.1. Angels created on first day of creation. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.2.2. A52.2.2. Angels created on second day of creation. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.2.3. A52.2.3. Angels created on third day of creation. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.2.4. A52.2.4. Archangels created on first, angels on third day of creation. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.2.5. A52.2.5. Angels created on fifth day with other winged creatures. Jewish: Neuman.

A52.3. A52.3. Material of which angels are created (fire, water and snow). Jewish: Neuman.

A54. A54. Rebel angels.

A54.1. A54.1. Angel of sea rebels at world‘s creation; put to death by God. Jewish: Neuman.

A60. A60. Marplot at creation. An evil opponent attempts to undo or mar the work of the creator.--Jewish: Neuman; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 315f.--Borneo: Dixon 170; Melanesian: *Codrington JAI X 293; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45.--So. Am. Indian (Toba, Mataco): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 368f.--India: *Thompson-Balys.

A61. A61. Coyote as marplot at creation. *Thompson Tales 285 n. 52.

A63. A63. Devil as marplot at creation. *Dh I 6--89 passim, 127--205 passim; *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX (Nachtrдge) 276f.--Estonian: Loorits Grundzьge I 458f.

A63.1. A63.1. Devil works during God’s sleep at creation. *Dh I 2, 42f., 55, 60, 102, 115ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

A63.2. A63.2. Devil plans to drown God at time of creation. *Dh I 184f.--Lithuanian: Balys Index 3005; Balys Legends No. 11.

A63.3. A63.3. Devil and God wrestle at time of creation. *Dh I 184f.

A63.4. A63.4. Devil and God create animals. Wolf created as God‘s dog. The devil creates goats to destroy things.--BP III 199 (Gr. No. 148); Dh I 127--205 passim.

A63.4.1. A63.4.1. God and the devil torment each other with their creations. Devil pesters God with gnats. God makes a fire and safeguards himself; God plagues the devil with fleas--devil is unable to find means of protecting himself.--Lithuanian: Balys Index 3082; Balys Legends No. 131ff.

A63.5. A63.5. Lucifer causes fall of man. Irish Myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A63.5.1. A63.5.1. Satan seduces Adam to sin because he is jealous of him. Jewish: Neuman.

A63.6. A63.6. Devil in serpent form tempts first woman (Satan and Eve). Jewish: Neuman.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A63.7. A63.7. Rebel god is author of all poisonous things. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 61.

A63.7.1. A63.7.1. Poisonous water created by the devil. Irish myth: Cross (A63.7).

A63.8. A63.8. Satan attempts to create another world. Jewish: Neuman.

A67. A67. God makes things and tosses them into the air; what he catches is good for mankind, what opponent catches is bad. New Hebrides: Beckwith Myth 61.

A70. A70. Creator: miscellaneous motifs.

A71. A71. Creator tries to devour his son, the culture hero. Greek: cf. Roscher II 1540.--Tehuelche (Patagonia): Alexander Lat. Am. 335.

A72. A72. Original creator followed by transformers. These demigods change the original creation into the present forms.--See A900ff. for work of the transformers, with references.--Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 85; So. Am. Indian: *Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 122, BBAE CXLIII (3) 437.

A73. A73. Lonely creator. The creator is tired of solitude and therefore inaugurates the creation.--Finnish: Kalevala rune 2.--So. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.

A74. A74. Reluctant creator.

A74.1. A74.1. Creation on condition that Israel accept Tora. Jewish: Neuman.

A74.2. A74.2. Creator repents of creating certain things. Jewish: Neuman.

A75. A75. Creator as ancestor of heaven and earth. Chinese: Werner 76.

A76. A76. Creator‘s death. (Cf. A192.) Chinese: Werner 77.

A77. A77. Creator’s works survive him. Chinese: Werner 77.

A78. A78. Creator goes to make afterworld. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 59.

A81. A81. Creator goes to sky. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 57.

A84. A84. Creator of animals.

A84.1. A84.1. Creator of buffaloes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A85. A85. Creation match between goddess-wife, god-husband. India: Thompson-Balys.

A87. A87. Creator drunk from beverage he invents. So. Am. Indian (Guarayъ): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 147.


A100--A499. GODS


A100--A199. The gods in general.

A100. A100. Deity.

A101. A101. Supreme god. One god chief of all other gods. (Often not worshipped as other gods are.)--Durkheim 274, 409ff.; Leroy La raison primitive 125ff.; Holmberg Gudstron 61ff.; C. Koch Der rцmische Juppiter.--Semitic: Smith Semites@3 529; Jewish: Neuman; Greek: Fox 153, *Grote I 57f.; Assyrian: Spence 206ff.; Babylonian: ibid. 199ff.; Hindu: Keith 21f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 148, 309; Siberian: Karjalainen FFC XLIV 259, 268ff.; Armenian: Ananikian 11, 14, 37; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 61; Chinese: Ferguson 50, Eberhard FFC CXX 115 No. 70.--Indonesian: Kruyt Archipel 465ff.; Maori: Clark 32; Tahiti: Henry 121, 128; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45.--African: Frobenius Atlantis X 82, Werner African 123ff.; N. A. Indian: Alexander N. Am. 80, 82, 187, 284 n. 28; So. Am. Indian (Guarani): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93; Africa (Fang): Trilles 130, (Luba): Donohugh V 180.

A101.1. A101.1. Supreme god as creator. (cf. A0). Lowie Primitive Religion 85; Goldenweiser Early Civilization 97; Oldenberg Die Religion des Veda 278.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 326; Armenian: Ananikian 20; India: Thompson-Balys; Tarascan: Alexander Lat. Am. 85.

A102. A102. Characteristics of deity.

A102.1. A102.1. Omniscient god. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 47 (Odin); Irish Myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.--So. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 173, (Guarani): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93.

A102.2. A102.2. All-seeing god. Jewish: Neuman; Greek: Aeschylus Suppliants line 138.

A102.3. A102.3. Immutable god. Jewish: Neuman.

A102.4. A102.4. Omnipotent god. Jewish: *Neuman.

A102.5. A102.5. Omnipresent god. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A102.6. A102.6. Eternal god. Jewish: Neuman.

A102.7. A102.7. Holy god. Jewish: Neuman.

A102.8. A102.8. Sleepless god. Jewish: Neuman.

A102.9. A102.9. Invisible god. Jewish: Neuman.

A102.10. A102.10. Unity of God. Jewish: Neuman.

A102.11. A102.11. Purity of God. Jewish: Neuman.

A102.12. A102.12. Perfect God. Jewish: Neuman.

A102.13. A102.13. Loving kindness of God. Jewish: Neuman.

A102.14. A102.14. Goodness of God. Jewish: Neuman.

A102.15. A102.15. Modesty of God. Jewish: Neuman.

A102.16. A102.16. Justice of God. Jewish: Neuman.

A102.17. A102.17. Anger of God. Jewish: Neuman.

A102.18. A102.18. Imperfect god, subject to death and rebirth. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 959.

A102.19. A102.19. Conflict between God‘s justice and mercy. Jewish: Neuman.

A103. A103. Father-god. Greek: Grote I 3; Hindu: Keith 50ff., 73ff., 82ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

A104. A104. The making of gods.

A104.1. A104.1. Living person becomes god. Hawaii: *Beckwith Myth 2, ch. I passim.

A104.2. A104.2. Dead body becomes god. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 2.

A104.3. A104.3. Miscellaneous objects become gods. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 2.

A104.4. A104.4. Spirits become gods. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45.

A106. A106. Opposition of good and evil gods. Hindu: Keith 84; *Penzer I 197; India: Thompson-Balys.--Tarahumare (Mexican Indian): Alexander N. Am. 176; S. Am. Indians (Antioquians): Alexander Lat. Am. 197.--Jewish: Neuman.

A106.0.1. A106.0.1. Gods and the demons quarrel over supremacy. India: Thompson-Balys.

A106.1. A106.1. Revolt of bad gods against good. Babylonian: Spence 75.

A106.1.1. A106.1.1. Goddess rebels against her father for forbidding her marriage. India: Thompson-Balys.

A106.2. A106.2. Revolt of evil angels against God. Jensen Dania II 180; Olrik ibid. II 67; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3002, Legends Nos. 5, 6; Jewish: *Neuman; Irish: Beal. XXI 323.

A106.2.1. A106.2.1. Revolting devil banished to hell. India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.

A106.2.1.1. A106.2.1.1. Banished devil appears on earth only on day of dark moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

A106.2.1.2. A106.2.1.2. Demon (opposed to God) allowed to earth four times a year (but must let people know who he is and not deceive them). India: Thompson-Balys.

A106.2.2. A106.2.2. Satan’s fall from heaven. Jewish: Neuman.

A106.3. A106.3. Created beings rebel against God. Jewish: Neuman.

A107. A107. Gods of darkness and light. Darkness thought of as evil, light as good.--Babylonian: Spence 74; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A108. A108. God of the living and the dead in the otherworld. Chinese: Werner 248.

A108.1. A108.1. God of the dead. Irish myth: Cross; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 60.

A109. A109. Deity: miscellaneous motifs.

A109.1. A109.1. God as a triad. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 44; Icel.: Boberg.

A109.2. A109.2. Goddess as mother of Pacific Ocean. Maori: Beckwith Myth 179.

A110. A110. Origin of the gods.

A111. A111. Parents of the gods. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 171.

A111.1. A111.1. Mother of the gods. (cf. A116.2). **Showerman; Smith Dragon viii; *Holmberg Baum 84ff.--Babylonian: Spence 123ff.; Hindu: Penzer I 270ff., 276, VII 231; India: Thompson-Balys; Hittite: Garstang The Hittite Empire 305ff.; Gaster Thespis 179.--Oceanic: Beckwith Myth 294; So. Am. Indian (Apapocuvъ-Guarani): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 122.

A111.2. A111.2. Father of the gods. Icel.: Boberg.

A111.3. A111.3. Ancestor of the gods. Tahiti: Henry 336.

A111.3.0.1. A111.3.0.1. God of double sex carries within him seed of gods. Greek: Grote I 16.

A12. A12. Hermaphroditic creator.

A111.3.1. A111.3.1. God dwells with his grandfathers. Marquesas: Handy 106.

A111.3.2. A111.3.2. Sea creatures as ancestors of goddess. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/600).

A111.3.3. A111.3.3. Great bird as ancestor of gods. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 92.

A112. A112. Birth of gods. India: Thompson-Balys.

A112.1. A112.1. God from incestuous union. Krappe The Review of Religion (1941); India: Thompson-Balys.

A112.1.1. A112.1.1. God from father-daughter incest. Adonis. Greek: Spence 132.--Icel.: Boberg.

A112.1.1.1. A112.1.1.1. Goddess of music and dance born of incestuous union (Brahma and daughter). India: Thompson-Balys.

A112.2. A112.2. Male and female creators beget gods. Japanese: Anesaki 223.

A112.3. A112.3. Gods born from various parts of creator‘s body. Japanese: Anesaki 224.

A112.4. A112.4. God as son of giant. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 139 (Loki), 324 (Odin, Vili, and Ve), Boberg.

A112.4.1. A112.4.1. God as son of giantess. Icel.: Boberg.

A112.4.2. A112.4.2. Goddess as daughter of giant. Icel.: Boberg.

A112.5. A112.5. God as son of nine giantesses. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 153 (Heimdall).

A112.6. A112.6. Gods as sons of supreme god. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 61.--Tahiti: Henry 147.

A112.7. A112.7. God born from peculiar part of parent’s body.

A112.7.1. A112.7.1. God born from mother‘s ear. Marquesas: Handy 107.

A112.7.2. A112.7.2. God born from mother’s armpit. Marquesas: Handy 107.

A112.7.3. A112.7.3. Goddess born from mother‘s eyes. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 186.

A112.7.4. A112.7.4. God born after prematurely short pregnancy. Marquesas: Handy 107.

A112.8. A112.8. God from adulterous union. Irish myth: Cross.

A112.9. A112.9. Gods borne by human woman. India: Thompson-Balys.

A112.9.1. A112.9.1. Elementary spirits borne by human woman. India: Thompson-Balys.

A112.10. A112.10. Divine child cast out at birth. Polynesia: Beckwith Myth 257.

A112.11. A112.11. Child born from union of God with hen. Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 130.

A113. A113. Totemistic gods. Gods which have animal associations; e.g., Athena with the owl, Venus with the sparrow.--Babylonian: Spence 93; India: *Thompson-Balys; Irish myth: Cross.

A114. A114. Gods born from object.

A114.1. A114.1. Deity born from sea-foam. Aphrodite. Greek: Roscher I 402; *Frazer Pausanias III 544.

A114.1.1. A114.1.1. Goddess born from sweat of rock washed by sea. Minahassa (Celebes): Dixon 157.

A114.1.1.1. A114.1.1.1. God born of another god’s sweat. India: Thompson-Balys.

A114.1.1.2. A114.1.1.2. Origin of lesser gods from spittle of great god. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 82.

A114.2. A114.2. God born from egg. Tahiti: Henry 337; Marquesas: Handy 104.--So. Am. Indian (Huamachuco): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 151.

A114.2.1. A114.2.1. Deity born in shape of egg. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 169.

A114.3. A114.3. Deity born from skull. Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 312.

A114.4. A114.4. Deity born from tree. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 279, 284.--So. Am. Indian (Tembй): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 122.

A115. A115. Emergence of deity.

A115.1. A115.1. First deity grows out of primeval chaos. Japanese: Anesaki 222.

A115.2. A115.2. God issues from earth. Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 328 (Tuisto).

A115.3. A115.3. Deity arises from mist. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 71.

A115.4. A115.4. Deity emerges from darkness of underworld. Mangia (Cook Is.): Beckwith Myth 224.

A115.5. A115.5. Emergence of gods from above and below. Marquesas: Handy 138.

A115.6. A115.6. Deity arises from shell of darkness where he has been for million ages. Tahiti: Henry.

A115.7. A115.7. Gods emerge from hole in tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

A116. A116. Twin gods. *Harris Twins, Boanerges, Picus who is also Zeus; Krappe Etudes de mythologie 137ff.; Gьntert Weltkцnig 253ff.; S. Eitrem Die gцttlichen Zwillinge bei den Griechen (Christiania 1902); H. Grйgoire Saints jumeaux et dieux cavaliers (Paris 1905); J.R. Harris The Dioscuri in the Christian Legends (London 1903); Krappe The Classical Journal XVIII (1923) 502ff.; Zeitschrift fьr Ethnologie LXVI (1929) 187ff.; “Les dieux jumeaux dans la religion germanique” Acta Philologica Scandinavica (1930); Review of Religion (1944) 123ff.; Revue Celtique XLIX (1932) 96ff; P. Saintyves, “Les Jumeaux, dans l‘ethnographie et la mythologie,” Revue Anthrop. XXXV (1925) 54--59; T. Gaster Oldest Stories 69.--Germanic: Helm Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte I 321ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 26; Armenian: Ananikian 40; Hindu: Keith 30f. (Lettish also mentioned).--Zuсi: Alexander N. Am. 188; Mixtec: Alexander Lat. Am. 86; Indians of Central Brazil: Ehrenreich International Cong. of Americanists XIV 661; Chiriguano: Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 172.

A116.1. A116.1. Twin gods--one mortal, other immortal. Harris Twins 4ff.

A116.2. A116.2. Twin goddesses (or trinity of goddesses). Irish myth: Cross.

A116.2.1. A116.2.1. Twin daughters of a god. India: Thompson-Balys.

A117. A117. Mortals become gods.

A117.1. A117.1. First men created with eternal life become gods. India: Thompson-Balys.

A117.2. A117.2. Mortal translated to heaven and deified. India: *Thompson-Balys; Maori: Clark Maori Folk Tales 167.

A117.3. A117.3. In extreme old age spirits become gods. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 67.

A117.4. A117.4. Mortal transfigured to god on mountain top. Maori: Beckwith Myth 250.

A117.5. A117.5. Gods are spirits of deified dead. Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 316.

A118. A118. Self-created deity. Tahiti: Henry 336f.

A119. A119. Origin of gods--miscellaneous.

A119.1. A119.1. God made by magic. Tahiti: Henry 341.--So. Am. Indian (Apapocuvб-Guarani): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 122.

A119.2. A119.2. Goddess produced by heat of earth. Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 178.

A119.3. A119.3. Arrival of the gods in particular country. Tonga: Gifford 199; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 2, 3, 11.

A120. A120. Nature and appearance of the gods. (cf. A18f.). Jewish: *Neuman.

A120.1. A120.1. God as shape-shifter. Irish myth: Cross.

A120.2. A120.2. Size-changing god. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 127.

A120.3. A120.3. Incorporeal god. Jewish: Neuman.

A120.4. A120.4. Formless gods. Tonga: Beckwith Myth 128.

A121. A121. Stars as deities. H. Gressmann Die hellenistische Gestirn-religion (Leipzig 1925); Gaster Thespis 228f.--Zuсi: Alexander N. Am. 187.

A121.1. A121.1. Moon as deity. (cf. A240). Jewish: Neuman.

A121.2. A121.2. Sun as deity. (cf. A220). Jewish: Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 217.

A122. A122. God half mortal, half immortal. Hair, skin, flesh, bones and marrow are mortal; mind, voice, breath, eye, and ear are immortal. (prajapati).--Hindu: Keith 76; cf. Greek: Grote I 3.

A123. A123. Monstrous gods. Jewish: Neuman.

A123.1. A123.1. God monstrous as to body.

A123.1.1. A123.1.1. Three-bodied goddess. Hekate has three bodies standing back to back and looking in three directions.--Greek: Fox 188.

A123.1.2. A123.1.2. God with two joined bodies. Tahiti: Henry 344.

A123.1.3. A123.1.3. God with good looking and ugly bodies. Marquesas: Handy 124.

A123.1.4. A123.1.4. God with body of earthquake (whirlwind, etc.). Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 30.

A123.1.5. A123.1.5. God with body of caterpillars. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 30.

A123.1.6. A123.1.6. God with body of stream of blood. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 30.

A123.1.7. A123.1.7. Goddess with three supernatural bodies: fire, cliff, sea. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 496.

A123.2. A123.2. God unusual as to face. Jewish: Neuman.

A123.2.1. A123.2.1. God with many faces.

A123.2.1.1. A123.2.1.1. God with two faces. *Krappe Balor 7 n. 24; Usener IV 347ff.; *Frazer Ovid II 95ff; India: Thompson-Balys.

A123.2.1.2. A123.2.1.2. God with three faces. *Krappe Balor 8 n. 28.--Chinese: Werner 324.

A123.2.1.3. A123.2.1.3. God with four faces. Greek: Roscher “Ianus”; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A123.2.1.4. A123.2.1.4. God with five faces. Jewish: Neuman.

A123.2.1.5. A123.2.1.5. God with six faces. Hindu: Penzer I 73 n. 1, II 102.

A123.2.2. A123.2.2. God’s unusual mouth.

A123.2.2.1. A123.2.2.1. Maggots squirm from mouth of man-eating god. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 506.

A123.2.2.2. A123.2.2.2. Goddess with eight mouths. Tonga: Gifford 168.

A123.3. A123.3. God unusual as to eyes.

A123.3.1. A123.3.1. God with many eyes. *Krappe Balor 19ff. (Argos); Usener IV 223.--Hindu: Penzer II 46 n. 4, VIII 75, 116, IX 19; Keith 110, 134; Chinese: Werner 144.

A123.3.1.1. A123.3.1.1. Three-eyed god. *Usener IV 224 n. 1; *Frazer Pausanias III 209; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 32; India: Thompson-Balys.

A123.3.1.2. A123.3.1.2. God with hundred eyes. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A123.3.1.3. A123.3.1.3. God with thirteen eyes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A123.3.1.4. A123.3.1.4. God with thousand eyes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A123. A123. Goddess with thousand eyes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A123.3.2. A123.3.2. God with flashing eyes. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 30; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 32.

A123.4. A123.4. God monstrous as to head.

A123.4.1. A123.4.1. God with many heads. Slavic (Elbe): Mбchal 283f., Boberg.--Chinese: Werner 241, 321.

A123.4.1.1. A123.4.1.1. God with three heads. Irish myth: Cross.

A123.4.1.2. A123.4.1.2. God with seven heads. India: Thompson-Balys.

A123.4.1.3. A123.4.1.3. God with eight heads. Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 209.

A123.4.2. A123.4.2. God with head of stone. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 88.

A123.5. A123.5. God unusual as to arms.

A123.5.1. A123.5.1. God with many arms. Siva has ten arms.--Hindu: Keith 110; Chinese: Werner 144, 324.--Cf. Greek: Roscher “Briareos”; India: *Thompson-Balys; Irish Myth: Cross.

A123.5.2. A123.5.2. Marvels concerning God‘s arm and fingers. Jewish: Neuman.

A123.6. A123.6. God unusual at to legs (feet).

A123.6.1. A123.6.1. God with three legs. India: Thompson-Balys.

A123.7. A123.7. God unusual as to color.

A123.7.1. A123.7.1. Many-colored god. Hindu: Keith 81 (Shiva).

A123.7.2. A123.7.2. Black god(dess). Icel.: *Boberg, MacCulloch Eddic 304; W. Golther Deutsche Myth. (1895) 473f. (Hell); Hindu: Keith 126 (Krsna).

A123.8. A123.8. Goddess with one-and-a-half buttocks. India: Thompson-Balys.

A123.9. A123.9. Lotus plants grow from navel of Vishnu. India: Thompson-Balys.

A123.10. A123.10. God (deity) girdled with snakes; on his forehead shines the moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

A123.11. A123.11. God with tail. Mangaia (Cook Is.): Clark 140; Fiji: Beckwith Myth 76; Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 113.

A124. A124. Luminous god. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 129 (Balder); India: *Thompson-Balys.

A124.0.1. A124.0.1. God with luminous countenance. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A124.1. A124.1. God with blazing eye. Hindu: Penzer VI 31 n. 1; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A124.2. A124.2. White god. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 152 (Heimdall), 129 (Balder).

A124.3. A124.3. Goddess with body full of fire. India: Thompson-Balys.

A124.4. A124.4. God’s radiance upon Moses‘ face. Jewish: Neuman.

A124.5. A124.5. God in form of comet. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 113.

A125. A125. Deity in human form. (The human form is assumed in most mythologies.)--Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Samoa: Henry 346.

A125.1. A125.1. Goddess of war in shape of hag. Irish myth: Cross.

A125.1.1. A125.1.1. Goddess of war in shape of (red) woman. Irish myth: Cross.

A125.2. A125.2. God with red beard. Icel.: *Boberg.

A125.3. A125.3. God with gold teeth. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 153 (Heimdall).

A125.4. A125.4. Beautiful goddess. So. Am. Indian (Huarochiri): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 169.

A128. A128. Mutilated god. Egyptian: Mьller 92ff.; Jewish: Neuman; Greek: Argonautica IV line 984 (Chronos); India: Thompson-Balys.

A128.1. A128.1. Blind god. Hцdhr.--Icel.: Boberg, De la Saussaye 268.--India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 284.

A128.2. A128.2. One-eyed god. Odin.--Harrison (Jane E.) Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion 194; Holmberg Finno-Ugric 179.--Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg, De la Saussaye 226, MacCulloch Eddic 21; Jewish: Neuman.

A128.2.1. A128.2.1. God with Evil Eye. Irish myth: Cross.

A128.2.2. A128.2.2. God with single eye, through lid of which passes a polished handle with which lid is lifted. Irish myth: Cross.

A128.3. A128.3. Legless and armless deity supported on animal. Borneo: Dixon 165.

A128.3.1. A128.3.1. God with one leg (foot). Irish myth: Cross.

A128.4. A128.4. God with one hand. Hand cut or bitten off.--*Krappe Йtudes 11ff.--Icel.: Boberg, MacCulloch Eddic 21 (Tyr); Irish myth: Cross.

A128.5. A128.5. Lame god. Greek: Fox 205 (Hephaistos).

A128.5.1. A128.5.1. God with thick (iron) shoe. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 159 (Vidarr).

A131. A131. Gods with animal features. *De Visser Die nicht menschengestaltigen Gцtter der Griechen (Leiden 1903).--Egyptian: Mьller 15ff.--Mexican: Alexander Lat. Am. 57ff.--Irish myth: Cross.

A131.1. A131.1. God as part man, part fish. Babylonian: Spence 151 (Dagon); Assyrian: ibid. 216; Jewish: Neuman.--Samoa: Beckwith Myth 76.

A131.2. A131.2. God with elephant’s face. Hindu: Penzer II 99ff., 125 n. 1, 147 n. 1, 170, III 155 n. 2, V 196, VII 131, IX 1.

A131.3. A131.3. Deity with animal‘s head.

A131.3.1. A131.3.1. Deity with cat’s head. Irish myth: Cross.

A131.3.2. A131.3.2. Goddess with pig’s head. Tonga: Beckwith Myth 178.

A131.3.3. A131.3.3. God with ram‘s head. (cf. A132.14). Egyptian: Mьller 135, 405.--Irish myth: Cross.

A131.4. A131.4. God in tiger’s skin. Hindu: Keith 81, 111; India: Thompson-Balys.

A131.5. A131.5. God with goat-feet. Greek: Fox 267 (Pan).

A131.6. A131.6. Horned god. Irish myth: Cross; Egyptian: Mьller 38 (Hathors).

A131.7. A131.7. Winged god. Jewish: Neuman.

A131.8. A131.8. Goddess with pig‘s teeth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A132. A132. God in animal form. *De Visser Die nicht menschengestaltigen Gцtter der Griechen (Leiden, 1903).--Egyptian: Mьller 15ff.; Chibcha: Alexander Lat. Am. 204 (fox, bear); Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: *Krappe “Far Eastern Fox Lore” CFQ III (1944) 124ff.; Jewish: Neuman.

A132.0.1. A132.0.1. God in successive animal forms. India: Thompson-Balys.

A132.0.1.1. A132.0.1.1. God takes form successively of ants, scorpion, and cobra. India: Thompson-Balys.

A132.0.1.2. A132.0.1.2. God in three forms: gecho, shark, or priest. Tonga: Beckwith Myth 128.

A132.1. A132.1. Snake-god. Smith Dragon 85.--Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Hindu: Penzer X 240 s. v. “Nagas”; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 139.--Fiji: Beckwith Myth 138, 316.

A132.1.1. A132.1.1. Deity has snake-children. India: Thompson-Balys.

A132.2. A132.2. Monkey as god. Chinese: Werner 325ff.; Hindu: Penzer II 73, 197 n. 2, IV 126, VIII 44; India: Thompson-Balys.

A132.3. A132.3. Equine god (goddess).

A132.3.1. A132.3.1. Horse-god. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A132.3.1.1. A132.3.1.1. Mule-god. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A132.3.2. A132.3.2. Horse-goddess. Irish myth: Cross.

A132.3.3. A132.3.3. Ass-god. Jewish: Neuman.

A132.4. A132.4. Stag-god. Irish myth: Cross.

A132.5. A132.5. Bear-god (goddess). Irish myth: Cross.

A132.6. A132.6. Bird deity. Irish myth: Cross.

A132.6.1. A132.6.1. Bird-god. Irish myth: Cross.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 91ff., 370.

A132.6.2. A132.6.2. Goddess in form of bird. Irish myth: Cross.

A132.6.3. A132.6.3. Cock-god. Jewish: Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 119.

A132.6.4. A132.6.4. Female deities as fly-catchers. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 16.

A132.6.5. A132.6.5. Pigeon-god. Tonga: Gifford 62.

A132.7. A132.7. Swine-god. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A132.8. A132.8. Dog (wolf)-god. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A132.9. A132.9. Bull-god. Irish myth: Cross.

A132.9.1. A132.9.1. Cow as god. India: Thompson-Balys.

A132.10. A132.10. Tiger-god. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A132.11. A132.11. Seal-god. Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 310.

A132.12. A132.12. Eel-god. Tonga: Gifford 57; Maori: Clark 163.

A132.13. A132.13. Fish-god. Tonga: Beckwith Myth 131, Gifford 79.

A132.14. A132.14. Ram-god. Icel.: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman.

A132.15. A132.15. God as tortoise. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 139.

A133. A133. Giant god. (cf. A128.2). Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A133.1. A133.1. Giant god drinks lakes dry. (Indra).--Hindu: Keith 33.

A133.2. A133.2. Giant goddess bestrides entire land. One foot is in the north of the country and the other is in the south.--Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 30; Irish myth: Cross.

A133.2.1. A133.2.1. Giant god goes with three steps through the world. Gьntert Weltkцnig 293ff.; Hopkins JAOS XVI Proc. cxlvii.

A133.2.2. A133.2.2. Heaven as God’s throne, earth His footstool. Jewish: Neuman.

A133.3. A133.3. Giant orderly of the gods. India: Thompson-Balys.

A134. A134. Dwarf god. Japanese: Anesaki 229; Hindu: Penzer I 144 n. 2.

A135. A135. Man-eating god (goddess). Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 29f.; Maori: Beckwith Myth 243.

A136. A136. Gods with unusual transportation.

A136.1. A136.1. God rides unusual animal.

A136.1.1. A136.1.1. Deity rides boar. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 22 (Freya), 109 (Frey).

A136.1.2. A136.1.2. God rides unusual horse.

A136.1.2.1. A136.1.2.1. Sleipnir: eight-legged horse of Odin. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 43.

A136.1.3. A136.1.3. God rides a bull. Hindu: Keith 111; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A136.1.4. A136.1.4. God rides bird. Panchatantra (tr. Ryder) 94ff. (Vishnu on Garuda); Penzer Ocean X 159 s. v. Garuda; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A136.1.4.1. A136.1.4.1. God rides swan. India: Thompson-Balys.

A136.1.5. A136.1.5. God rides flying elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.

A136.1.6. A136.1.6. Deity rides a buffalo. India: Thompson-Balys.

A136.1.7. A136.1.7. Deity rides a lion. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A136.1.8. A136.1.8. Goddess flies in bird‘s plumage. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 83, 126, 174.

A136.2. A136.2. God’s (goddess‘s) wagon drawn by unusual animals. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 22 (Thor’s goats, Freya‘s cats), 109 (Frey’s boars); Greek: *Frazer Pausanias IV 142 (dragons).

A136.2.1. A136.2.1. Goddess has team of sparrows. Greek: Sappho Ode to Aphrodite.

A136.2.2. A136.2.2. Goddess‘s chariot drawn by one-footed horse. Irish myth: Cross.

A136.3. A136.3. God’s chariot goes through the air. India: Thompson-Balys.

A136.3.1. A136.3.1. Chariot of fire drawn by four steeds of fire. Jewish: Neuman.

A137. A137. Pictorial representations of gods. (cf. A131). Irish myth: Cross.

A137.1. A137.1. God with hammer. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg; Gaster Thespis 135, 363.

A137.1.1. A137.1.1. God with axe. Irish myth: Cross.

A137.2. A137.2. God with club. Irish myth: Cross.

A137.3. A137.3. God with wheel. Irish myth: Cross.

A137.3.1. A137.3.1. Wheel symbol. Irish myth: Cross.

A137.3.1.1. A137.3.1.1. Swastika (hooked cross). Irish myth: Cross.

A137.4. A137.4. God (goddess) with basket. Irish myth: Cross.

A137.4.1. A137.4.1. God carries brothers and sisters on his back in basket. Hivaoa (Marquesas): Handy 116.

A137.5. A137.5. God (goddess) with cornucopia. Irish myth: Cross.

A137.6. A137.6. Squatting god. Irish myth: Cross.

A137.7. A137.7. The bull with three cranes. (cf. A132.6). Irish myth: Cross.

A137.8. A137.8. Small-pox deity rides nude on an ass with the half of a winnowing fan for an umbrella and with a swing in one hand and a broom in the other. India: Thompson-Balys.

A137.9. A137.9. Goddess represented as mounted on a drake, attended by eight chief snakes attended by snake jewels. India: Thompson-Balys.

A137.10. A137.10. God represented as king, world as his kingdom. Jewish: Neuman.

A137.11. A137.11. God represented in cloud. Jewish: Neuman.

A137.12. A137.12. God represented as bridegroom. Jewish: Neuman.

A137.13. A137.13. God represented as priest. Jewish: Neuman.

A137.14. A137.14. God represented with weapon. Jewish: Neuman.

A137.14.1. A137.14.1. God represented with bow of fire. Jewish: Neuman.

A137.14.1.1. A137.14.1.1. God represented with arrow of flames. Jewish: Neuman.

A137.14.2. A137.14.2. God represented with spears as torches. Jewish: Neuman.

A137.14.3. A137.14.3. God represented with clouds as shield. Jewish: Neuman.

A137.14.4. A137.14.4. God represented with lightning flashes as sword. Jewish: Neuman.

A137.15. A137.15. God represented on high throne surrounded by angels. Jewish: Neuman.

A137.16. A137.16. God represented as meteor. (cf. A124). Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 113.

A137.17. A137.17. God represented as among seven sheaths of fire. Jewish: Neuman.

A137.18. A137.18. God with long white beard and white moustache. India: Thompson-Balys.

A138. A138. God‘s ineffable name. Jewish: Neuman.

A139. A139. Nature and appearance of the gods--miscellaneous.

A139.1. A139.1. Gods (supernatural beings) have many names. (cf. C432). Irish myth: Cross.

A139.2. A139.2. Tortoise footstool of God. India: Thompson-Balys.

A139.3. A139.3. Dragon god. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 136.

A139.4. A139.4. Vampire goddess. India: Thompson-Balys.

A139.5. A139.5. God’s voice. Jewish: Neuman.

A139.5.1. A139.5.1. God‘s voice shatters mountain. Jewish: Neuman.

A139.5.2. A139.5.2. God’s voice causes thunder. Jewish: Neuman.

A139.6. A139.6. God‘s words. Jewish: Neuman.

A139.7. A139.7. Distinctive aroma of gods. Gaster Thespis 211, 389, 397.

A139.8. A139.8. God appears as an object.

A139.8.1. A139.8.1. God as a tree trunk. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 284.

A139.8.2. A139.8.2. Goddess appears as coral reef. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 219.

A139.8.3. A139.8.3. Smoldering fire of volcano as head of goddess. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 188.

A139.8.4. A139.8.4. God of the wind in shape of kite. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 121.

A139.8.5. A139.8.5. Goddess in form of tree. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 17.

A139.8.6. A139.8.6. God in shape of an image. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 2, Chap. I passim.

A139.9. A139.9. Extraordinary physical characteristics of gods.

A139.9.1. A139.9.1. Goddess with red urine. Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 315.

A139.9.2. A139.9.2. Gods have ichor, not blood: can be wounded but not killed. Iliad book V line 137.

A139.9.3. A139.9.3. Gods covered with red and yellow feathers. Tahiti: Henry 338.

A139.10. A139.10. God with myriad natures. Tahiti: Henry 336.

A139.11. A139.11. Gods recognized by natural phenomena associated with their worship--color, scent, etc. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 4.

A139.12. A139.12. Long-suffering God. Jewish: Neuman.

A139.13. A139.13. Temperamental goddess. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 840.

A139.14. A139.14. Ugly god. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 194 No. 135.

A139.15. A139.15. Greedy god. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 215f.

A140. A140. Gods as workmen. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 327.

A141. A141. God as craftsman. Hephaistos.--Greek: Fox 206.--Tahiti: Henry 342.

A141.1. A141.1. God makes automata and vivifies them. Icel.: Boberg; Greek: Fox 207; Africa (Luba): Donohugh Africa V 180.

A141.2. A141.2. God builds temple in heaven and brings it later to earth. Jewish: Neuman.

A141.3. A141.3. God bores hole in Hell to cause great heat on earth. Jewish: Neuman.

A141.4. A141.4. God lays foundations of earth. Jewish: Neuman.

A142. A142. Smith of the gods. Greek: Fox 206; Gaster Thespis 154ff.; *Krappe Archiv f. d. Studium d. neueren Sprachen CLVIII--CLXI passim.; Norse: Herrmann Nordische Mythologie 115ff.; Lithuanian: Gray 330; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A142.0.1. A142.0.1. God as blacksmith. India: Thompson-Balys.

A142.1. A142.1. Brazier of the gods. Irish myth: Cross.

A143. A143. Carpenter (wright) of the gods. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A144. A144. Physician of the gods. Irish myth: Cross.

A145. A145. Champions of the gods. Irish myth: Cross.

A147. A147. Gods as fishers. (cf. A165.9). Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 24.

A150. A150. Daily life of the gods.

A151. A151. Home of the gods. Elysium, Avalon, earthly paradise.--Celtic (general): MacCulloch Celtic 14; Irish: ibid. 37f., 114ff., Cross; Welsh: ibid. 193; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 312ff.; Hindu: Penzer I 125 n. 1.; Jewish: Neuman.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 67; So. Am. Indian (Apapocuvб-Guarani): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 122; Africa (Fang): Trilles 130.

A151.0.1. A151.0.1. Home of god where he is the only living one. Jewish: Neuman.

A151.0.2. A151.0.2. God’s abode known to none. Jewish: Neuman.

A151.1. A151.1. Home of gods on high mountain. Mt. Olympus. Patch PMLA XXXIII 618; Gaster Thespis 138, 170ff.; Greek: Fox 8, Grote I 10; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 23; Hindu: Penzer X 195 s. v. “Kailasa”, Keith 149 (Mount Meru); India: *Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 19.

A151.1.1. A151.1.1. Home of gods inside of hill. Irish myth: Cross.--Cheyenne: Alexander N. Am. 123, 127; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 39.

A151.1.2. A151.1.2. Home of gods in cave. Hivaoa (Marquesas): Handy 104; Tonga: Gifford 81.

A151.1.3. A151.1.3. Home of gods in volcano crater. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 167, 173.

A151.1.4. A151.1.4. Gods live in cloudland. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 64, 67; Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 31.

A151.2. A151.2. Garden of the gods. Hindu: Penzer I 66 n. 1, 68, 96, II 34, III 5, 24, 138, VI 82, VII 129, 148, VIII 73, 165, 170, IX 21, 87 n. 4; Irish myth: Cross; Babylonian: Ungnad Das Gilgamesch Epos IX 163, cf. 148, 163ff.; Jewish: Neuman; Gaster Thespis 171, Oldest Stories 48.

A151.3. A151.3. Home of the gods under the sea. India: Thompson-Balys.

A151.3.1. A151.3.1. Gods live in spring. Tonga: Beckwith Myth 74.

A151.3.2. A151.3.2. Home of gods on island. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 67f., 85; Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 178.

A151.4. A151.4. Palaces of the gods. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 327, 329.

A151.4.1. A151.4.1. God‘s temple of jewels. Jewish: Neuman.

A151.4.2. A151.4.2. Palace of gods with door at each end for sun’s journey. Virgil Aeneid X line 3.

A151.4.3. A151.4.3. Golden mansions of gods. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 421.

A151.4.4. A151.4.4. House of god with pillars made of dead chief‘s bones. Samoa: Beckwith Myth 76.

A151.5. A151.5. City of gods (God). Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 329; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 290, II 961, 1195.

A151.6. A151.6. God’s home on heavenly bodies.

A151.6.1. A151.6.1. God (Indra) has palace on Milky Way. India: Thompson-Balys.

A151.6.2. A151.6.2. Sun and moon as habitations of gods. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 85.

A151.7. A151.7. Deity lives in forest. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1059.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 36f.

A151.7.1. A151.7.1. Deity resides in tree. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1319.--India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 136.

F441.2.1. Wood-nymph.

A151.7.1.1. A151.7.1.1. God‘s home under tree of life. (cf. F441.2.1.). Jewish: Neuman.

A151.8. A151.8. God in sea of milk. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A151.9. A151.9. God originally resident among men. Jewish: Neuman.

A151.10. A151.10. God dwells at particular point on earth. Jewish: Neuman.

A151.10.1. A151.10.1. Home of God the ark and the temple. Jewish: Neuman.

A151.11. A151.11. God’s spirit dwells among mortals. Jewish: Neuman.

A151.12. A151.12. God‘s landing place (on island). Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 11.

A151.13. A151.13. God dwells alone in darkness. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 42.

A151.14. A151.14. Various other dwelling places of gods. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 3, 11, 43, 67.

A152. A152. God’s throne. Jewish: Neuman.

A152.1. A152.1. God‘s two thrones (of mercy and of justice). Jewish: Neuman.

A152.2. A152.2. Flames surround God’s throne. Jewish: Neuman.

A152.3. A152.3. God‘s throne on wheels. Jewish: Neuman.

A152.4. A152.4. Attendants around God’s throne. Jewish: Neuman.

A152.5. A152.5. Heavenly curtain surrounds God‘s throne. Jewish: Neuman.

A152.6. A152.6. Footstool before divine throne. Jewish: Neuman.

A152.7. A152.7. Bearers of God’s throne. Jewish: Neuman.

A152.8. A152.8. Heavenly throne has Jacob‘s face engraved on it. Jewish: Neuman.

A152.9. A152.9. God’s throne becomes hot because of activities on earth. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 425, 492, 572, 897.

A153. A153. Food of the gods. Ambrosia.--Smith Dragon 188; Hindu: Keith 106, Tawney I 425, 478; India: Thompson-Balys; Greek: Roscher I 280.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 67; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 313; Irish myth: Cross.

A153.1. A153.1. Theft of ambrosia. Food of the gods stolen.--Hindu: Keith 139; Persian: Carnoy 283.

A153.2. A153.2. Magic food gives immortality to gods. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 54; India: Thompson-Balys.

A153.2.1. A153.2.1. Gods’ food gives supernatural growth. Irish Myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Greek: Grote I 43.

A153.3. A153.3. Banquets of the gods. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 23; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 137.--So. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 178.

A153.3.1. A153.3.1. Moon steals food from banquet of the gods. (cf. A153.1.). India: Thompson-Balys.

A153.3.2. A153.3.2. Sun, moon and wind dine with their uncle and aunt, thunder and lightning. India: Thompson-Balys.

A153.4. A153.4. Magic food rejuvenates the gods. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 178.

A153.5. A153.5. Food of gods: meat of “cow of plenty”. India: Thompson-Balys.

A153.6. A153.6. Why gods only accept blood. India: Thompson-Balys.

A153.7. A153.7. God‘s preference for cooked food. India: Thompson-Balys.

A153.8. A153.8. Cannibal gods. (cf. G11.). India: Thompson-Balys.

A153.9. A153.9. Gods nourished by air. Hivaoa (Marquesas): Handy 105.

A154. A154. Drink of the gods. Greek: Grote I 43; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 54, 86, 172, 313; Hindu: Penzer X 243 s. v. “nectar”; Keith 46 and passim; India: *Thompson-Balys; Persian: Carnoy 265; Chinese: Ferguson 130.

A154.1. A154.1. Magic drink gives immortality to gods. (cf. D1040). Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 31, 54; Hindu: Keith 46.

A154.2. A154.2. Theft of magic mead by Odin. *Olrik Edda XXIV 236ff.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 54.

A154.3. A154.3. Gods discover liquor. India: Thompson-Balys.

A154.4. A154.4. Milk of the gods. India: Thompson-Balys.

A155. A155. Animals of the gods (cf. A136). Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 109, 216.

A155.1. A155.1. Cattle of the sun. Greek: Fox 137.

A155.2. A155.2. Horses of the gods. (cf. A171.1). Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 216; Snorra Edda Gylf. XV.

A155.3. A155.3. Birds of the gods. (cf. A165.1.1.). Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 36f., 115, 177.

A155.4. A155.4. Gods keep mosquitoes as pets. India: Thompson-Balys.

A155.5. A155.5. God’s elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.

A155.5.1. A155.5.1. God has enormous elephant. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 457.

A155.6. A155.6. Goddess sleeps on bed of snakes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A155.7. A155.7. God has his dairies and buffaloes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A156. A156. Precious properties of the gods. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 266; Jewish: Neuman.

A156.1. A156.1. Jewels of the gods. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 120ff., 140ff.; Jewish: Neuman.

A156.2. A156.2. God‘s crown. Jewish: Neuman.

A156.3. A156.3. God’s scepters. Jewish: Neuman.

A156.4. A156.4. God‘s seal. Jewish: Neuman.

A156.5. A156.5. Chariot of the gods. Virgil Aeneid X line 635; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 77, 916.

A157. A157. Weapons of the gods. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 32, 965.

A157.1. A157.1. Thunderweapon. Stone weapons (axes) brought down by thunderbolt (from Thunder God).--Blinkenberg The Thunder Weapon 1911; Hdwb. d. d. Aberglaubens II 325; Saintyves Corpus du Folklore Prehistorique en France et dans les Colonies Franзaises (1934--36) I--III; J. Balys Tautosakos Darbai III 1937 223ff.; Jewish: *Neuman.

A157.1.1. A157.1.1. Thunderbolt as gods’ weapon. Greek: Fox 159; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 214, 309, II 1060.

A157.2. A157.2. God‘s arrows. Jewish: Neuman.

A157.3. A157.3. God’s spear. Jewish: Neuman.

A157.4. A157.4. God‘s shield. Jewish: Neuman.

A157.5. A157.5. God’s sword. Jewish: Neuman.

A157.6. A157.6. God‘s bow. Jewish: Neuman.

A157.7. A157.7. Hammer of thunder god. Gaster Thespis 135, 363.

A158. A158. Clothing of gods. Eskimo: Holm 73; Jewish: Neuman.

A159. A159. Daily life of the gods--miscellaneous.

A159.1. A159.1. Deity’s special drum. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 965.   C916.2. Animals produced when forbidden drum is beaten.

A160. A160. Mutual relations of the gods.

A161. A161. Hierarchy of gods. Persian: Carnoy 260; Irish myth: Cross; Hindu: Mьller 142f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Greek: Grote I 3, 9; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 729.

A161.1. A161.1. Division of control of universe among gods. Greek: Grote I 3, 9.

A161.2. A161.2. King of the gods. See all references to A101 (Supreme god).

A161.3. A161.3. Queen of the gods. Greek: Grote I 10; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 13, chap. II passim.

A161.4. A161.4. God presides over all male spirits. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 13.

A161.5. A161.5. Eldest god born in front, younger at back. (Cf. A112.7.) Hivaoa (Marquesas): Handy 138.

A162. A162. Conflicts of the gods. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Grote I 1, 3, 8; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 26ff., 172; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 356, 411; Hindu: Penzer I 197ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 225; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 318, 1104.--Gaster Thespis 115ff., 125.

A162.1. A162.1. Fight of the gods and giants. Jьnger (F. G.) Die Titanen (Frankfurt a. M. 1944); Mayer Die Giganten und Titanen in der antiken Sage (Berlin 1887).--Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 11, *42 n. 1, *43 n. 2; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 82, Herrmann Saxo II 97ff; Irish myth: Cross; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 356; Chinese: Werner 159; Hindu: Penzer X 77 s.v. “Asuras”, X 118 s.v. “Daityas”, X 119 s.v. “Danavas”; India: *Thompson-Balys; Samoa: Beckwith Myth 254.

A162.1.0.1. A162.1.0.1. Recurrent battle (everlasting fight). (cf. A165.7.). Irish myth: Cross.

A162.2. A162.2. Combat between god of light and dragon of ocean. Jewish: Neuman; Babylonian and Egyptian: Mьller 104; cf. Chinese: Werner 215.

A162.3. A162.3. Combat between thundergod and devil. (cf. A157.1, A189.1.1, A284, A285). *Balys “Donner und Teufel in den Volkserzдhlungen der baltischen und skandinavischen Vцlker” Tautosakos Darbai VI (1939) 1--220.

A162.3.1. A162.3.1. Devil (ogre) steals thunder‘s instruments. Icel.: Thrymskvida; Lappish, Finnish, Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian: *Balys Tautosakos Darbai VI (1939) 33--43.

A162.3.2. A162.3.2. Thunder and lightning slay devils. Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Finnish, Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian: *Balys Tautosakos Darbai VI (1939) 111--128.

A162.4. A162.4. Brahma cursed by other gods: now has no temples. India: Thompson-Balys.

A162.5. A162.5. God reborn of human woman to avenge self on giant. (cf. A179.5.). India: Thompson-Balys.

A162.6. A162.6. Battle between God’s orderly (giant) and plague. India: Thompson-Balys.

A162.7. A162.7. Single combat between gods. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 17, 206; Marquesas: Handy 109; Icel.: Boberg.

A162.8. A162.8. Rebellion of lesser gods against chief. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 60, 118, 155.

A163. A163. Contests among the gods.

A163.1. A163.1. Game between gods. (Cf. A164.3.1.).

A163.1.1. A163.1.1. Gods play chess. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 216 No. 165.

A164. A164. Marriage or liaison of gods. Irish myth: Cross; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 964; India: Thompson-Balys.

A164.1. A164.1. Brother-sister marriage of the gods. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 102; Greek: Grote I 58; Marquesas: Handy 122.

A164.1.1. A164.1.1. Mother-son marriage of the gods. Irish myth: Cross; So. Am. Indian (Munderucъ): Horton BBAE CXLIII (3) 281.

A164.2. A164.2. Adultery among the gods. Irish myth: Cross.

A164.3. A164.3. Polygamy among the gods. Irish myth: Cross; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 186.

A164.3.1. A164.3.1. Krishna plays cards with his three wives. (Cf. A163.1.). India: Thompson-Balys.

A164.4. A164.4. Matriarchy among the gods. Irish myth: Cross.

A164.5. A164.5. Polyandry among the gods. Irish myth: Cross.

A164.6. A164.6. God as lover of giantess. Icel.: *Boberg.

A164.7. A164.7. Jealous wife of god. India. Thompson-Balys.

A165. A165. Attendants and servants of the gods. Greek: Grote I 10, 67; Icel.: *Boberg (A165.3); Jewish: *Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 964f.; Hindu: *Penzer I 200, X 158 s. v. “Ganas”, “Gandharvas”.

A165.1. A165.1. Animals as attendants of god.

A165.1.1. A165.1.1. Ravens as attendants of god. Grimm Deutsche Mythologie I 122.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 65, Boberg.

A165.1.2. A165.1.2. Eagle as god’s bird. Icel.: Boberg.

A165.1.3. A165.1.3. Red sea-bird god‘s pet. Tahiti: Henry 180.

A165.2. A165.2. Messenger of the gods. *Gьntert Weltkцnig 280; Gaster Thespis 139.--Greek: Fox 191 (Hermes, Iris), Grote I 43; Irish: Beal XXI 319, 336; India: *Thompson-Balys; Jewish: *Neuman; Huichol: Alexander Lat. Am. 122.--Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 31, Henry 164.

A165.2.0.1. A165.2.0.1. Deity’s messenger can assume any guise he wishes. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 906.

A165.2.1. A165.2.1. Animals as messengers of the gods.

A165.2.1.1. A165.2.1.1. Wild beasts as messengers of the gods. Jewish: Neuman.

A165. A165. Wolves as god‘s dogs. *Fb “ulv” III 971, BP III 199.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 65.

A165. A165. Tiger as god’s messenger. India: Thompson-Balys.

A165. A165. Elephant as god‘s messenger. India: Thompson-Balys.

A165. A165. Bears as God’s messengers. Jewish: Neuman.

A165. A165. Leopards as God‘s messengers. Jewish: Neuman.

A165. A165. Lions as God’s messengers. Jewish: Neuman.

A165.2.2. A165.2.2. Birds as messengers of the gods. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Pawnee: Alexander N. Am. 81; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 177.

A165.2.2.1. A165.2.2.1. Cock as ambassador of god. Fjort: Dennett 105 No. 29.

A165.2.3. A165.2.3. Angels as God‘s messengers. Jewish: Neuman.

A165.2.4. A165.2.4. Powers of nature (sun, moon, etc.) as God’s messengers. Jewish: Neuman.

A165.3. A165.3. Cupbearer of the gods. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 37 n. 4.

A165.3.1. A165.3.1. Cupbearer of the gods is god of smith-work. *MacCulloch Celtic 31.

A165.3.2. A165.3.2. Cupbearer of the gods controls waters. Irish myth: Cross.

A165.4. A165.4. Watchman of the gods. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 152 (Heimdall), 276, 303, 313, 331 (Cock), 328 (Thor), 329 (Heimdall).--Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 221.

A165.4.1. A165.4.1. Demons as watchmen of the gods upon earth. Greek: *Grote I 63.

A165.5. A165.5. Doorkeeper of the gods. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 186 (Syn).

A165.6. A165.6. Scribe of the gods. Siberian, Babylonian, Egyptian: Holmberg Siberian 410; Armenian: Ananikian 30ff.

A165.7. A165.7. Army of the gods. (cf. A162). Icel.: Herrmann Nordische Mythologie 279 (Einherjar), Neckel Walhall 68ff; India: Thompson-Balys.

A165.8. A165.8. Magician of the gods. India: Thompson-Balys.

A165.9. A165.9. Fisherman of the gods. Gaster Thespis 154.--Maori: Clark 56.

A166. A166. Dancers of the gods. Hindu: Keith 143; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 186.

A167. A167. Assembly of gods. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 310, II 958, 1098.

A167.1. A167.1. Council of the gods. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A168. A168. Family of gods. (cf. A111, A164). Greek: Fox 151ff. passim.--Tahiti: Henry 231; Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 311; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 964.

A169. A169. Mutual relations of the gods--miscellaneous.

A169.1. A169.1. Judge and tribunal of the gods. Icel.: *Boberg.

A170. A170. Deeds of the gods.

A171. A171. Gods ride through air. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A171.0.1. A171.0.1. God drives chariot over waves. Irish myth: Cross.

A171.0.2. A171.0.2. God ascends to heaven. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 109; Maori: Beckwith Myth 83; So. Am. Indian (Huamachuco): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 151.

A171.0.3. A171.0.3. God descends from heaven.

A171.0.3.1. A171.0.3.1. God descends on rainbow. Tahiti: Henry 232; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 37.

A171.0.3.2. A171.0.3.2. God descends in form of shooting star. New Zealand: Beckwith Myth 113.

A171.1. A171.1. God rides through air on wind-swift horse. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 43.

A171.1.1. A171.1.1. God rides through air in chariot. Jewish: Neuman.

A171.1.2. A171.1.2. Valkyries ride through air and water. Icel.: Boberg.

A171.2. A171.2. God flies in bird plumage. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 83, Boberg; Greek: Iliad and Odyssey passim.

A171.3. A171.3. God flies in pillar of floating clouds, thunder, and lightning. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 29.

A172. A172. Gods intervene in battle. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Iliad passim; Norse: Herrmann Nordische Mythologie 291ff, Boberg; Gaster Thespis 349; Hindu: Tawney I 412, II 473--477; Jewish: *Neuman.

A173. A173. Gods deposed for a time. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: De Vries FFC XCIV 38ff., Herrmann Saxo II 109ff.; Hindu: Tawney II 581.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 11, 17, 177.

A173.1. A173.1. In god’s absence his function ceases. Death, reproduction, etc., suspended until the god‘s return.--*Wesselski Archiv Orientбlnн I 300ff.

A173.2. A173.2. Gods imprisoned. Irish myth: Cross.

A175. A175. God reduces the elements to order. Greek: Fox 9; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 20ff.

A175.1. A175.1. God supplies reproductive energy to all things. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 20, 32.

A176. A176. God ordains ceremonies and regulations. Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 40.

A177. A177. God as thief. Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus II 6 n. 1 (Hermes).

A177.1. A177.1. God as dupe or trickster. Irish myth: Cross.

A178. A178. God as prophet. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

A179. A179. Deeds of the gods--miscellaneous.

A179.1. A179.1. God as rath-builder. Irish myth: Cross.

A179.2. A179.2. God given dominion over floating island. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 71.

A179.3. A179.3. God deliberately has enemies kill him. Hivaoa (Marquesas): Handy 105.

A179.4. A179.4. Head of god bitten off by shark. Hivaoa (Marquesas): Handy 108.

A179.5. A179.5. Deity reincarnated. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 279.

A179.6. A179.6. God has power to create men. Marquesas: Handy 122.

A179.7. A179.7. God divests self of earthly raiment and clothes self with lightning. Maori: Beckwith Myth 83.

A179.8. A179.8. God hides from sun in shadow of a cloud. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G 3/191).

A179.9. A179.9. God plays with leviathan. Jewish: Neuman.

A180. A180. Gods in relation to mortals. Irish myth: Cross; Norse: Olrik Kilderne til Sakses Oldhistorie I (1892) 30ff., 32ff.

A181. A181. God serves as menial on earth. Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus II 20 n. 1, Grote I 36, 53, 108; Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 142; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 962; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A181.1. A181.1. God clears plains. Irish myth: Cross.

A181.2. A181.2. God as cultivator. India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 17.

A182. A182. God reveals himself to mortals. Jewish: *Neuman.

A182.0.1. A182.0.1. God does not reveal himself; men unable to endure his glory. Jewish: Neuman.

A182.0.2. A182.0.2. Human intellect unable to conceive God’s essence. Jewish: Neuman.

A182.1. A182.1. God reveals secrets (mysteries) to mortals. Jewish: Neuman.

A182.1.1. A182.1.1. Household gods speak to explain events. Virgil Aeneid III line 155.

A182.2. A182.2. God gives name to child. Jewish: Neuman.

A182.3. A182.3. God (angel) speaks to mortal. Jewish: Neuman.

A182.3.0.1. A182.3.0.1. God speaks to Moses from bush. Jewish: Neuman; Moreno Esdras.

A182. A182. Angel speaks to Patrick from bush that merely seems to burn. Irish myth: Cross.

A182.3.0.2. A182.3.0.2. God speaks to saint in prison. Rьttgers Der Heiligen Leben (Leipzig, 1921) 103.

A182.3.0.3. A182.3.0.3. Saint speaks with God each Thursday. Irish myth: Cross.

A182. A182. Saint goes to heaven every Thursday (each day) and talks with angels. Irish myth: Cross.

A182.3.0.4. A182.3.0.4. God does not directly address women; uses interpreter. Jewish: Neuman.

A182.3.0.5. A182.3.0.5. God speaks from mountain. Jewish: Neuman.

A182.3.1. A182.3.1. God consoles mortal. Jewish: Neuman.

A182.3.2. A182.3.2. God rebukes mortal. Jewish: Neuman.

A182.3.3. A182.3.3. God blesses mortal. Jewish: Neuman.

A182.3.4. A182.3.4. God makes promises to mortal. Jewish: Neuman.

A182.3.4.1. A182.3.4.1. God in form of fakir visits king and gives him advice. India: Thompson-Balys.

A182.3.4.2. A182.3.4.2. God promises mortal prosperity for man and offspring. India: Thompson-Balys.

A182.3.5. A182.3.5. God advises mortal. Jewish: Neuman.

A182.3.6. A182.3.6. Moon-god, overcome in contest with mortal, threatens to withold rain and game. Eskimo: Holm 75, Rink 442.

A183. A183. Deity invoked. Greek: Odyssey IX line 528, Iliad I 218, et passim; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 2, chap. 1 passim.

A183.1. A183.1. Male god invoked in east; female in west. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 12.

A184. A184. God as founder and protector of certain peoples.

A184.1. A184.1. God as protector of Israel. Jewish: *Neuman.

A185. A185. Deity cares for favorite individuals. Greek: Fox 33, 170f., 197; Icelandic: Volsunga Saga chap. 13, Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 187f.

A185.1. A185.1. God helps mortal in battle. Jewish: Neuman; Irish myth: Cross.

A185.2. A185.2. Deity protects mortal. Jewish: Neuman; Greek myth passim.

A185.2.1. A185.2.1. God rescues sleeping man from attack. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.2.2. A185.2.2. God makes man‘s hand rigid so he can no longer torment captive. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.2.3. A185.2.3. God makes sword drop from assailant’s hands. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.3. A185.3. Deity teaches mortal. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.4. A185.4. Deity buries dead mortal. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.5. A185.5. Deity assists at man‘s wedding. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.6. A185.6. Deity particular friend to one mortal.

A185.6.1. A185.6.1. God kisses mortal. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.6.1.1. A185.6.1.1. Kiss of God causes painless death. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.7. A185.7. God prepares food for mortal. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.8. A185.8. Deity promises to restore city. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.9. A185.9. Covenant between God and mortal. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.10. A185.10. Deity accompanies mortal on journey as guide. Jewish: Neuman; Oahu (Hawaii): Beckwith Myth 328; Tahiti: ibid. 221; Africa (Fang): Einstein 94.

A185.11. A185.11. God rewards mortal for pious act. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.12. A185.12. Deity provides man with soul. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.12.1. A185.12.1. God resuscitates man. Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 188 No. 128.

A185.12.2. A185.12.2. God removes mortal‘s soul. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.13. A185.13. God puts mortal to test. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.14. A185.14. God controls mortals’ sinning.

A185.14.1. A185.14.1. God causes mortals‘ sin. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.14.2. A185.14.2. God witholds mortal from sinning. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.15. A185.15. God establishes peace between mortals. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.16. A185.16. God pities mortal. Jewish: Neuman.

A185.17. A185.17. God visits sick mortal. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1116.

A187. A187. Gods and men judge each other.

A187.1. A187.1. God as judge of men. Greek: Fox 227, Wienert FFC LVI 36; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 162 (Forseti); Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys, Penzer I 198ff., II 249, IV 238, 275f., VIII 64, 108 n. 1, 163 n. 1, 184, 215.

A187.2. A187.2. Mortal as umpire of quarrel between gods. Icel.: Boberg; Celtic-Norse: FFC LXXXIII, xxxviii-xli.--India: *Thompson-Balys.

A188. A188. Gods and goddesses in love with men. Babylonian: Gilgamesch Epos VI (Ishtar).--Irish myth: Cross; Norse: Herrmann Saxo Gr. II 238ff., *Boberg; Greek: Fox 29, 157, 199, 211.--Tahiti: Henry 231, Beckwith Myth 37, Porapora (Society Is.): *Beckwith Myth 38; Maori: Clark 148; So. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 154, 165.

A188.1. A188.1. Philandering god. Greek: Grote I 58; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A188.2. A188.2. Gods as ancestors of mankind. Irish myth: Cross (A188.1); Hawaii: Beckwith myth 2, 70, 294, 300; Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 37; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/1010); Easter Is.: Mйtraux 310; So. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 171; Inca: Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 315.

A189. A189. Gods in relation to mortals--miscellaneous.

A189.0.1. A189.0.1. “Gods and not-gods”. Irish myth: Cross (A189).

A189.1. A189.1. Mortal as ally of gods.

A189.1.1. A189.1.1. Man as helper of thundergod. Lithuanian, Latvian, Livonian, Estonian, Ukrainian, Polish, and Rumanian: *Balys Tautosakos Darbai VI 53--83, 107f.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *1147A; Prussian: Plenzat 60.

A189.2. A189.2. God summoned by weeping. India: Thompson-Balys.

A189.3. A189.3. Man cheats a god in throwing dice. India: Thompson-Balys.

A189.4. A189.4. God jealous of a mortal. India: Thompson-Balys.

A189.5. A189.5. Goddess’ throne shakes when some mischance befalls her faithful worshipper. India: Thompson-Balys.

A189.6. A189.6. Deity appears before human being after prayers. India: Thompson-Balys.

A189.7. A189.7. Deity ascertains destiny of newborn babe and inscribes it upon his forehead. India: Thompson-Balys.

A189.8. A189.8. Accountants of god keep lists of good and bad acts of human beings. India: Thompson-Balys.

A189.9. A189.9. Early period when gods and men lived together, gods ruling men, ordaining how they should live and originating various customs.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A189.10. A189.10. Goddesses come down to earth by a silken thread, are offended by raja and produce drought. India: Thompson-Balys.

A189.11. A189.11. Mortal adopted son by god. India: Thompson-Balys.

A189.12. A189.12. Goddess protects animals from hunters. India: Thompson-Balys.

A189.13. A189.13. Gods forced by mortals to take refuge underground. Irish myth: Cross (A183.1.).

A189.14. A189.14. God‘s enemies. Jewish: Neuman.

A189.15. A189.15. God as fructifier of mankind and the earth. Jewish: Neuman.

A189.16. A189.16. Gods give divinity to mortal. Tahiti: Henry 231.

A189.17. A189.17. Night the period of gods, day the period of mankind. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 14.

A190. A190. Gods: miscellaneous motifs.

A191. A191. Goddess rejuvenates self when old. Navaho: Alexander N. Am. 164.

A191.1. A191.1. Great age of the gods. Irish myth: Cross.

A192. A192. Death or departure of the gods.

A192.1. A192.1. Death of the gods. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 340ff. (at the Doom); Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 110; Tahiti: Henry 231; Chinese: Werner 99, Eberhard FFC CXX 141; Africa: Bouveignes 12.

A192.1.1. A192.1.1. Old god slain by young god. Irish myth: Cross.

A192.1.2. A192.1.2. God killed and eaten. Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 311.

A192.2. A192.2. Departure of gods. Tonga: Gifford 102, Nukuhiva (Marquesas): Handy 123.

A192.2.1. A192.2.1. Deity departs for heaven (skies). Polynesia: Moriori (Chatham Is.), Pora Pora (Society Is.), Samoa: Beckwith Myth 38, 43, *241ff., 254; So. Am. Indian (Apapocuvб-Guarani): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 122.

A192.2.1.1. A192.2.1.1. Deity departs for moon. Polynesia: Hawaii, Beckwith Myth 220, *241; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/931).

A192.2.2. A192.2.2. Divinity departs in boat over sea. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 29, *37.

A192.2.3. A192.2.3. Divinity departs to submarine home. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 206.

A192.2.4. A192.2.4. Divinity departs in column of flame. Pora Pora (Society Is.): Beckwith Myth 38.

A192.3. A192.3. Expected return of deity. Banks Is. (Fiji): Beckwith Myth 316.

A192.4. A192.4. Divinity becomes mortal. Tonga: Beckwith Myth 75.

A193. A193. Resurrection of gods. Chinese: Werner 99.

A194. A194. Divinity’s emotions.

A194.1. A194.1. Divinity weeps. Jewish: Neuman.

A194.2. A194.2. God‘s vengeance. Jewish: Neuman.

A194.3. A194.3. God’s jealousy. Jewish: Neuman.

A194.4. A194.4. God‘s joy. Jewish: Neuman.

A195. A195. Divinity’s companions.

A195.1. A195.1. God dealing with his angels. Jewish: Neuman.

A195.2. A195.2. Wisdom as God‘s companion. Jewish: Neuman.

A195.3. A195.3. Bird as the shadow of a god. Tahiti: Henry 121.

A196. A196. Deity’s limitations.

A196.1. A196.1. Fate controls gods. Greek: Fox 162; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 74; Semitic: Langdon 102, 307.

A196.2. A196.2. Decree of gods irrevocable. India: Thompson-Balys.

A196.2.1. A196.2.1. Deity changes decision. Jewish: Neuman.

A197. A197. Deity controls elements. Jewish: *Neuman; Greek: “Zeus the cloud gatherer”; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 10, 15ff., 32ff., 68--96, et passim.--Tahiti: Henry 337.

A199. A199. Gods--additional motifs.

A199.1. A199.1. Spirit of deity animates earthen jar when it is placed beneath banyan tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

A199.2. A199.2. God has magic vision only from his throne. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 22.

A199.3. A199.3. Deity‘s child becomes fire as soon as he is born. India: Thompson-Balys.

A199.4. A199.4. Wind drives buffaloes for god. India: Thompson-Balys.

A199.5. A199.5. God’s day is one thousand years. Jewish: Neuman.

A199.6. A199.6. Deity authenticates sacred writings in heaven. Jewish: Neuman.

A199.7. A199.7. Drums and flutes off-shore announce approach of gods. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 16 n. 3.


A200--A299. Gods of the upper world.

A200. A200. God of the upper world.

A205. A205. Witch-woman of upper world. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (Z-G. 13/249).

A210. A210. Sky-god. *Cook Zeus; *Cook Classical Review XVII 270, XVIII 365, FL XV 301, XVI 260; *Hommel “Der allgegenwдrtige Himmelsgott” Archiv f. Religionsgeschichte XXIII 193; *Koch Der rцmische Juppiter (Frankfurt a. M. 1937).--Greek: Fox 152 (Zeus); Babylonian: Spence 76, 121ff.; Hindu: Keith 21, 24 (Dyaus, Varuna); India: Thompson-Balys; Icel.: De la Saussaye 243 (Tiu); Much Der germanische Himmelsgott, Finno-Ugric: *Holmberg Finno-Ugric 217ff.; Irish myth: Cross.--Estonian: Loorits Grundzьge I 583ff.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 114, 294; Africa (Luba): Donohugh V 180.

A210.1. A210.1. Sky-goddess. Egyptian: Mьller 37 (Hathor and others), 41 (Nut).--Tonga: Gifford 16.

A211. A211. God of heaven. (cf. A210). Icel.: De la Saussaye 233 (Odin); Jewish: Neuman; Gaster Thespis 122f.--Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 390; Armenian: Ananikian 11, 14, 37; Chinese: Werner 331, Graham; Hindu: Penzer III 257, IV 177 n. 1.--African: Werner African 127.--Pawnee: Alexander N. Am. 80 (“Father Heaven”); Hivaoa (Marquesas): Handy 133.

A216. A216. God of the air. *Encyc. Religion and Ethics s. v. “Air and gods of the air”; Greek: Grote I 3; India: Thompson-Balys.

A220. A220. Sun-god. **Frobenius Das Zeitalter des Sonnengottes (Berlin 1904); Smith Dragon viii; Montelius FL XXI (1909) 60; Krappe “The Anatolian Lion God” JAOS LXV (1945) 144--154; Krappe “Apollon” Studi i Materiali di Storia delle Religioni XIX--XX (1943--1946); *Koch Gestirnverehrung im alten Italien (Frankfurt a. M. 1933).--Greek: Gaster Thespis 127, 205, 339f., Fox 241 (Helios); Egyptian: Mьller 24ff., 129 (Amon); Babylonian: Spence 109ff., 187, 189; Irish myth: Cross; Persian, Hindu: Keith 24--29, 232; Armenian: Ananikian, 11, 33, 37, 43; Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 223; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 422; Chinese: Ferguson 90; Russian: Mбchal 273, 297, 299; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 735.--Navaho: Alexander N. Am. 165; Pima: ibid. 176; (Pawnee and Plains in general): ibid. 81, 87; Huichol: Alexander Lat. Am. 121.

A220.0.1. A220.0.1. Sun-god commits adultery. India: Thompson-Balys.

A220.0.2. A220.0.2. Sun-god couples with the moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

A220.1. A220.1. Sun-goddess. Gaster Thespis 30f., 127, 205, 339; Japanese: Anesaki 225ff., *Ikeda, Beckwith Myth 102; Irish myth: Cross.

A220.2. A220.2. The sun-god and his family. India: Thompson-Balys.

A221. A221. Sun-father. *Fb “sol” III 457b.--Pawnee: Alexander N. Am. 81, 87; Zuсi: ibid. 187; S. Am. Indian (Guarani): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93.

A222. A222. Sun-god bitten by snake, leaves earth for heaven. Egyptian: Mьller 80ff.

A225. A225. Son of the sun. Irish myth: Cross.--Central Brazil: Ehrenreich International Congress of Americanists XIV 661; Navaho: Matthews MAFLS V 104ff.

A226. A226. Sun father-in-law. American Indian: *Thompson Tales 312 n. 123.

A227. A227. Two sun-gods.

A227.1. A227.1. Male sun-god while ascending; female while setting. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 12, chap. 2 passim.

A227.2. A227.2. One sun-god for night; another for day (Osiris, Horus). Egyptian: Mьller 113.

A240. A240. Moon-god. D. Nielson Die altarabische Mondreligion und die mosaische Ueberlieferung (Strassburg 1904); **Siecke Hermes der Mondgott; Gaster Thespis 291.--Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 186; Egyptian: Mьller 32, 33; Maspйro Histoire ancienne des peuples de l‘Orient classique 145; Hindu: Keith 90f., Oldenberg Religion des Veda 193, Penzer III 161 n. 1, India: Thompson-Balys, Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 854, II 735, 962; Japan: Beckwith Myth 102; Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 223; Armenian: Ananikian 11.

A240.1. A240.1. Moon-goddess. Usener IV 1; Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 186f. (Artemis, Hekate); India: Thompson-Balys; Tonga: Gifford 181.

A250. A250. Star-god. Gressmann Die hellenistische Gestirnreligion (Leipzig 1925).--Chinese: Werner 106; India: Thompson-Balys.

A251. A251. God of morning star. *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachtrдge 17f.; Greek: Fox 247 (Phosphoros).

A252. A252. God of evening star. Greek: Fox 247 (Hesperos).

A253. A253. God of north star.

A253.1. A253.1. Goddess of north star. Chinese: Werner 144.

A255. A255. Star-deity and drought-demon fight. Persian: Carnoy 268.

A260. A260. God of light. Greek: Fox 179 (Apollo); Icel.: De la Saussaye 253ff. (Balder); Maori: Clark 14, 171n.

A162.2. A162.2. Combat between god of light and dragon of ocean.

A260.1. A260.1. Goddess of light. India: Thompson-Balys.

A270. A270. God of dawn. Gaster Thespis 228.

A270.1. A270.1. Goddess of dawn. Hindu: Keith 32; Greek: Roscher I 1252 s. v. “Eos”; Irish myth: Cross.

A280. A280. Weather-god. Irish myth: Cross, Beal XXI 326, 334.

A281. A281. Storm-god. See also A282.--Babylonian: Spence 95ff., 188; Assyrian: ibid. 218ff.; Persian: Carnoy 264; Japanese: Anesaki 225; Irish myth: Cross.

A281.1. A281.1. Storm-goddess. Hindu: Penzer I 272.--Eskimo: Boas RBAE VI 600.

A282. A282. Wind-god. Greek: Grote I 287; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 40ff. (Odin), 102 (Njord), De la Saussaye 225; Hindu: Keith 37, 40; India: *Thompson-Balys.--Penzer IV 110 n. 4, VIII 163 n.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 457; Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 232; Chinese: Ferguson 73.--Maori: Dixon 32; Marshall Is.: Davenport 222; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 86, 121.--Eskimo: Rasmussen Myter I 99--102; S. Am. Indian (Arua): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 379; Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 101.

A282.0.1. A282.0.1. Wind-goddess. Eskimo: Rasmussen Myter I 100, Holm 95.

A282.0.1.1. A282.0.1.1. Facial features of wind-goddess reversed. Eskimo: Rasmussen Myter I 102.

A282.0.2. A282.0.2. Wind-angel. Jewish: Neuman.

A282.1. A282.1. God of whirlwind. Typhon. He is represented as having serpents’ heads on his shoulders, as having a voice like the sound of many beasts and eyes which flash fire.--Greek: Fox 9.

A283. A283. Cloud-god. Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 234; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A283.1. A283.1. Cloud-angel. Jewish: Neuman.

A284. A284. God of thunder. *Harris Boanerges 13ff., 20; Montelius FL XXI (1909) 60.--Icel.: De la Saussaye 236 (Thor); Lithuanian: Gray 319, Balys “Der Donner im lithauischen Volksglauben” Tautosakos Darbai III (1937) 149--238; Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 227; Estonian: Eisen Estnische Mythologie 156ff.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 443; Armenian: Ananikian 11; Chinese: Werner 198, 201; Greek: Fox 159 (Zeus); Egyptian: Mьller 103 (Seth); Hindu: Keith 37 (Parjanya).--Maori: Beckwith Myth 250; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 172; American Indian: Alexander N. Am. 287 n. 32.

A284.0.1. A284.0.1. Angel of thunder. Jewish: Neuman.

A284.1. A284.1. Goddess of thunder. Maori: Dixon 57.

A284.2. A284.2. Thunderbird. A mythical giant bird usually thought of as a thunder-god.--*Harris Boanerges 13--30 passim, Harris Picus who is also Zeus vii; *Encyc. Religion and Ethics I 529a; Hatt Asiatic Influences 36ff.; Gaster Thespis 135, 363.--Babylonian: Spence 193; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 439; India: Thompson-Balys.--African: Werner African 237.--N. A. Indian: Alexander N. Am. 387 n. 32 *Thompson Tales 318 n. 151c.; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (3) 55, (Toba): Mйtraux Myths 110.--Cf. Persian: Carnoy 289 (Saena).

A284.3. A284.3. Appearance of thunder-spirit. Eskimo: Rasmussen Myter III 61.

A284.3.1. A284.3.1. Thunder god or spirit has very long mouth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A284.3.2. A284.3.2. Thunder spirit lives in world below earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A285. A285. God of lightning. Gaster Thespis 213; Irish myth: Cross; Hindu: Keith 36; Chinese: Dawsel Magie und Geheimwissenschaft 150.--Maori: Beckwith Myth 250.

A285.0.1. A285.0.1. Angel of lightning. Jewish: Neuman.

A285.1. A285.1. Lightning weapon of the gods. Irish myth: Cross.

A287. A287. Rain-god. Gaster Thespis 122f.; *Smith Dragon vii ff., 77f., 86.--Greek: Fox 159 (Zeus); Hindu: Keith 39, 135, 233; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 98, 412; Chinese: Werner 206; Maya: Alexander Lat. Am. 134; Antilles: ibid 25; Aztec: ibid. 71; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 97; Samoa ibid. 19; Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 310.

A287.0.1. A287.0.1. Rain-god and wind-god brought back in order to make liveable weather. Have been banished by sun-god.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A287.1. A287.1. Rain-goddess. India: Thompson-Balys.

A287.2. A287.2. St. Peter as ruler for the air and rain. Often misunderstands the orders of God.--Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 31.

A288. A288. Rainbow-goddess. Greek: Fox 241 (Iris).--Chibcha: Alexander Lat. Am. 204.

A289. A289. Other weather-gods.

A289.1. A289.1. Frost-god. Gaster Thespis 345; Type 480 (*Roberts 120).--Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 233; Icel.: Boberg.


A300--A399. Gods of the underworld.

A300. A300. God of the underworld. Gaster Thespis 136; Greek: Grote I 3; Irish myth: Cross; Babylonian: Spence 105, 150; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 695; Korean: Zong in-Sob 92 No. 50; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 200f.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 114; Fiji: Beckwith Myth 138; Nukuhiva (Marquesas): Handy 122.--Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 57.

A300.1. A300.1. Goddess of underworld. (cf. A310.1). Oceania: Beckwith Myth 294; Polynesia: Beckwith Myth 114; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 3/1241) Nukuhiva (Marquesas): Handy 121; Tonga: Beckwith Myth 178.

A302. A302. Angel of hell. Jewish: Neuman.

A305. A305. Demigod of underworld. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G 13/221, 249, 317); Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 155 n. 33.

A307. A307. Deity ruler of lowest heaven. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 938.

A308. A308. Warrior chieftain of underworld. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/203).

A310. A310. God of the world of the dead. *Meyer “Der irische Totengott und die Toteninsel” Stzb. d. preussischen Akad. d. Wissenschaften XXXII 537.--Greek: Fox 233 (Hades); Icel.: De la Saussaye 227 (Odin), Boberg; Irish myth: Cross; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 486; Egyptian: Mьller 97 (Osiris); Hindu: Keith 159; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 201f.--Jicarilla Apache: Alexander N. Am. 175, Goddard PaAM VIII 194 n. 1; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 77, 80; Huichol: ibid. 122; Maya: ibid. 139.

A310.1. A310.1. Goddess of world of the dead. Greek: Fox 230 (Persephone); Icel.: De la Saussaye 280 (Hel), 276 (Freyja), *Boberg, MacCulloch Eddic 303ff.; Armenian: Ananikian 35; Babylonian: Spence 129.--New Zealand (Maori): Dixon 74; Eskimo: Thompson Tales 272 n. 2.

A310.2. A310.2. God of the slain. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 44 (Odin).

A310.3. A310.3. God of the hanged. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 43ff. (Odin).

A310.4. A310.4. God of suicide. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 177.

A311. A311. Conductor of the dead. Greek: Farnell Cults of the Greek States V 15ff.; Egyptian: Mьller 111. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 72, 110.

A316. A316. Goddess divides time between upper and lower worlds. Persephone spends six months on earth and six in Hades.--*Frazer Apollodorus I 41 n. 2.

A317. A317. Demon god lies in wait for spirits descending to underworld. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G 3/18).

A318. A318. Rank of the gods in Hades. Chinese: Werner 98.


A400--A499. Gods of the earth.

A400. A400. God of earth. Greek: *Grote I 3; Irish myth: Cross; Egyptian: Mьller 42; Persian: Carnoy 260; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham, Eberhard FFC CXX 42, 120.

A400.0.1. A400.0.1. Gods of earth. Irish myth: Cross.

A400.1. A400.1. Goddess of earth. Gaster Thespis 128 n., 51; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 243ff., 413ff.; Livonian: Loortis Liivi rahva usund I 256; Lithuanian, Chuvashan: Wolter “Die Erdgцttin der Tschuwaschen und Litauer” Archiv f. Religionswiss. II 358ff.; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 194; Hindu: Penzer II 241, IV 177 n. 1, India: Thompson-Balys.--Haitian: Alexander Lat. Am. 34; Aztec: ibid. 74f.; Chibcha: ibid. 204.

A400.2. A400.2. Angel of earth. Jewish: Neuman.

A401. A401. Mother Earth. The earth is conceived of as the mother of all things (cf. A431.1).--**Dieterich Mutter Erde; A. Mayer Erdmutter und Hexe (Mьnchen 1936); *Lang Myth. 299ff.; Fb. “jord” II 44b IV 247a; Nцldeke “Mutter-Erde bei den Semiten” Archiv f. Religionswiss. VIII 161.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 194, 328; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 239; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 459; Hindu: Keith 230; India: *Thompson-Balys.--African: Werner African 125.--N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 280 n. 37a, Alexander N. Am. 91f., 289 n. 34.

A401.1. A401.1. Mother Earth pregnant with Adam. Jewish: Neuman.

A405. A405. Nature gods. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 2, chap. I passim.

A410. A410. Local gods. Chinese: Graham; Irish myth: Cross.

A411. A411. Household gods. Irish myth: Cross; Istrian: Mбchal 229; Slavic (general): ibid. 240ff.; Germanic: Meyer Germanen 213ff.; Roman: (Lares and Penates) *Frazer Ovid II 470 n. 1, IV 12ff., Roscher II 1868 s. v. “Lares”; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 454; Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 113ff.; Estonian: Loorits Grundzьge I 543--570; Chinese: Ferguson 75.

A411.1. A411.1. Door-gods. Chinese: Werner 172.

A411.2. A411.2. Kitchen-gods. Chinese: Werner 166; India: Thompson-Balys.

A411.3. A411.3. Dairy-god. India: Thompson-Balys.

A411.4. A411.4. Hearth-god. Greek: Grote I 55 (Hestia, Vesta).

A412. A412. City-gods. Chinese: Werner 403, Eberhard FFC CXX 42, 67.

A413. A413. God of roads (streets). *Frazer Pausanias II 417.--Irish myth: Cross.

A413.1. A413.1. God of cross-roads. Frazer Ovid II 453ff.--Irish myth: Cross.

A414. A414. God of boundaries. *Frazer Ovid I 95ff., II 481ff.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A415. A415. God of clans or nations. Jewish: Neuman.--Hopi: Alexander N. Am. 189.

A417. A417. Gods of the Quarters. A god or spirit for each of the world-quarters, north, south, east, and west.--Japanese: Anesaki 243; Chinese: Werner 240.--Marshall Is.: Davenport 222; American Indian: *Alexander N. Am. 286 n. 31; Maya: Alexander Lat. Am. 137.

A417.1. A417.1. Beast guardians of the four quarters. Hindu: Penzer VIII 75f., 108 n. 1 (elephants).--Sia: Alexander N. Am. 203.

A418. A418. Deity of particular mountain. (cf. A495). Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 529; Korean: Zong in-Sob 170 no. 73; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 185ff.

A418.1. A418.1. Angel of mountains. Jewish: Neuman.

A419. A419. Local gods--miscellaneous.

A419.1. A419.1. Deity of particular forest. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 17.

A419.1.1. A419.1.1. Angel of the bush. Jewish: Neuman.

A419.2. A419.2. Deity of the deserts.

A419.2.1. A419.2.1. Angel of the deserts. Jewish: Neuman.

A419.3. A419.3. Gods of seat-braces on canoe. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 16.

A420. A420. God of water. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 167; Babylonian: Spence 76, 111ff.; Persian: Carnoy 260; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 217, 222; Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Die Wassergottheiten der finno-ugrischen Vцlker (MSFO XXXII); Gaster Thespis 123.--S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 52; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 541.

A420.1. A420.1. Water-goddess. India: Thompson-Balys.

A421. A421. Sea-god. Gaster Thespis 123; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 102 (Njord), 171 (Aegir); Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 210, *Grote I 3, 10, 173.--Society Is., Cook Group: Dixon 39; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 19, 61, 97; Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 360, Henry 122; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/441); Tonga: Gifford 87; Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 311.

A421.0.1. A421.0.1. Angel of the deep. Jewish: *Neuman.

A421.1. A421.1. Sea-goddess. Greek: *Grote I 173 (Thetis); Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 190 (Ran); Babylonian: Gilgamesch X line 1ff., cf. p. 136ff. (Jensen’s edition); India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 269; Chinese: Ferguson 72; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 492.--Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G 13/441).

A421.1.1. A421.1.1. Sea-queen and hand maidens entice lovers. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/441).

A423. A423. Waves as girls, daughters or widows of the sea-god. Icel.: Boberg, MacCulloch Eddic 190.

A425. A425. River-god. Greek: Fox 256, *Frazer Pausanias II 527; Egyptian: Mьller 45ff.; Russian: Rambaud La Russie йpique 216f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Werner 336, Eberhard FFC CXX 135--141.

A425.0.1. A425.0.1. Angel of rivers. Jewish: Neuman.

A425.1. A425.1. River goddess. Irish myth: Cross; Hindu: Penzer II 189 n. 1; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A425.1.1. A425.1.1. Stream is wife of deity. India: Thompson-Balys.

A427. A427. God of springs.

A427.1. A427.1. Goddess of springs and wells. In Greek myth, the nymphs were regarded as deities of springs. In Babylonian, Ishtar, the goddess of fertility had this function.--Greek: Fox 257; Persian and Babylonian: Carnoy 278.

A430. A430. God of vegetation. **Siecke Der Vegetationsgott.--Irish myth: Cross; Persian: Carnoy 260; Chinese: Graham.--Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 76.

A430.0.1. A430.0.1. Angel in charge of vegetation. Jewish: Neuman.

A430.1. A430.1. Goddess of vegetation. Irish myth: Cross.

A430.1.1. A430.1.1. Goddess of splendor of spring. Hindu: Penzer I 112; Japanese: Anesaki 233.

A430.1.2. A430.1.2. Goddess of autumn leaves. Japanese: Anesaki 234.

A431. A431. God of fertility. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 160; Roman: Frazer Ovid II 172; Icel.: De la Saussaye 252; Krappe “Ingvi-Frey and Aengus Mac Oc” Scandinavian Studies (1943) 174--178.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 13, 93, chap. II passim; Marshall Is.: Davenport 222.

A431.1. A431.1. Goddess of fertility. (cf. A401). Irish myth: Cross; Greek-Roman: Fox 292; Babylonian: Carnoy 278 (Ishtar), Spence 124; Lappish: Reuterskiцld De Nordiska Lapparnas Religion 102ff.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 185; Icel.: Boberg.

A431.1.1. A431.1.1. In absence of goddess of fertility, no reproduction of life. Wesselski Archiv Orientбlnн I 304.

A431.1.2. A431.1.2. Goddess of fertility of wild forest plants. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 289.

A431.1.3. A431.1.3. Goddess causes famine. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 289.

A431.1.4. A431.1.4. Goddess of dryness and sterility. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 203f.

A432. A432. God of agriculture. Irish myth: Cross; Roman: Frazer Ovid III 2 n. 1; Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 244; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 232; Chinese: Werner 239.--Maori: Dixon 32; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 15, 20, 61, and chap. II passim.

A432.0.1. A432.0.1. God plants fields. *Dh I 192ff. India: Thompson-Balys.

A432.0.2. A432.0.2. Plowman god. Irish myth: Cross.

A432.1. A432.1. Goddess of agriculture. Irish myth: Cross (A432.0.2); Greek: Fox 230.

A433. A433. Gods or goddesses of special crops. Mangaia (Cook Is.): Clark 140.

A433.1. A433.1. Corn-god (goddess). *Frazer Golden Bough VII passim; Gaster Thespis 373.--Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 241; Greek: Fox 226; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 231 No. 177.--Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 75; Zuсi: Alexander N. Am. 188; Pawnee: ibid. 81, 92; Arikara: ibid. 107.

A433.1.1. A433.1.1. God of rice-fields. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A433.2. A433.2. The seven grain sisters. India: Thompson-Balys.

A433.3. A433.3. God of the vine. Greek: Grote I 239 (Dionysus).

A433.4. A433.4. God (goddess) of fruit. Roman: Fox 290 (Pomona); Jewish: Neuman.

A433.5. A433.5. God (angel) of grass. Jewish: Neuman.

A434. A434. Goddess (god) of flowers. Roman: *Frazer Ovid III 417; India: Thompson-Balys.--Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 77f.

A435. A435. God of trees and forests. Greek: Fox 267 (Pan); Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 283, II 253; Jewish: Neuman.--Maori: Dixon 32.

A435.1. A435.1. Bamboo goddess. India: Thompson-Balys.

A435.2. A435.2. Fig tree as god. India: Thompson-Balys.

A440. A440. God of animals. Jewish: Neuman; Irish myth: Cross.

A440.1. A440.1. Goddess of animals. Penzer I 272 (Ishtar).

A441. A441. God (goddess) of domestic animals. Persian: Carnoy 260; Irish myth: Cross.

A441.1. A441.1. God of domestic beasts.

A441.1.1. A441.1.1. Goddess of buffaloes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A441.1.2. A441.1.2. God of flocks. Russian: Mбchal 300.

A441.2. A441.2. God of domestic fowls. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 120.

A443. A443. God (goddess) of wild animals. Irish myth: Cross.

A443.1. A443.1. God of wild beasts.

A443.2. A443.2. God of wild fowls.

A443.2.1. A443.2.1. God of owls. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 123.

A445. A445. God of fish. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 11, 60, 90.

A445.0.1. A445.0.1. Angel of fishes. Jewish: Neuman.

A445.1. A445.1. God of the squid. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 60.

A445.2. A445.2. God of eels. Maori: Clark 163; Samoa: Clark 70.

A446. A446. God of reptiles.

A446.1. A446.1. God of lizards. Maori: Clark 91.

A446.1.1. A446.1.1. God whose shadow on earth is a lizard. Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 360.

A446.2. A446.2. God of the cutworm. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth.

A450. A450. God of trades and professions.

A450.1. A450.1. God “of many arts”. Irish myth: Cross.

A451. A451. Artisan-god. Irish myth: Cross; Hindu: Keith 50 (Tvastr).

A451.1. A451.1. God of smith-work. Gaster Thespis 136, 154f.; Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 28; Greek: Fox 206 (Hephaistos); Norse: Herrmann Nordische Mythologie 115ff. (Weland).

A451.1.1. A451.1.1. Goddess of smith-work. Irish myth: Cross.

A451.2. A451.2. God of carpenters. Tonga: Beckwith Myth 317.

A451.2.1. A451.2.1. God as canoe builder. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 15.

A451.3. A451.3. God of handicrafts.

A451.3.1. A451.3.1. Goddess of weaving and spinning. Greek: Grote I 51.

A451.4. A451.4. Goddess of pottery. Greek: Grote I 51.

A452. A452. God of hunting. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 156 (Ullr); Assyrian: Spence 216.--Cherokee: Alexander N. Am. 69.

A452.1. A452.1. Goddess of hunting. Greek: Fox 183; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 103ff., Boberg.

A453. A453. Shepherd-god. Greek: Grote I 57; Babylonian: Spence 126ff. (Tammuz); India: Thompson-Balys.

A454. A454. God of healing. *Jayne The Healing Gods of Ancient Civilizations (New Haven 1925); *Hopf Die Heilgцtter und Heilstдtten des Altertums (Tьbingen 1904).--Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 179, *Grote I 166f.; Hindu: Penzer III 258; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 247.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 115.

A454.0.1. A454.0.1. Angel of healing (Raphael). Jewish: Neuman.

A454.1. A454.1. Goddess of healing. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 186 (Eir); Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 184 (Artemis); India: Thompson-Balys.

A455. A455. God of fishing. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 15.

A456. A456. God of sailors.

A456.1. A456.1. Goddess of sailors. India: Thompson-Balys.

A457. A457. God of thieves. Tahiti, Mangaia, Rarotonga, Maori: Beckwith Myth 447; Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 310.

A459. A459. God of trades and professions--miscellaneous.

A459.1. A459.1. God or goddess of skiing (or snow-shoes). Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 105 (Skadi), 156 (Ullr), Boberg.

A460. A460. Gods of abstractions. Greek: Fox 299.

A461. A461. God of wisdom. Irish myth: Cross; Norse: Herrmann Nordische Mythologie 320 (Odin); Greek: Grote I 10 (Apollo); Babylonian: Spence 184ff.

A461.1. A461.1. Goddess of wisdom. Greek: Grote I 10 (Athene).--Tahiti: Henry 85.

A462. A462. God of beauty. Tahiti: Henry 128.

A462.1. A462.1. Goddess of beauty. Hindu: Penzer VII 129 n. 4, 137; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 767.

A463. A463. God of fate. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Grote I 10; Egyptian: Mьller 52; Slavic (general): Mбchal Slavic 249ff.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 392.

A463.0.1. A463.0.1. God of fate in shape of golden frog. India: Thompson-Balys.

A463.1. A463.1. The Fates. Goddesses who preside over the fates of men.--Wehrhan Die Sage 81; Gaster Thespis 348.--Norse: De la Saussaye 312, Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 32, 36, 47, 131, MacCulloch Eddic 238ff., *Boberg; Greek: Grote I 7; Irish myth: Cross, Beal. 21, 318, 336; Lappish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 256ff.; Estonian: Loorits Grundzьge I 527f.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A463.1.1. A463.1.1. The Fates weave. Icel.: Boberg.

A463.1.2. A463.1.2. Three fates in house in woods allot destiny to people. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *936.

A464. A464. God of justice. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 162 (Forseti); Jewish: Neuman; Assyrian: *Spence 222; Persian: Carnoy 260f.; Hindu: Penzer I 4, 84 n. 1; India: Thompson-Balys.

A464.1. A464.1. Goddess of justice. Greek: Fox 6 (Themis).

A465. A465. God of the arts. Greek: Grote I 43 (Apollo).

A465.0.1. A465.0.1. The Nine Muses, patronesses of the arts. Greek: Fox 239, Grote I 10.

A465.1. A465.1. God of poetry. Greek: Fox 181; Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 55 (Odin), 160 (Bragi).

A465.1.1. A465.1.1. Goddess of poetry. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 40, Cross.

A465.2. A465.2. God of music. Greek: Fox 181.

A465.2.0.1. A465.2.0.1. God as harper. Irish myth: Cross.

A465.2.1. A465.2.1. Goddess of music. Hindu: Penzer I 243; India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 268.

A465.3. A465.3. God of eloquence and learning. Irish myth: Cross.

A465.3.0.1. A465.3.0.1. God of eloquence and learning as inventor of ogam alphabet. Irish myth: Cross.

A465.3.1. A465.3.1. Goddess of eloquence and learning. Hindu: Penzer I 1 n. 4, 18 n. 1, 31 n. 3.

A465.4. A465.4. God of the dance. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 16.

A465.4.1. A465.4.1. Goddess of the dance. India: Thompson-Balys.

A465.5. A465.5. God of pictorial art.

A465.5.1. A465.5.1. God of tattooing. Tahiti: Henry 234.

A466. A466. Goddess of fame. Hindu: Penzer II 90, 116.

A467. A467. God of happiness. Chinese: Werner 169.

A467.1. A467.1. Angel of peace. Jewish: Neuman.

A468. A468. The three Graces. Greek: Fox 236, Grote I 10.

A471. A471. God of prophecy. Greek: Fox 178; Norse: Herrmann Nordische Mythologie 306ff. (Odin); India: *Thompson-Balys.

A471.1. A471.1. Goddess of prophecy. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg.

A472. A472. God of sleep.

A472.0.1. A472.0.1. Angel of insomnia. Jewish: Neuman.

A472.1. A472.1. Goddess of sleep. Hindu: Penzer V 197.

A473. A473. God of wealth. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Roscher III 2572 s. v. “Plutos”; Icel.: Herrmann Nordische Mythologie 204; Hindu: Penzer X 163 s. v. “God of Wealth”, X 205 s. v. “Kuvera”; Chinese: Werner 170, Eberhard FFC CXX 176, 196.

A473.0.1. A473.0.1. Angel of poverty. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys (A489.3).

A473.1. A473.1. Goddess of wealth. Irish myth: Cross.--Hindu: Penzer X 206 s. v. “Lakshmi”; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 268.

A473.1.1. A473.1.1. Goddess of prosperity. India: Thompson-Balys.

A474. A474. Gods of youth and age.

A474.1. A474.1. God of youth. Irish myth: Cross.

A474.1.1. A474.1.1. Goddess of youth. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 178 (Idunn); Greek: Fox 240.

A474.2. A474.2. God (goddess) of longevity. Chinese: Werner 171, 214, Ferguson 81; Japanese: Anesaki 280.

A475. A475. God of love. Krappe “Diarmuid and Grainne” FL XLVII (1936) 347--361.--Irish myth: Cross; Hindu: Keith 141; Penzer X 163 s. v. “God of Love”; Greek: Roscher I 1339 s.v. “Eros”.

A475.0.1. A475.0.1. Cupid with arrows of lead and gold. *Reinhard PMLA XXXVIII 438 n. 42.

A475.0.2. A475.0.2. Marriage-god. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A475.1. A475.1. Goddess of love. Krappe “The Bearded Venus” FL LVI (1945) 325--335.--Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 198, Grote I 5; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 120 (Freya); Armenian: Ananikian 24f., 38f.; Babylonia: Spence 124.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 185, 186; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 78; S. Am. Indian (Chibcha): Kroeber BBAE CXLIII (2) 908.

A475.1.1. A475.1.1. Goddess of love with thousand faces. India: Thompson-Balys.

A475.1.1.1. A475.1.1.1. Goddess of thousand eyes discovered by lousing. India: Thompson-Balys.

A476. A476. Goddess of chastity. Greek: Fox 185; Icel.: Boberg.

A477. A477. Goddess of childbirth. *Ploss Das Kind I 18ff.; Penzer I 272.--Greek: Fox 164, 167, 185.; Finno-Ugric: *Holmberg Finno-Ugric 252ff.; Armenian: Ananikian 25; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 414.--India: Thompson-Balys.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 285.

A477.1. A477.1. Goddess of cradle. India: Thompson-Balys.

A478. A478. God of disease.

A478.1. A478.1. Goddess of pestilence. *Krappe “Artemis Mysia” Classical Philology XXXIX (1944) 178--183.--Hindu: Penzer I 147.

A478.2. A478.2. God (goddess) of smallpox. India: *Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 57 No. 32.

A478.3. A478.3. God (goddess) of cholera. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A478.4. A478.4. God of fevers. India: Thompson-Balys.

A478.5. A478.5. Devil of leprosy. India: Thompson-Balys.

A478.6. A478.6. Angel (demon) of blindness. Jewish: Neuman.

A481. A481. God of intoxication (or of wine). W. F. Otto, Dionysos: Mythos und Kultus (Frankfurt a. M. 1933).--Greek: Fox 219; Hindu: Keith 46; India: Thompson-Balys.--S. Am. Indian (Chibcha): Kroeber BBAE CXLIII (2) 908.

A482. A482. God of gambling (luck). Hindu: Penzer IV 240 n. 1.

A482.1. A482.1. Goddess of ill-luck. Hindu: Penzer VI 106; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A482.1.1. A482.1.1. Spirit of ill-luck a son of a god. India: Thompson-Balys.

A482.2. A482.2. Goddess of good luck (Lakshmi). India: Thompson-Balys.

A483. A483. God of mercy. Jewish: Neuman.

A483.0.1. A483.0.1. Angel of mercy. Jewish: Neuman.

A483.1. A483.1. Goddess of mercy. Chinese: Werner 251.

A484. A484. God of oaths.

A484.1. A484.1. Goddess of oaths. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 186 (Vбr).

A485. A485. God of war. *H. Lommel Der arische Kriegsgott (Frankfurt a. M. 1939).--Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 189; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 40, 55 (Odin), 98 (Tyr); Armenian: Ananikian 42; Hindu: Penzer VII 137, VIII 180; Chinese: Ferguson 95; Babylonian: Spence 106ff.; Jewish: Neuman.--Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 58; Maya: ibid. 139.--Tahiti: Henry 120; Maori: Clark 14; Marquesas: Handy 110; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 15.

A485.1. A485.1. Goddess of war. Gaster Thespis 136; Irish myth: Cross; Roman: Frazer Ovid IV 151ff.; Assyrian: Spence 213; India: Thompson-Balys.

A485.2. A485.2. Valkyries (shield-maidens). Demigoddesses who attend battle.--*Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachtrдge 240ff; **Golther “Der Valkyrenmythus” Abhandl. d. Akad. d. Wiss. (Mьnchen), 1. Kl., XVIII, Abt. 2, 401ff.; *Krappe Modern Language Review XXI 55 ff.; *Hertz Aus Dichtung und Sage 31ff.--Irish myth: Cross; Norse: De la Saussaye 304ff., MacCulloch Eddic 248ff., 259, 283--84, 314, Penzer X 345 s. v. “Valkyries”.

A485.3. A485.3. God of single-combats. Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 156 (Ullr).

A486. A486. The Furies. Goddesses of vengeance.--Greek: Fox 275, Frazer Apollodorus I 5 n. 4; India: Thompson-Balys.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 115.

A487. A487. God of death. *Wesselski Archiv Orientбlnн I 300ff.--Hindu: Penzer X 365 s. v. “Yama”; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 680; India: *Thompson-Balys; Maori: Clark 8, 135; Marshall Is.: Davenport 222; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux Myths 19; Icel.: Boberg.

A487.0.1. A487.0.1. Death kills only those whose time it is to die. India: Thompson-Balys.

A487.1. A487.1. Goddess of death. Hindu: Penzer IV 110 n. 3.

A488. A488. God of destruction. India: Thompson-Balys

A489. A489. Gods of abstractions--miscellaneous.

A489.1. A489.1. Goddess of protection. India: Thompson-Balys.

A489.2. A489.2. God of strength. India: Thompson-Balys.

A489.3. A489.3. God of fear.

A489.3.1. A489.3.1. Angel of fear. Jewish: Neuman.

A489.4. A489.4. God of laughter. Greek: Hesiod (Momus).

A490. A490. Miscellaneous gods of the earth. *Hartmann Die germanische Gottheit des Jahres und des Lebens (Halle 1935).

A491. A491. God of travelers. Greek: Fox 195; Chinese: Ferguson 82; Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 221.

A492. A492. God of metals. Irish myth: Cross; Persian: Carnoy 260.

A493. A493. God of fire. Greek: Fox 205; Russian: Mбchal 298; Persian: Carnoy 260, 284; Jewish: Neuman; Hindu: Keith 43, Penzer X 163 s. v. “God of Fire” (Agni); India: *Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 952, II 8; Armenian: Ananikian 33; Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 235; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 454; Chinese: Ferguson 76, Werner 237, 283.--Huichol: Alexander Lat. Am. 121; Maori: Clark 41; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 170; Tahiti: Henry 130, 241; Icel.: Boberg.

A493.0.1. A493.0.1. Angel of fire. Jewish: Neuman.

A493.1. A493.1. Goddess of fire. India: Thompson-Balys; Oceanic: Beckwith Myth 167ff.

A493.2. A493.2. God of the furnace. India: Thompson-Balys.

A494. A494. Food-goddess. India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 232.

A495. A495. Mountain-god. Chinese: Ferguson 91.

A496. A496. God of the seasons. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A496.1. A496.1. God of spring. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 992.

A497. A497. Echo.

A497.1. A497.1. Echo invisible. India: Thompson-Balys.

A498. A498. Deity of stone. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A499. A499. Other deities.

A499.1. A499.1. Python-goddess. India: Thompson-Balys.

A499.2. A499.2. Goddess of the hair. India: Thompson-Balys.

A499.3. A499.3. God of stones. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 88.

A499.4. A499.4. God of sorcery. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 15, 29f., 108.

A499.4.1. A499.4.1. Goddess of sorcery. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 114.

A499.5. A499.5. God of dreams. Greek: Grote II 115.

A499.6. A499.6. God of poison. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 112.

A499.7. A499.7. Goddess of the parasol. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 421.


A500--A599. Demigods and culture heroes.

A500. A500. Demigods and culture heroes. Irish myth: Cross; Hawaii: *Beckwith Myth 60.

A501. A501. Groups of demigods.

A501.1. A501.1. Seven demigods. Siberian and Indo-Iranian: Holmberg Siberian 402ff.

A502. A502. Heroes or demigods as fourth race of men. Greek: Grote I 62.

A504. A504. Male virgin demigod. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 3/1301).

A506. A506. Half-spirit, half-man. Samoa: Beckwith Myth 368.

A510. A510. Origin of the culture hero (demigod).

A510.1. A510.1. Culture hero as god. Irish myth: Cross.

A510.2. A510.2. Culture hero reborn. Irish myth: Cross.

A511. A511. Birth and rearing of culture hero (demigod). Irish myth: Cross.

A511.1. A511.1. Birth of culture hero. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 227.

A511.1.1. A511.1.1. Culture hero snatched from mother‘s side. *Dh I 11.--Finnish: Kalevala rune 1.--S. Am. Indian (Tehuelche): Alexander Lat. Am. 335, (Jivaro): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 148f., (Warrau): Mйtraux ibid. 146, (Kaiguа): Mйtraux ibid. 139, (Chiriguano): Mйtraux ibid. 156, (North Peru): Mйtraux ibid. 133, (Eastern Brazil): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (1) 434.

A511.1.1.1. A511.1.1.1. River flows from corpse of mythical mother of culture hero. S. Am. Indian (Amuesha): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 131.

A511.1.2. A511.1.2. Culture hero speaks before birth. Krappe Zeitschrift fьr deutsches Altertum LXXII (1935) 161--171.--African: Werner African 213.

A511.1.2.1. A511.1.2.1. Twin culture heroes quarrel before birth. (Cf. A515.1.1.)--Dh I 11; Jewish: Neuman.

A511.1.2.2. A511.1.2.2. Culture hero in mother’s womb indicates direction to be taken by her. S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 132, (Apapacuvo-Guarani): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 139.

A511.1.3. A511.1.3. Culture hero incarnated through birth from virgin. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 387.

A511.1.3.1. A511.1.3.1. Demigod son of king‘s unmarried sister (daughter) by god. Irish myth: Cross.

A511.1.3.2. A511.1.3.2. Demigod son of king’s unmarried sister by her brother. Irish myth: Cross.

A511.1.3.3. A511.1.3.3. Immaculate conception of culture hero. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 227; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 484, (Manasi): Mйtraux ibid. 393.

A511.1.4. A511.1.4. Magic origin of culture hero.

A511.1.4.1. A511.1.4.1. Origin of culture hero from bursting stone. Oceanic (Banks Group, Tonga, Celebes, Union Group, Gilbert Group): Dixon 111.

A511.1.4.2. A511.1.4.2. Hero formed by god out of mother‘s apron. Maori: Beckwith Myth 231.

A511.1.4.3. A511.1.4.3. Birth of culture heroes from human bones swallowed by jaguar’s human wife. S. Am. Indian (Bacairi): Levi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 347.

A511.1.4.4. A511.1.4.4. Culture hero creates a companion from a toenail. S. Am. Indian (Yurakare): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 144.

A511.1.5. A511.1.5. Culture hero son of mortal (half-mortal) father. Irish myth: Cross.

A511.1.6. A511.1.6. Culture hero posthumous child. Irish myth: Cross.

A511.1.7. A511.1.7. Culture hero born three times. Irish myth: Cross.

A511.1.8. A511.1.8. Culture hero son of animal.

A511.1.8.1. A511.1.8.1. Culture hero son of deer mother. Irish myth: Cross.

A511.1.8.2. A511.1.8.2. Culture hero offspring of woman and jaguar. S. Am. Indian (Eastern Brazil): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (1) 434, (Bakairi): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 145.

A511.1.8.3. A511.1.8.3. Mythical lizards parents of culture hero. S. Am. Indian (Amuesa): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 149.

A511.1.9. A511.1.9. Culture hero born from egg. S. Am. Indian (Jivaro): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 148, (Huamachuco): ibid. 151, (North Peru): Mйtraux ibid. 133.

A511.2. A511.2. Care of culture hero.

A511.2.1. A511.2.1. Abandonment of culture hero at birth. S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 135, (Chiriguano): Mйtraux ibid. 142; Maori: Clark 29.

A511.2.1.1. A511.2.1.1. Abandoned culture hero captured by use of net. S. Am. Indian (Amuesa): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 132.

A511.2.2. A511.2.2. Nursing of culture hero.

A511.2.2.1. A511.2.2.1. Culture hero suckled by wolf. Irish myth: Cross.

A511.2.2.2. A511.2.2.2. Culture hero cared for by tiger. S. Am. Indian (Yurakari): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 144.

A511.2.3. A511.2.3. Culture hero is hidden in order to escape enemies. S. Am. Indian (Bakairi): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 145, (Tembй, Kaigua): Mйtraux ibid. 139.

A511.3. A511.3. Education of culture hero.

A511.3.1. A511.3.1. Culture hero reared in seclusion. Irish myth: Cross.

A511.3.2. A511.3.2. Culture hero reared (educated) by extraordinary (supernatural) personages. Irish myth: Cross.

A511.4. A511.4. Growth of culture hero.

A511.4.1. A511.4.1. Miraculous growth of culture hero. Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 38, 87, 102; S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 135.

A512. A512. Parentage of culture hero. (Cf. also A511.1.8.).

A512.1. A512.1. Culture hero‘s grandmother. Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XVI 16.

A512.2. A512.2. Culture hero creator‘s son. Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 328.--S. Am. Indian (Ackawoi) (Orinoco): Alexander Lat. Am. 269, (Guaporй River): Levi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 378, (Guarani): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 92f.

A512.3. A512.3. Culture hero as son of god. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Grote I 94.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 13.

A512.4. A512.4. Sun as father of culture hero. S. Am. Indian (Warrau, Carib): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 123, 145.

A513. A513. Coming of culture hero (demigod).

A513.1. A513.1. Demigods descend from heaven. Irish myth: Cross.--S. Am. Indian (Tapirapй): Wagley-Galvao BBAE CXLIII (3) 178; Maori: Clark 30.

A513.2. A513.2. Culture hero arrives (and departs) in boat. Norse: Boberg, MacCulloch Eddic 262f.; Old English: Beowulf.

A515. A515. Pair of culture heroes. Amazon tribes: Alexander Lat. Am. 311.

A515.1. A515.1. Culture heroes brothers. Araucanian: Alexander Lat. Am. 330; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 280 n. 35.

A515.1.1. A515.1.1. Twin culture heroes. (Cf. A511.1.2.1.). P. Saintyves “Les Jumeaux dans l‘ethnographie et la mythologie” Revue Anthrop. XXV (1925) 54ff.--Jewish: Neuman; N. Am. Indian (Plains Tribes): Alexander N. Am. 104, 106, (Pima): ibid. 176, (Sia): ibid 204; S. Am. Indian (Jнbaros, Eastern Ecuador): Karsten Myths of the Jнbaros (cf. Boas JAFL XXXII 446), Amazon tribes: Alexander Lat. Am. 311, (Warrau, Carib, Tupinamba, Kaigua, Tembй, Apapocuvб-Guarani, Bakairi, Kaingang, Amuesha, Huamachucho, Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 123, 135f., 138, 145ff., 158--165, (Tenetchara): Wagley-Galvao BBAE CXLIII (3) 147, (Cashinawa, Guarani, Guarayъ): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 92f., 438, 685, (Toba): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 368, (Bakairi): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 347, (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 359.--Tonga: Gifford 20.

A515.1.1.1. A515.1.1.1. Twin culture heroes sired by two fathers. S. Am. Indian (Guarani): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 92f., RMLP XXXIII 136.

A515.1.1.2. A515.1.1.2. Twin culture heroes--one foolish, one clever. (Cf.A525.) S. Am. Indian (Bacairi): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 347, (Tupinamba): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 135, (Chiriguano): ibid 163.

A515.1.1.3. A515.1.1.3. Twin culture heroes conceived of as sun and moon. S. Am. Indian (Amuesha): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 150, (Chiriguano): ibid. 158ff.

A515.1.2. A515.1.2. Sworn brothers as culture heroes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A515.2. A515.2. Father and son as culture heroes. Irish myth: Cross.--Amazon tribes: Alexander Lat. Am. 311.

A515.3. A515.3. Culture hero has blood brother. Irish myth: Cross.

A515.4. A515.4. Culture hero has faithful attendant. Irish myth: Cross.

A515.5. A515.5. Culture hero fights with (encounters) son without recognizing him.

A516. A516. Expulsion and return of culture hero.

A520. A520. Nature of the culture hero (demigod).

A520.1. A520.1. Gods as culture heroes. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 16, chap. 2 passim.

A521. A521. Culture hero as dupe or trickster. Celtic: MacCulloch Celtic 30; Irish myth: Cross.--S. Am. Indian (Yunca, Peru): Alexander Lat. Am. 229, (Chiriguano): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 484; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 294 n. 78; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 20; New Hebrides: Codrington 152--166; African: Werner African 213.

A522. A522. Animal as culture hero.

A522.1. A522.1. Beast as culture hero.

A522.1.1. A522.1.1. Dog as culture hero. Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 82f.

A522.1.1.1. A522.1.1.1. Culture hero acts as watch-dog; named “Hound”. Irish myth: Cross.

A522.1.2. A522.1.2. Rabbit as culture hero. Central Algonquian tribes: Thompson PMLA XXXVII 130ff.

A522.1.3. A522.1.3. Coyote as culture hero. N. Am. Indian: Alexander N. Am. 141ff., 298 n. 48.

A522.1.4. A522.1.4. Fox as culture hero. S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 369, (Chiriguano): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 484.

A522.1.5. A522.1.5. Mink as culture hero. N. Am. Indian: Boas RBAE XXXI 585.

A522.2. A522.2. Bird as culture hero.

A522.2.1. A522.2.1. Blue Jay as culture hero. N. A. Indian: Boas RBAE XXXI 646 and passim.

A522.2.2. A522.2.2. Raven as culture hero. Krappe “Arturus Cosmocrator” Speculum 1945, 405ff.--Irish myth: Cross; N. A. Indian: *Boas RBAE XXXI 567ff.

A522.2.3. A522.2.3. Hawk as culture hero. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 3, BBAE CXLIII (1) 368.

A522.2.4. A522.2.4. Aquatic bird as culture hero. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 3.

A522.3. A522.3. Other animals as culture hero.

A522.3.1. A522.3.1. Spider as culture hero. Dakota: Dorsey JAFL II 134.--African: Werner African 213.

A523. A523. Giant as culture hero. Irish myth: Cross; Persian: Carnoy 294; Chinese: Werner 305.

A523.1. A523.1. Giant sword of culture hero. Fb. “svжrd” III 691a.; Irish myth: Cross.

A524. A524. Extraordinary possessions of culture hero.

A524.1. A524.1. Culture hero’s extraordinary animals.

A524.1.1. A524.1.1. Culture hero has marvelous dogs. Irish myth: Cross.

A524.1.2. A524.1.2. Culture hero has marvelous horses. Irish myth: Cross.

A524.2. A524.2. Extraordinary weapons of culture hero. Irish myth: Cross.

A525. A525. Good and bad culture heroes. Walapai: Alexander N. Am. 180; S. Am. Indian (Guarani): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93; Melanesia: Dixon 122ff.; Polynesia, Micronesia: ibid. 122 n. 1.

A525.1. A525.1. Culture hero fights with his elder brother. Ojibwa: Jones-Michelson PAES VII (1) 19.

A525.2. A525.2. Culture hero (god) slays his grandfather. Irish myth: Cross.

A526. A526. Physical characteristics of culture hero (demigod).

A526.1. A526.1. Culture hero can be wounded. Irish myth: Cross.

A526.2. A526.2. Culture hero as mighty hunter. Irish myth: Cross.

A526.3. A526.3. Culture hero has irresistible beauty spot (ball seirc). Irish myth: Cross.

A526.4. A526.4. Culture hero has three heads of hair of different colors. Irish myth: Cross.

A526.5. A526.5. Culture hero has seven pupils in each eye, seven toes on each foot, seven fingers on each hand. Irish myth: Cross.

A526.5.1. A526.5.1. Culture hero with different colored eyes, one brown, one green. Maori: Clark 30.

A526.6. A526.6. Culture hero, when angry, subject to contortions. Irish myth: Cross.

A526.7. A526.7. Culture hero performs remarkable feats of strength and skill. Irish myth: Cross.

A526.8. A526.8. Culture hero can turn feet and knees backwards. Irish myth: Cross.

A526.9. A526.9. Lightning flashes from armpits of hero. Maori: Beckwith Myth

A527. A527. Special powers of culture hero.

A527.1. A527.1. Culture hero precocious. Irish myth: Cross.

A527.1.1. A527.1.1. Divine twins make selves a bow and arrow. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 143, 156, (Carib): ibid. 147.

A527.2. A527.2. Culture hero has knowledge-giving member (thumb, tooth). Irish myth: Cross.

A527.3. A527.3. Culture hero as magician (drai). Irish myth: Cross.

A527.3.1. A527.3.1. Culture hero can transform self. S. Am. Indian (Caingang): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 473.

A527.3.1.1. A527.3.1.1. Culture hero assumes ugly and deformed guise. S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 168.

A527.4. A527.4. Culture hero as poet (musician). Irish myth: Cross.

A528. A528. Culture hero has supernatural helpers. Irish myth: Cross.

A530. A530. Culture hero establishes law and order. Norse: Boberg; Greek: Fox 103; Jewish: Neuman.

A530.1. A530.1. Culture hero completes work of creator. S. Am. Indian (Guarani): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93, (Tucuna): Nimuendajъ BBAE CXLIII (3) 724.

A531. A531. Culture hero (demigod) overcomes monsters. Norse: Boberg; Greek: Grote I 189; Irish myth: Cross, Beal XXI 327; Babylonian: Spence 158; Hindu: Keith 34, 172; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Coyajee JPASB XXIV 189; Japanese: Anesaki 303; Persian: Carnoy 287, 293, 300.--American Indian: *Thompson Tales 272 n. 1; *Farrand-Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 216 (N. Pac. Coast, Chinook, Kathlamet, Shoshone, Maidu, Coos, Alsea, Molala, Kalapuya); and add (Maidu) Dixon PAES IV 59 No. 2, (Joshua) Farrand-Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 235 No. 18, (Navaho) Alexander N. Am. 165, (Arikara) ibid. 108; Jicarilla Apache: Mooney AA old ser. XI (1898) 204; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XXXX 4, 8, 62, 66f., 73, 77, (Tucuan): Nimuendajб BBAE CXLIII (3) 724, (Huamachuco): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 151, (Apapocuvб-Guarani): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 138.

A531.1. A531.1. Culture hero spares certain evil spirits. Old Age, Cold, Poverty, and Hunger beg the culture hero not to destroy them because of their real usefulness to man.--Navaho: Matthews MAFLS V 130ff.

A531.1.1. A531.1.1. Culture hero banishes demons. Irish myth: Cross.--Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 370.

A531.2. A531.2. Culture hero banishes snakes. *Krappe “St. Patrick and the Snakes” Traditio V (1947) 323--330; Irish: Cross, Giraldus Cambrensis Topography of Ireland I 23, Bede Historia Ecclesiastica I 18 (St. Patrick); Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 300 No. 9, 303 No. 22.

A531.3. A531.3. Culture hero exterminates race of tigers. S. Am. Indian (Caingang): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 148, (Amuesha): ibid. 150, (Apapocuvu-Guarani): ibid. 138.

A531.4. A531.4. Culture hero conquers sea monster. Chinese-Persian: Coyajee JPASB XXIV 190.

A531.4.1. A531.4.1. Demigod conquers great octopus. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 22.

A532. A532. Culture hero tames winds in caves. Western Mono: Gifford JAFL XXXVI 326ff. Nos. 9, 10.

A533. A533. Culture hero regulates rivers.

A533.1. A533.1. Culture hero stays current of river. India: Thompson-Balys.

A535. A535. Culture hero swallowed and recovered from animal. Irish myth: Cross; Persian: Carnoy 302.

A536. A536. Demigods fight as allies of mortals. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A536.1. A536.1. Culture hero (saint) defends Ireland against foreign invasions. Irish myth: Cross.

A537. A537. Culture heroes clear plains. Irish myth: Cross.

A538. A538. Culture hero builds raths. Irish myth: Cross.

A541. A541. Culture hero teaches arts and crafts. Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.--American Indian: in practically all the mythologies--see Thompson Tales 272 n. 1; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 456; S. Am. Indian (Maya): Alexander Lat. Am. 131ff., (Bakairi): Alexander Lat. Am. 313, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XXXX 78, 84, 86, 112ff., Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 368, (Guaporй River): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 379, (Chiriguano): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 484, (Guarayъ): Mйtraux BBAE (3) 437, (Cubeo): Goldman BBAE CXLIII (3) 789, (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 115; New Hebrides (Banks Is.): Codrington 152--166.

A541.1. A541.1. Culture hero invents and teaches the Irish language. Irish myth: Cross.

A541.2. A541.2. Culture hero as god of agriculture. Irish myth: Cross.

A545. A545. Culture hero establishes customs. India: Thompson-Balys.--Mixtec: Alexander Lat. Am. 86; S. A. Indian (Bakairi): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 347, (Tupinamba): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 79, 367, (Mataco): Mйtraux ibid. 105, 367, (Cubeo): Goldman BBAE CXLIII (3) 798, (Tucuna): Nimuendajъ BBAE CXLIII (3) 724.

A546. A546. Culture hero establishes social system. Persian: Carnoy 317; India Thompson-Balys.

A547. A547. Culture hero dispenses food and hospitality. Irish myth: Cross.

A560. A560. Culture hero‘s (demigod’s) departure. Irish myth: Cross; Finnish: Kalevala rune 50; India: Thompson-Balys.

A561. A561. Divinity‘s departure for west. American Indian: *Thompson Tales 274 n. 11; S. A. Indian (Inca): Alexander Lat. Am. 240, (Yuracare, W. Brazil): ibid. 315, (Guarayъ): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 437, Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 147.

A562. A562. Divinity’s departure for east. S. A. Indian (Tehuelche, Patagonia): Alexander Lat. Am. 336.

A564. A564. Remarkable longevity of culture heroes. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A565. A565. Dying culture hero. The culture hero teaches people how to die by dying himself.--Irish myth: Cross; California Indians: *Thompson Tales 285 n. 52a.

A566. A566. Culture hero returns to upper world. S. Am. Indian (Apapocuvб-Guaranн): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 136ff., (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 148f., 157.

A566.1. A566.1. Return of mortal reincarnation of celestial being to the country of the gods after his mission has been accomplished on earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A566.2. A566.2. Culture hero ascends to heaven guided by blind ancestress. Maori: Beckwith Myth 249.

A567. A567. Divinity retires to the end of the world. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.

A570. A570. Culture hero still lives.hler-Bolte I 411; Irish myth: Cross.

A571. A571. Culture hero asleep in mountain. Kцhler-Bolte I 411.--Irish myth: Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 194 (Arthur); Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 316; Eng., Scot.: Baughman.

A571.1. A571.1. Culture hero still alive in hollow hill. Irish myth: Cross.

A571.2. A571.2. Culture hero still alive on mysterious island. Irish myth: Cross.

A572. A572. Culture hero still keeps watch over earth. S. Am. Indian (Apapocuvб-Guaranн): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 138.

A572.1. A572.1. Culture hero still resides in the zenith. S. Am. Indian (Guaranн): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93.

A575. A575. Departed deity grants requests to visitors. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 276 n. 17.

A580. A580. Culture hero’s (divinity‘s) expected return. Divinity or hero is expected to return at the proper time and rescue his people from their misfortunes. Often joined with A571.--*Norlind “Skattsдgner”.--Danish: Bolte Zs. f. Vksk. XXIX 74; Fb. “Holger Danske”; Norse: Olrik Ragnarцk 108ff., 478 (Balder); Irish myth: Cross; Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 194 (Arthur); Eng., Scot.: Baughman; Finnish: Kalevala rune 50.--Jewish: Neuman; Persian: Carnoy 339.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 274 n. 11a.; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 66.

A581. A581. Culture hero (divinity) returns. Irish myth: Cross.

A581.1. A581.1. Culture hero returns and assists mortals. Irish myth: Cross.

A581.2. A581.2. Culture hero returns and aids followers in battle. Irish myth: Cross.

A581.3. A581.3. Culture hero returns to prove power of saint. Irish myth: Cross.

A590. A590. Demigods and culture heroes--miscellaneous.

A591. A591. Semi-divine hero granted free access to men’s wives. India: Thompson-Balys.

A592. A592. Culture heroes and descendants.

A592.1. A592.1. Demigod and witch woman of upper world have son. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/249).

A592.2. A592.2. Virgin daughter of culture hero. S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 168.

A592.2.1. A592.2.1. Daughter of culture hero gives birth to boy. S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 169.




A600--A699. The universe.



A600. A600. Creation of the universe. In addition to other references in this section A600--A649, see: *Encyc. Rel. Ethics s. v. “Creation”; *Lang Myth. 163ff.; Henne am-Rhyn Das Jenseits: Kulturgeschichtliche Darstellung ьber Schцpfung, etc. (1881); Schlieper Die kosmogonischen Mythen der Urvцlker (Bonn 1932, diss.); *Hdwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachtrдge 274--284; Feilberg Skabelses og Syndflodssagn (1915).--Norse: Boberg, MacCulloch Eddic 327ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Persian: Carnoy 275; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 406.--Cherokee: Mooney Am. Urquell II 85ff.; Quichй: Alexander Lat. Am. 160f.; Maya: ibid. 152ff.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 43ff.; Tahiti: Henry 336ff.

A601. A601. Universe created in specified time and order. Jewish: Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45.

A601.1. A601.1. Universe created in five periods of time. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 44.

A601.2. A601.2. Universe created in six days. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45.

A605. A605. Primeval chaos. *Sayce Encyc. Religion and Ethics III 363 s. v. “Chaos”.--Greek: Roscher I 871 s. v. “Chaos”; Icel.: De la Saussaye 340f.; Jewish: Neuman; Egyptian: Mьller 47; Babylonian: Spence 71; Japanese: Anesaki 222.--Pima: Alexander N. Am. 177; Mixtec: Alexander Lat. Am. 86; Marquesas Is.: Dixon 10 n. 13; Maori: ibid. 6ff.; Nias Is.: ibid. 167; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 42; Tahiti: Henry 336, 340.

A605.1. A605.1. Primeval darkness. S. Am. Indian (Guaranн): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 312; Africa (Luba): Donohugh Africa V 180.

A605.2. A605.2. Primeval cold. Icel.: Boberg.

A610. A610. Creation of universe by creator. The creator is existing before all things.--Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Hindu: Oldenberg Religion des Veda 278; Chinese: Werner 76, 90.--Mexican: Alexander Lat. Am. 85; Guiana: ibid. 256ff.,--Society Is.: Dixon 11 n. 18, 12 n. 19; Marquesas Is.: ibid. 11 n. 14; Maori: ibid. 11 n. 16, 17, 13 n. 20; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 42; Australian: Goldenweiser Early Civilization 105.--Uganda: ibid. 97.

A610.1. A610.1. All things created in pairs (heaven and earth, etc.). Jewish: Neuman.

A610.2. A610.2. Creation of heaven, earth, and hell. Jewish: Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 42.

A611. A611. Fiat creation. Universe is created at command of creator.--Irish myth: Cross; Hebrew: Genesis ch. 1; Jewish: Neuman.--Pelew Group, Western Caroline Is., Central Caroline Is., Gilbert Group: Dixon 248; Mono-Alu (Fauru): Wheeler 66; Tahiti: Henry 338.

A611.0.1. A611.0.1. Creator uses particular formula (letters) to create universe. Jewish: Neuman.

A611.1. A611.1. Druids as creators. Irish myth: Cross.

A612. A612. Creation: materialization of creator‘s thinking. Creator “thinks outward in space” and thus produces the universe.--*Dh I 10f., 15, 17ff., 58, 113; Jewish: Neuman.--Zuсi: Cushing RBAE XIII 379ff.; Thompson Tales 280 n. 36.

A612.1. A612.1. World-soul. The universe a manifestation of the creator.--Society Is.: Dixon 12 n. 19.

A613. A613. Creation from creator’s tears. Dh I 31f.

A614. A614. Universe from parts of creator‘s body. Ymir makes the world from his members--mountains from bones, cliffs from teeth, heavens from skull, etc.--Norse: Dh I 111 n. 1; Lang Myth I 234 ff.--Mexican: Danzel Kultur und Religion des primitiven Menschen 60; Kalmuck, Chinese, Hindu: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 372; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 96 No. 55.

A614.1. A614.1. Universe from parts of man‘s body. (Cf. A831.2)--Kabyle: Frobenius Atlantis I 101; Madagascar: Dandonau Contes pop. de Sakalava No. 58; Papuan: Landtmann The Kiwai Papuans 551; Sumatra: Pleyte Bataksche Vertellingen 68.

A615. A615. Universe as offspring of creator. The Sky Father begets various parts of the universe by his various wives.--Maori: Dixon 8 n. 9.

A615.1. A615.1. Universe from creator’s masturbation with water, with stone, and with earth. (Cf. A1216.1). Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 314.

A615.2. A615.2. Universe from copulation of various objects to produce others. Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 320f.

A617. A617. Creation of universe from clam-shell on primeval water by creator.--Nauru (Pleasant Island): Dixon 249; Tahiti: Henry 337.

A617.1. A617.1. Creation of universe from clay pot set afloat on primeval waters. India: Thompson-Balys.

A617.2. A617.2. Creation of universe from calabash. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 304f.

A618. A618. Universe created by various activities of creator.

A618.1. A618.1. Universe coughed into being. Mono-Alu: Wheeler 67.

A618.2. A618.2. Universe created by spitting. Melanesia: Wheeler 66.

A620. A620. Spontaneous creation of universe. Greek: *Grote I 4.--Maori: Dixon 6ff.; Marquesas Is.: ibid. 10 n. 13; Tahiti: Henry 343.

A620.1. A620.1. Spontaneous creation--evolutionary type. From primeval chaos gradually arise worlds and life.--Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 327ff.; Greek: Fox 3f.; Hawaiian: Dixon 15 n. 25, 26, Beckwith Myth 3; Maori: ibid. 6, 7, nn. 2, 3, 4, 5; Marquesas Is.: ibid. 11 n. 14.

A620.2. A620.2. Spontaneous encroachment of heavens and earth checked by creator. Jewish: Neuman.

A621. A621. Universe from congealed vapor. Kachin (North Burma): Scott Indo-Chinese 263; Chinese: Werner 136.

A621.1. A621.1. Creation from vapor-produced primeval giant. Vapors from half-frozen primeval river origin of giant Ymir, from whom universe is created.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 327ff.

A622. A622. Universe created out of fire world. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 279, 324, 326.

A623. A623. Universe created out of ice and mist. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 324--26, 304, 329, Herrmann Saxo II 584.

A625. A625. World parents: sky-father and earth-mother as parents of the universe. The sky-father descends upon the earth-mother and begets the world.--Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 2 n. 1, Fox 5, 272; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 194, 328; Hindu: Keith 16; India: Thompson-Balys.--Eastern Indonesia: Dixon 166; Chatham Is.: ibid. 10 n. 12; Cook and Hervey Is.: ibid. 14 n. 21; Maori: ibid. 7 n. 3, 8 n. 7, 9 n. 10, 31; Tahiti: Henry 337f.; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 280 n. 37; S. Am. Indian (Cora): Alexander Lat. Am. 121, (Antilles): ibid. 24; African: Werner African 124.

A625.1. A625.1. Heaven-mother--earth-father. Kachin (North Burma): Scott Indo-Chinese 263.

A625.2. A625.2. Raising of the sky. Originally the sky is near the earth (usually because of the conjunction of the sky-father and earth-mother). It is raised to its present place.--Gaster Oldest Stories 133; Egyptian: Mьller 30; Babylonian: Spence 81, 114; Mongolian: Holmberg Siberian 330; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 97.--Indonesian: Dixon 36, 178 nn. 124--133, (Rotti) Jonker Rottineesche Texten No. 58; Pleasant Island (Micronesia): Dixon 250; Central and Western Polynesia, Hawaii, Samoa: ibid. 50f.; Maori: ibid. 31; Chatham Is., Cook Group, Society Is., Samoa, Union Group, Hawaii: ibid. 35; Maori: Clark 13, 15, 171; Philippine: Gifford 23; Tonga: Gifford 18, 23.--N. A. Indian (Mohave): Alexander N. Am. 179; S. Am. Indian (Aztec): Alexander Lat. Am. 93, (Bakairi): ibid. 313, Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 348, (Botocudo): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 540, (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684, (Yuracare): Mйtraux ibid. 504.--African: Frobenius Atlantis VII 304.

A625.2.1. A625.2.1. Heaven and earth originally connected by navel string. Navel string cut.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A625.2.2. A625.2.2. Why the sky receded upward: it was struck by a woman‘s pestle. India: Thompson-Balys.

A625.2.3. A625.2.3. Raising the sky: striking with broom. Old woman’s hump strikes clouds as she sweeps. She strikes at sky with broom and thus raises it.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A625.2.4. A625.2.4. Deity clothes his father the sky after he has separated him from earth. Maori: Clark 16.

A625.2.5. A625.2.5. After sky is lifted, plants and shrubs begin to grow. Maori: Clark 15.

A630. A630. Series of creations. The present universe is the last of a succession of creations.--Etruscan: Fox 289.--Navaho: Alexander N. Am. 159ff.; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 91.

A631. A631. Pre-existing world of gods above. Such a world is assumed before the real creation of the universe. Though this belief is not explicitly set forth in many mythologies, it seems to be implied in most of the North American Indian systems. See, for example, motif A31, Creator‘s grandmother.--Jewish: *Neuman.--Samoa: Dixon 18f.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45.

A632. A632. Succession of creations and cataclysms. From the ruins of each earlier creation a new one is raised.--Jewish: Neuman.--Inca: Alexander Lat. Am. 240; Hawaiian: Dixon 15 n. 24.

A633. A633. Earlier universe opposite of present. Everything in the earlier world was the reverse of the present world. Cf. A855.--California tribes (Capistrano, Luiseсo, Diegueсo, Mohave): Waterman AA n. s. XI 52.

A636. A636. New creation shouted away. It is unstable and therefore unsatisfactory.--American Indian: Kroeber JAFL XXI 224, (California): Gayton and Newman 56.

A640. A640. Other means of creating the universe.

A641. A641. Cosmic egg. The universe brought forth from an egg.--Lang Myth. I 252; Dh I 19.--Finnish: Kalevala rune 1; Esthonian: Eisen Estnische Mythologie 170, Loorits Grundzьge I 447f.; Hindu: Keith 74; Society Is., Hawaiian, Maori: Dixon 20; Hawaii: Henry 345.--African: Frobenius Atlantis X 119.

A641.1. A641.1. Heaven and earth from egg. They are the two halves of an egg shell. Eros escapes as they are separated.--Greek: Fox 5.--Indonesian: L. d. Backer L’Archipel indien 232.

A641.2. A641.2. Creation from duck‘s eggs. Upper vault from half shell, lower vault from half shell, moonbeams from whites, sunshine from yellows, starlight from motley parts, clouds from dark parts.--Finnish: Kalevala rune 1.

A642. A642. Universe from body of slain giant. Ymir. See A621.1.--Icel.: *De la Saussaye 341.

A642.1. A642.1. Primeval woman cut in pieces: houses, etc., made from her body. India: Thompson-Balys.

A644. A644. Universe from pre-existing rocks. Originally rocks are assumed and everything is made from them.--Samoa: Dixon 17.

A645. A645. Creation of universe: genealogical type. A begets B, who begets C, etc. Finally the universe is brought forth in its present form.--Nias Is. (Indonesia): Dixon 166.

A647. A647. Universe from cosmic fowl. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 217ff.



A650. A650. The universe as a whole.

A651. A651. Hierarchy of worlds. A series of worlds, one above the other.--Irish myth: Cross; Egyptian: Mьller 366 n. 7; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 307, 309f., 410; Hindu: Keith 15, 134, 228; India: *Thompson-Balys.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 287 n. 58, Alexander N. Am. 7, 60, 105, 136, 263, *275 n. 11 (Eskimo, Cherokee, Mandan, Kiowa, Thompson River, Bella Coola); Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 52f.; Maya: ibid. 140; Amazon: ibid. 307; Bororo: ibid. 296; S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 24, Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366, (Witoto): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 25; Chuckchee: Bogoras AA n. s. IV 590; Maori: Dixon 59.--Cf. Icel.: De la Saussaye 346 n. 4.

A651.0.1. A651.0.1. Nine worlds. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 974.

A651.0.2. A651.0.2. Four world systems. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 117, 1033.

A651.1. A651.1. Series of upper worlds. Japanese: Holmberg Siberian 344.

A651.1.0.1. A651.1.0.1. Highest of celestial worlds consists of twenty heavens. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 336.

A651.1.1. A651.1.1. Three heavens. Icel.: Snorra Edda Gylf XVII, Boberg.--Hawaii: Thrum 15, Beckwith Myth 42, 74; Maori: Clark 163ff.; S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 25.

A651.1.1.1. A651.1.1.1. Third sky above prevents earth being burned by sun. S. Am. Indian (Witoto): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 25.

A651.1.1.2. A651.1.1.2. Region above the three worlds. Hindu: Penzer II 242.

A651.1.2. A651.1.2. Four heavens. Irish myth: Cross (A651.1.6.).--S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 25.

A651.1.3. A651.1.3. Five heavens. S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 25, BBAE CXLIII (1) 366.

A651.1.4. A651.1.4. Seven heavens. A series of seven upper worlds.--Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; Hindu: Penzer VII 246; Mohammedan: Hartland Science 224; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 400f.--Sumatra: Dixon 160.

A651.1.5. A651.1.5. Eight heavens. Samoa: Beckwith Myth 210.

A651.1.6. A651.1.6. Nine heavens. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 400f.--Fiji: Beckwith Myth 150; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 77.

A651.1.6.1. A651.1.6.1. The nine ranks (orders) of heaven. Irish myth: Cross (A651.1.2.1.).

A651.1.7. A651.1.7. Ten heavens. Jewish: Neuman; Maori: Clark 186; Tonga: Gifford 18; Tahiti: Henry 164, 343.

A651.1.8. A651.1.8. Series of upper worlds--miscellaneous. Jewish: *Neuman.

A651.1.8.1. A651.1.8.1. Seventeen-storied heaven. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 405.

A651.2. A651.2. Series of lower worlds. Irish myth: Cross.

A651.2.0.1. A651.2.0.1. Creator lives in lowest sky beneath us. S. Am. Indian (Witoto): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 25.

A651.2.1. A651.2.1. Two lower worlds. S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 25, BBAE CXLIII (1) 366.

A651.2.2. A651.2.2. Three lower worlds. Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 77.--S. Am. Indian (Witoto): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 25.

A651.2.3. A651.2.3. Seven lower worlds. Hindu: Penzer IV 21 n. 1, VIII 162 n. 1.

A651.3. A651.3. Worlds above and below.

A651.3.1. A651.3.1. Seven worlds above and below. An angel upholds the seven worlds on his shoulders. Under him in turn are: rock, bull, fish, vast sea, air, fire, and serpent.--*Chauvin VII 58 No. 77 n. 1.

A651.3.2. A651.3.2. Worlds above and below--miscellaneous. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 42; S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 25.

A652. A652. World-tree. Tree extending from lowest to highest world. (Cf. A878.)--**Holmberg Baum des Lebens.--Irish myth: Cross; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 331ff., De la Saussaye 346ff.; Hagen MPh I (1903--4) 57; **Olrik Danske Studier, 1917, 49ff.; Babylonian: Spence 138; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 286 n. 56a.

A652.1. A652.1. Tree to heaven. Lithuanian and Lettish: Gray 325; Finnish: Kalevala rune 2; India: Thompson-Balys.--N. A. Indian: *Alexander N. Am. 294f. n. 42; Maya: Alexander Lat. Am. 140; S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 24f.

A652.1.1. A652.1.1. Tree to heaven from goddess’ necklace which she hangs on branch. India: Thompson-Balys.

A652.2. A652.2. Tree hanging from sky. A tree hangs upside down in the sky. By its branches men pass back and forth to the upper world.--Indonesian and Micronesian: Dixon 38 (n. 113, 114), 249.

A652.3. A652.3. Tree in upper world. Iroquois: Alexander N. Am. 35.

A652.4. A652.4. Sky as overshadowing tree. Shadowing the earth.--Egyptian: Mьller 35.

A653. A653. Earth under umbrella. Hindu: Penzer II 125 n. 3.

A654. A654. Primary elements of universe. (Earth, air, fire, water, etc.).--Jewish: *Neuman; Chinese: Werner 84. Cf. the early Greek philosophers.

A655. A655. World as egg. The two halves are heaven and earth.--Hindu: Penzer I 10 n. 3; Greek: Fox 5.

A657. A657. River connecting earth and upper and lower worlds. Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 304, 313; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian.

A657.1. A657.1. Bridge connecting earth and heaven. Icel.: Boberg.

A657.2. A657.2. Heaven and earth touch each other at east, west, and south. Jewish: Neuman.

A658. A658. Size and distances of the universe.

A658.1. A658.1. Nine days‘ fall from heaven to earth; the same from earth to hell.--Frazer Apollodorus I 4 n. 2.

A658.1.1. A658.1.1. Nine nights’ riding from heaven (or earth) to hell. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 304.

A658.2. A658.2. Five hundred years travel across universe. Jewish: Neuman.

A659. A659. The universe as a whole--miscellaneous. Jewish: Neuman.

A659.1. A659.1. Music of the spheres. Jewish: Neuman. (The general philosophical theory of the music of the spheres is not treated here).

A659.2. A659.2. Big lake under the earth. S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 25.

A659.3. A659.3. River‘s source where sky and earth meet. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 24.

A659.4. A659.4. Each world corresponds to different color. S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366.

A660. A660. Nature of the upper world.

A661. A661. Heaven. A blissful upper world.--Kohler Heaven and Hell in Comparative Religion (New York 1923); Jeremias Hцlle und Paradies bei den Babyloniern (Leipzig 1903); Gaster Thespis 286; Irish myth: Cross, Beal XXI 330; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 312; German: Grimm Nos. 3, 35, 81, 82, 112, 167, 175, 178; Egyptian: Mьller 176; Persian: Carnoy 345; Hindu: Keith 99, 131, 201.--Japanese: Anesaki 237, 241.--Haida: Alexander N. Am. 263; Eskimo: ibid. 7; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 81; Maya: ibid. 138, 140; Isthmian tribes (Panama): ibid. 193.

A661.0.1. A661.0.1. Gate of heaven.

A661.0.1.1. A661.0.1.1. Gate of heaven guarded by clap of thunder and mysterious sword. Chinese: Werner.

A661. A661. Doors of heaven guarded by rivers of fire. Irish myth: Cross.

A661. A661. Veils of fire and ice before chief door of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.0.1.2. A661.0.1.2. Saint Peter as porter of heaven. *Types 800, 801, 804; *Kцhler Aufsдtze 48; *Fb. “Sankt Peder”.--Irish: Beal XXI 329; Breton: Sйbillot Incidents s. v. “Antoine” (St. Anthony); French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 25; U.S.A.: *Baughman.

A661.0.1.3. A661.0.1.3. Archangels Michael and Ariel as porters of two of the doors of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.0.1.4. A661.0.1.4. Abersetus as guardian of river of fire at one of the doors of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.0.1.5. A661.0.1.5. Virgins with iron rods as guardians of two of the doors in heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.0.2. A661.0.2. Music in heaven. India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.

A661.0.2.1. A661.0.2.1. Heavenly music caused by four columns under Lord’s chair. Irish myth: Cross. (Cf. A661.0.3.).

A661.0.2.2. A661.0.2.2. Music produced by precious stones in heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.0.3. A661.0.3. Chairs in heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.0.4. A661.0.4. Cleansing fountain in heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.0.5. A661.0.5. Bridge of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.0.5.1. A661.0.5.1. Soul-bridge: easy for righteous to cross, more difficult for others. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.0.6. A661.0.6. Windows in heaven: sixty-six (seventy-two) windows in the firmament. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.0.7. A661.0.7. Self-illuminating precious stones in heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.0.8. A661.0.8. Sweet odor in heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.0.9. A661.0.9. Heaven surrounded by seven walls. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.0.10. A661.0.10. Land of the saints surrounded by fiery circle. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.1. A661.1. Valhalla. The hall of warriors who go to Odin. They die and are resurrected daily.--**Neckel Walhall (Dortmund, 1913); M. Olsen Acta Philol. Scand. VI 151f.; MacCulloch Eddic 312; Irish myth: Cross.

A661.1.0.1. A661.1.0.1. Valhalla has five hundred and forty doors. Icel.: Boberg.

A661.1.0.2. A661.1.0.2. Goat (Heidrъn) in Valhalla gives mead. Icel.: Boberg.

A661.1.0.3. A661.1.0.3. Hog (Soehrнmnir) in Valhalla gives meat. Icel.: Boberg.

A661.1.0.4. A661.1.0.4. Deer (Eikthyrnir) in Valhalla fills the fountain Hvergelmir. Icel.: Boberg.

A661.1.0.5. A661.1.0.5. Cock in Valhalla awakens the gods. Icel: Boberg.

A661.1.1. A661.1.1. Inhabitants of heaven divided into companies. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.1.2. A661.1.2. Saint sees vision of three cities in heaven: a city of gold, a city of silver, a city of glass. Irish myth: Cross.

A661.2. A661.2. The eight paradises. Hindu: Penzer VII 246.

A661.3. A661.3. Five trees of paradise. Hindu: Penzer VIII 248 n.

A661.4. A661.4. Girls dancing in heaven. India: Thompson-Balys.

A662. A662. Upper world (heaven) as a mountain. The sky is the hollowed under side of the mountain.--Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 341ff.

A663. A663. The plains of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

A665. A665. Support of the sky.

A665.0.1. A665.0.1. God stabilizes the sky. Tahiti: Henry 180.

A665.1. A665.1. God of space upholds sky. Egyptian: Mьller 44.

A665.2. A665.2. Pillar supporting sky. *Holmberg Baum des Lebens 12ff.--Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 333ff.; Norse: MacCulloch Eddic 334ff.

A665.2.0.1. A665.2.0.1. Pillars supporting sky. Tahiti: Henry 342; Eskimo (Ungava): Turner RBAE XII (266), (Cape York): Rasmussen III 169, (Greenland): Rink 440.

A665.2.1. A665.2.1. Four sky-columns. Four columns support the sky.--Cook Zeus II 140ff.; Frobenius Erdteile VI 165ff.--Egyptian: Mьller 35.

A665.2.1.1. A665.2.1.1. Four gods at world-quarters support the sky. India: Thompson-Balys.--Aztec: Krickeberg Mдrchen der Azteken 208, 316.

A665.2.1.2. A665.2.1.2. Four dwarfs support the sky. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 264--65.

A665.2.1.3. A665.2.1.3. Sky extended by means of pillars. Tahiti: Henry 342.

A665.3. A665.3. Mountain supports sky. India: Thompson-Balys; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 341ff.

A665.3.1. A665.3.1. Four mountains support sky. Patch PMLA XXXIII 618 n. 61.

A665.4. A665.4. Tree supports sky. (Cf. A652.1.).

A665.5. A665.5. Sky held against earth by great octopus. Tahiti: Henry 338.

A665.6. A665.6. Serpent supports sky. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.

A666. A666. Ladder to heaven (applied to saint). Irish myth: Cross.

A666.1. A666.1. Eight (symbolical) steps of the ladder of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

A666.2. A666.2. Rodent gnaws away ladder to other world and thus ghosts remain on earth. S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg Mato Grosso 109.

A667. A667. Language of heaven. Irish myth: Cross.

A669. A669. Nature of the upper world--miscellaneous.

A669.1. A669.1. Judges in the upper world. Gaster Thespis 186; Icel.: Boberg.

A669.2. A669.2. Sky of solid substance. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 164.

A670. A670. Nature of the lower world.

A671. A671. Hell. Lower world of torment.--Jeremias Hцlle und Paradies bei den Babyloniern (Leipzig 1903); Kohler Heaven and Hell in Comparative Religion (New York 1923); *Landau Hцlle und Fegfeuer in Volksglaube, Dichtung, und Kirchenlehre (Heidelberg, 1909); *Jataka Index s.v. “hell”.--Norse: De la Saussaye 256, 291, MacCulloch Eddic 303, Herrmann Saxo Gr. II 588, *Boberg; Greek: Fox 143; Egyptian: Mьller 179; Babylonian: Spence 128; Persian: Carnoy 345; Hindu: Penzer X 169 s. v. “Hades”, Keith 100, 160; India: Thompson-Balys.--Japanese: Anesaki 237.--Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 80; Maya: ibid. 138; Chaco: ibid. 324; Chibcha: ibid. 198; Eskimo: Alexander N. Am. 7.

A671.0.1. A671.0.1. Hell located to the north. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319.

A671.0.1.1. A671.0.1.1. Other locations for hell. Jewish: Neuman.

A671.0.2. A671.0.2. Creation of hell. Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 2, 5, 7; Jewish: Neuman.

A671.0.2.1. A671.0.2.1. Fire in hell. Christ created fire in hell from his blood; formerly hell was cold. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 26.

A671.0.3. A671.0.3. Entrance to cave as gate to hell. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman. (Cf. A671.5.).

A671.0.4. A671.0.4. Hell confused with fairy land. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.0.5. A671.0.5. Size and arrangements of hell. Jewish: Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 786.

A671.1. A671.1. Doorkeeper of hell. Breton: Sйbillot Incidents s. v. “Chabert”.

A671.2. A671.2. Horrible sights in hell. Irish myth: Cross; Gaster Thespis 187f.

A671.2.1. A671.2.1. Serpents in hell. Wimberly Folklore in Ballads 424; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319, 321, 332, Boberg; Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.1.1. A671.2.1.1. Adders in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.2. A671.2.2. Rivers of blood in hell. Wimberly Folklore in Ballads 128.

A671.2.2.1. A671.2.2.1. Rivers of poison in hell. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319f.; Jewish: Neuman.

A671.2.2.2. A671.2.2.2. River in hell filled with weapons. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 320, 321.

A671.2.2.3. A671.2.2.3. Rivers of fire in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.2.4. A671.2.2.4. Rivers of black water in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.2.5. A671.2.2.5. Four (three) rivers in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.2.6. A671.2.2.6. Other rivers in hell. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman (A671.2.29).

A671.2.3. A671.2.3. Tree in hell made of living heads of the dead. Quichй: Alexander Lat. Am. 171.

A671.2.4. A671.2.4. The fires of hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.4.1. A671.2.4.1. Sea of fire in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.4.2. A671.2.4.2. Islands in sea of fire in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.4.3. A671.2.4.3. Fiery showers in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.4.4. A671.2.4.4. Burning plains in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.4.5. A671.2.4.5. Fiery glens in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.4.6. A671.2.4.6. Fiery wheels in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.4.7. A671.2.4.7. Fiery chains in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.4.8. A671.2.4.8. Fiery sticks in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.4.9. A671.2.4.9. Fiery stones in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.4.10. A671.2.4.10. Fiery nails in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.4.11. A671.2.4.11. Fiery columns in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.4.12. A671.2.4.12. Swift, flaming winds in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.4.13. A671.2.4.13. Four fires in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.5. A671.2.5. Dragons in hell. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319, 332 (Nidhogg).

A671.2.6. A671.2.6. Wolf in hell. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319.

A671.2.7. A671.2.7. Gnats in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.8. A671.2.8. Toads in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.9. A671.2.9. Scorpions in hell. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A671.2.10. A671.2.10. Griffins in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.11. A671.2.11. Birds made of iron in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.12. A671.2.12. Lions in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.13. A671.2.13. Scratching cats in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.2.14. A671.2.14. Tigers in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.3. A671.3. Frigidity of hell. Irish myth: Cross; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 786.

A671.3.1. A671.3.1. Coldness in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.3.2. A671.3.2. Rugged, icy mountains in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.3.3. A671.3.3. Alternate heat and cold in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A671.4. A671.4. Well in hell (Hvergelmir). Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319, 324, 332.

A671.5. A671.5. Gate around hell. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 130, Boberg.

A671.6. A671.6. Beings born in hell have long bodies and cling with long nails to walls. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 786.

A672. A672. Stygian river. River in lower world. In Greek myth five such rivers in Hades, Styx (hate), Acheron (mourning), Kokytus (lamentation), Lethe (forgetfulness) and Pyrephlegethon (flame).--Gaster Oldest Stories 50; Greek: Fox 143; Norse: De la Saussaye 350, MacCulloch Eddic 330, Boberg.--Chibcha: Alexander Lat. Am. 198; India: Thompson-Balys.

A672.1. A672.1. Ferryman on river in lower world (Charon). Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 142; Egyptian: Mьller 176; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 45; Babylonian: Jensen Gilgamesch-Epos X, XI, 46ff., cf. 136ff.

A672.1.1. A672.1.1. Charon exacts fee to ferry souls across Styx. Greek: Fox 142; Italian Novella: Rotunda.

A672.2. A672.2. Maiden at the bridge to hell. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 130, 304.

A673. A673. Hound of hell. Cerberus (monstrous dog) guards the bridge to the lower world.--*Encyc. Rel. Ethics I 493a; *Fb “hund” III 678b.--Gaster Thespis 214; Greek: Fox 88; Frazer Apollodorus I 232 n. 1; Norse: Herrmann Nordische Mythologie 599ff., MacCulloch Eddic 303f.; Persian and Hindu: Keith 69.--Eskimo (Greenland): Rink 326, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 165.

A673.1. A673.1. Dogs in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A673.2. A673.2. Cock of hell. Icel.: Boberg.

A675. A675. Judges in the lower world. Greek: Fox 143.--Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 206 No. 155; Japanese: Anesaki 238.

A676. A676. Ship of hell. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 340, 343.

A677. A677. Workmen and tradesmen of hell.

A677.1. A677.1. Smith of hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A677.2. A677.2. Miller of hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A678. A678. In other world one room contains the dead, another contains souls of the unborn waiting to enter the wombs of women, and a third contains all the evil spirits. India: Thompson-Balys.

A681. A681. Sun in the underworld. S. Am. Indian (Viracocha): Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 550.

A682. A682. Hole to lower world up which people come. S. Am. Indian (Terino): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367.

A689. A689. Nature of the lower world--miscellaneous.

A689.1. A689.1. Dark puddles in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A689.2. A689.2. Foul odor in hell. Irish myth: Cross.

A689.3. A689.3. Hunger in hell. Irish myth: Cross. (A679.4.).

A689.3.1. A689.3.1. Dogs incited to devour souls in hell. Irish myth: Cross (A679.4.1).

A690. A690. Miscellaneous worlds. Irish myth: Cross.

A692. A692. Islands of the blest. Irish myth: Cross.--Greek: Fox 147, Grote I 62, Gьntert Kalypso 81; Gaster Oldest Stories 50.--Oceanic: Kruyt Het Animisme 368ff.; Landman Kiwai Papuans 12; Lйvy-Bruhl L’вme primitive 382ff.

A692.1. A692.1. Overseas otherworld in the west. Irish myth: Cross; S. Am. Indian (Guarayъ): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 147.

A693. A693. Intermediate future world. Residence for those whose good and evil deeds exactly counterbalance.--Irish myth: Cross; Persian: Carnoy 344.

A694. A694. Christian paradise. Irish myth: Cross.

A694.1. A694.1. Christian paradise (Terra Repromissionis) corresponding to pagan Celtic otherworld (Ireland). Irish myth: Cross.

A695. A695. Moon as next world. (Cf. A750.) Hindu: Keith 101.

A696. A696. World of serpents. Hindu: Keith 154.

A697. A697. Various Buddhist otherworlds.

A697.1. A697.1. Brahma world. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 796.

A697.2. A697.2. Tusita world. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 1034.

A697.2.1. A697.2.1. Years are days in Tusita world. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 1033.

A697.3. A697.3. Deva world. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 861, II 892, 909.


A700--A799. The heavens.

A700. A700. Creation of the heavenly bodies. Irish myth: Cross; Pawnee: Alexander N. Am. 108; Navaho: ibid. 163; Persian: Carnoy 276; Babylonian: Spence 115.

A700.1. A700.1. Heavenly bodies from objects thrown into sky. The Christ Child throws mud pies into the sky and creates sun, moon, and stars.--*Dh II 78ff.; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 325--26.

A700.2. A700.2. Heavenly bodies vomited up by creator. Bushongo: Werner African 144.

A700.3. A700.3. A woman has four children: sun, moon, fire, and water. India: Thompson-Balys.

A700.4. A700.4. Heavenly bodies created after the plant world. Jewish: Neuman.

A700.5. A700.5. Sun, moon, and stars forged by smith. African (Togo): Einstein 14f.

A700.6. A700.6. Sun and moon purchased. African (Togo): Einstein 9f.

A700.7. A700.7. Sun, moon, and stars nourished on fire. African (Fang): Einstein 33.

A700.8. A700.8. Sun, moon, and darkness as god’s three children. African (Kamerun): Mansfield 234.

A701. A701. Creation of the sky. Babylonian: Spence 79; Hebrew: Genesis, ch. 1; Jewish: Neuman; Estonian: Loorits Grundzьge I 384; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

A701.0.1. A701.0.1. Creation of firmament. Jewish: Neuman.

A701.1. A701.1. Origin of sky from egg brought from primeval water.--Borneo: Dixon 165; Tahiti: Henry 339.

A701.2. A701.2. Origin of sky from Ymir‘s skull. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 325--26.

A702. A702. Nature of the sky. Chinese: Graham.

A702.1. A702.1. Sky of water. The sky consists of water.--*Eisler Weltenmantel und Himmelszelt 204ff.--Egyptian: Mьller 34f.

A702.2. A702.2. Sky as solid vault (tent). Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 336; Hatt Asiatic Influences 63; Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 153.--African: Werner African 130.--Cf. Isaiah, ch 40.

A702.3. A702.3. Sky supported by north star (“nail of the north”) around which it revolves. (Cf. A665, A774.)--Gaster Thespis 170; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 335; Estonian: Loorits Grundzьge I 386.--Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 221.--Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 337.

A702.3.1. A702.3.1. Celestial bodies attached to a wheel in heaven around which they move. Jewish: Neuman.

A702.4. A702.4. Why the sky is blue. India: Thompson-Balys.

A702.5. A702.5. Marriage of earth and sky. India: Thompson-Balys.

A702.6. A702.6. Sky measured by bird. Chinese: Graham.

A702.7. A702.7. Clouds as props of the sky. Maori: Clark 18.

A702.8. A702.8. Sky is black because once raised by means of dirty stick. Tonga: Gifford 23.

A702.9. A702.9. Sky immortal, changing skin like a snake. S. Am. Indian (Bacairi): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 348.

A703. A703. Angels arrange course of heavenly bodies. Jewish: Neuman.

A705. A705. Origin and nature of clouds.

A705.1. A705.1. Origin of clouds. India: Thompson-Balys; Icel.: Boberg.

A705.1.1. A705.1.1. Creator makes clouds from own vitals. Tahiti: Henry 339.

A705.1.2. A705.1.2. Clouds as tapa beaten out by woman in moon. Samoa: Clark 120.

A705.2. A705.2. Nature of clouds (covered with skin). (Cf. A702.9.)--India: Thompson-Balys.


A710--A739. THE SUN

A710. A710. Creation of the sun. *Rьhle Sonne und Mond im primitiven Mythus (Tьbingen, 1925).--Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.--Indonesian: Dixon 177; Australian: ibid. 275; Navaho: Alexander N. Am. 166ff.; Hopi: ibid. 205; Quileute: Farrand JAFL XXXII 254f.; Sinkyone: Kroeber JAFL XXXII 346f.; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 205.--Inca: Alexander Lat. Am. 240; Africa (Luba): Donohugh Africa V 180.

A711. A711. Sun as man who left earth. Man, usually of supernatural birth, ascends to the sky and becomes the sun.--India: Thompson-Balys; Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 45; Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 97 No. 18; Ekoi: Talbot 357, 359; British New Guinea: Dixon 113; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-g 3/191); S. Am. Indian (Eastern Brazil): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (1) 434, (Guarayъ): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 147, (Kaigua): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 138ff., (Manasi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 393, (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 122, 158--165, (Guaporй River): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 379.

A711.1. A711.1. Sun and moon as uncle and nephew who ascended to the sky. Tunja (Colombia): Alexander Lat. Am. 200.

A711.2. A711.2. Sun as a cannibal. India: Thompson-Balys; Crow: Lowie PaAM XV 157.

A711.3. A711.3. Originally a moon but no sun. Africa (Luba): Donohugh Africa V 180.

A711.4. A711.4. Originally no sun. Africa (Bushongo): Torday 247.

A712. A712. Sun as fire rekindled every morning. Australian: Dixon 274f.

A712.1. A712.1. Moon from light, sun from fire. Jewish: Neuman.

A713. A713. Sun and moon from cave. Haiti: Alexander Lat. Am. 28.

A713.1. A713.1. Sun and moon from belly of a fish. India: Thompson-Balys.

A714. A714. Sun from object thrown into sky. Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 54; Pelew Is. (Micronesia): Dixon 253; Cook Group: ibid. 37; Admiralty Is., Woodlark Is.: ibid 112; Australian: ibid 275.

A714.1. A714.1. Sun and moon placed for eyes in the sky. Maori, Society Is., Samoa, Cook Group: Dixon 37.

A714.2. A714.2. Sun and moon placed in top of tree. Hero makes the sun and moon and fastens them to the top of the “World Tree” (cf. A652), but they give no light at first.--Finnish: Kalevala rune 49, cf. FFC LXXII 108.

A714.3. A714.3. Sun from fire flung into sky. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 421.

A714.4. A714.4. Sun and moon metal mirrors in sky. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 419; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A714.5. A714.5. Sun as grindstone full of fire. India: Thompson-Balys.

A714.6. A714.6. Sun and moon as spangle which falls from creator’s forehead into his own urine. India: Thompson-Balys.

A714.7. A714.7. Sun and moon as eyes of Rama which he tore out after his brother‘s death. India: Thompson-Balys.

A714.8. A714.8. Wooden circles that were the sun and moon animated after human sacrifice of blood. India: Thompson-Balys.

A715. A715. Sun born of first couple. Gilbert Is.: Dixon 254; Samoa: Beckwith Myth 254; S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba, Tembй, Apapocuva): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 123, (Jivaro): Stewart-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 627, (Guarani): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93, (Paressi): Mйtraux ibid. 359, (Viracocha): Stewart-Mйtraux ibid. 550.

A715.1. A715.1. Sun and moon born from a woman. *Fb “sol” III 457b.

A715.2. A715.2. Sun and moon born from a goddess impregnated by the wind. India: Thompson-Balys.

A715.3. A715.3. Sun and moon born from an ogre. India: Thompson-Balys.

A715.4. A715.4. Sun and moon from breasts of mother earth. (Cf. A401.) India: Thompson-Balys.

A715.5. A715.5. Sun as offspring of moon. Babylonia: Spence 145.

A715.6. A715.6. Sun and moon born of lizard. S. Am. Indian (Amuesha): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 149.

A716. A716. Dispute at creation of sun. God and devil discuss creation. God plans two suns; devil persuades him to create only one.--Dh I 128ff.; cf. Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 498.

A716.1. A716.1. Four suns at first: culture hero shoots three down.--Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 420.

A717. A717. Hero makes sun and moon from tree and sends them alternately into sky. India: Thompson-Balys.

A717.1. A717.1. Hero makes sun and moon from tree and vivifies them with blood of creator’s son. India: Thompson-Balys.

A718. A718. Sun from transformation.

A718.1. A718.1. Sun from head of youth offered in sacrifice. India: Thompson-Balys.

A718.2. A718.2. Sun and moon as divine bodies of gods. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 85.

A718.3. A718.3. Sun from fruit kernels thrown into water of flood. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 683.

A718.4. A718.4. Sun from transformed maggots. Maori: Beckwith Myth 101.

A719. A719. Creation of sun--miscellaneous.

A719.1. A719.1. Sun emerges from lake. S. Am. Indian (Amyra): Tschopik BBAE CXLIII (2) 571.

A719.2. A719.2. After world catastrophe, new sun reappears and starts new epoch. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 154ff.

A719.3. A719.3. Sun created on fourth day of creation. Jewish: Neuman.

A720. A720. Nature and condition of the sun. Chinese: Graham.

A720.1. A720.1. Formerly seven suns. India: Thompson-Balys.

A720.2. A720.2. Formerly great heat of sun causes distress to mankind. India: Thompson-Balys.

A721. A721. Sun kept in box. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 421.

A721.0.1. A721.0.1. Sun and moon kept in pots when they do not shine. S. Am. Indian (Bakairi, Amazon): Alexander Lat. Am. 313, (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 683. Cf. N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 282 n. 45 (light kept in box or basket).

A721.0.2. A721.0.2. Sun shut up in pit. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

A721.0.3. A721.0.3. Sun kept in a case. Jewish: Neuman.

A721.1. A721.1. Theft of sun. The sun, which is kept by a monster, is stolen and brought to earth.--BP III 288; Dh I 136ff., III 113ff.--Cf. Kaffir: Kidd 238 No. 7; Finnish: Kalevala runes 47, 49.--Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 483; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 60; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 683.

A721.2. A721.2. Sun swallowed and spit out. In theft of sun, the raven (or devil) thus succeeds.--Dh III 113ff.

A721.2.1. A721.2.1. Great darkness due to awk swallowing the sun. India: Thompson-Balys.

A721.3. A721.3. Stolen sun restored to sky. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 83; India: Thompson-Balys.

A721.4. A721.4. Pale sun made right again by using egg, yellow grass, etc. India: Thompson-Balys.

A721.5. A721.5. Sun falls but is lifted back to sky and tied to it. S. Am. Indian: (Mocovi): Mйtraux MAFLS XXXX 34.

A722. A722. Sun‘s night journey. Around or under the earth.--Armenian: Ananikian 50; S. Am. Indian (Munderucъ): Horton BBAE CXLIII (3) 281.

A722.1. A722.1. Sun‘s night journey in golden goblet. Helios’ chariot is conveyed eastward at night in a golden goblet (or bed).--Greek: Fox 243. Cf. A724.

A722.2. A722.2. Sun‘s night journey with reversed face. It returns from west to east by the same way that it came, but it turns its light side to the sky and leaves the earth in darkness.--Hindu: Keith 16.

A722.3. A722.3. Sun’s night journey: in land of dead. Gaster Thespis 195; Egyptian: Mьller 27, 84; Armenian: Ananikian 50; India: Thompson-Balys.

A722.4. A722.4. Sun at night closes doors. In evening goes home and shuts doors and windows.--Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 357.

A722.5. A722.5. Sun at night lowers arm. The sun, a man, lies with arm uplifted. The shining comes from his armpits. When his arm is lowered the shining ceases.--Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 45.

A722.5.1. A722.5.1. Sun bathes in stream of fire at night. Jewish: Neuman.

A722.5.2. A722.5.2. Sun led through stream to cool off heat at night; otherwise might consume earth. Jewish: Neuman.

A722.6. A722.6. Sun hidden at night because afraid to wander. India: Thompson-Balys.

A722.7. A722.7. Mountain where sun goes through. Babylonian: Jensen Gilgamesch Epos IX 37.

A722.7.1. A722.7.1. Sun at night enters fissure between sky and earth. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 19.

A722.8. A722.8. Sun sits on back of a male buffalo. India: Thompson-Balys.

A722.9. A722.9. At dawn sun comes to play with the moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

A722.10. A722.10. Sun and moon to remain half their time in underworld. India: Thompson-Balys.

A722.11. A722.11. Sun worships God by night. Jewish: Neuman.

A722.12. A722.12. Visible sun is the “pet” of real sun. S. Am. Indian (Bacairi): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 348.

A722.13. A722.13. Sun is man during day. Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 33.

A723. A723. Boat of the sun. Egyptian: Mьller 26; Icel.: cf. Du Chaillu The Viking Age 100ff., 107; Almgren Hдllristningar och Kultbruk (Stockholm, 1926--27) passim.

A724. A724. Chariot of the sun. *Helm Altgermanische Religionsgeschichte I 178, 256; Cook Zeus I 205ff.--Greek: Fox 243, cf. A722.1., Grote I 313; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 198; Babylonian: Spence 236; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A724.1. A724.1. Charioteer of the sun. Sun drives his horses and chariot across sky.--Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 114ff.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 196; Greek: Fox 243; Hindu: Penzer I 143 n. 2, II 150ff.

A724.1.0.1. A724.1.0.1. Coyote rides with sun. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 85.

A724.1.1. A724.1.1. Phaлton. Sun entrusts his chariot to another (his son) and the horses run away. The world is almost burnt up.--Krappe “Phaлthon”, The Review of Religion (1944) 115--129.--Greek: *Roscher s.v. “Phaлthon”, *Frazer Pausanias II 59.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 291 n. 66.

A724.1.2. A724.1.2. Chariot of sun accompanied by angels. Jewish: Neuman.

A724.2. A724.2. The sun a golden bowl on the rim of which sits a peacock; both bowl and peacock are in a crystal box, which rests on a flying chariot.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A725. A725. Man controls rising and setting of sun. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

A725.1. A725.1. Sun does not set for a year through power of saint. Irish myth: Cross.

A726. A726. Daily course of sun across sky.

A726.1. A726.1. Sun and moon make daily tour under direct orders of God. Jewish: Neuman.

A726.2. A726.2. Wings of sun. Jewish: Neuman.

A727. A727. Raising the sun. Originally low, it is raised little by little by conjurors.--Cherokee: Alexander N. Am. 60; Navaho: ibid. 167ff.

A727.1. A727.1. Sun originally so hot that it threatens all life. India: Thompson-Balys.

A728. A728. Sun caught in snare. Luomala Oceanic, American Indian, and African Myths of Snaring the Sun (BMB No. 168 [Honolulu, 1940]); *Dh III 120ff.--India: Thompson-Balys; African: Frobenius Atlantis V 38, 70f., XII 160, 185f.

A728.1. A728.1. Sun-snarer: burnt mantle. A boy is angered because the sun burned his mantle. He makes a snare and catches the sun and delays him so that everything is burning up. A mouse finally gnaws the snare in two.--American Indian: *Thompson Tales 290 n. 65. Cf. Luomala.

A728.2. A728.2. Sun-snarer: fast sun. The sun goes too fast to dry clothing. The hero snares the sun’s legs with a rope as he is climbing up from the underworld. He releases the sun upon the promise to go more slowly.--Polynesian: *Dixon 44ff. n. 26; Society Is., Samoan: ibid. 46; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 10, 227, 230; Marquesas: Handy 103. Cf. Luomala.

A728.3. A728.3. Sun visits earth in form of black bull, caught by man, thus causing night. India: Thompson-Balys.

A728.4. A728.4. Sun and moon carried through sky by animals. Speed depends upon hour and season.--S. Am. Indian (Bacairi): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 348.

A731. A731. Sun as king of sky and earth. India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman; Africa: Bouveignes 14.

A731.1. A731.1. Sun sits on throne. Jewish: Neuman.

A731.2. A731.2. Crown of the sun. Jewish: Neuman.

A732. A732. The sun‘s animals.

A732.1. A732.1. Cattle and sheep of the sun. 350 of each (= days and nights of the lunar year).--Greek: Fox 242.

A732.2. A732.2. Horse of the sun.

A732.2.1. A732.2.1. Slave shoots arrow into leg of sun’s horse. India: Thompson-Balys.

A733. A733. Heat and light of the sun.

A733.1. A733.1. Why sunlight is so much stronger than moonlight. Jewish: Neuman.

A733.2. A733.2. Mortal cannot look at sun since God‘s name is engraved on it. Jewish: Neuman.

A733.3. A733.3. Two faces of the sun: fire, directed toward earth; hail, directed toward heaven. Jewish: Neuman.

A733.4. A733.4. Beams of light are snares with which sun is tied to earth. Cf. A728.--Maori: Clark 46.

A733.5. A733.5. Sun dries out earth with its heat. Jewish: Neuman.

A734. A734. Sun hides.

A734.1. A734.1. Sun hides in cave. India: Thompson-Balys.

A735. A735. Pursuit of sun by moon. Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 89; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 274 n. 9.--Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 189; African: Frobenius Atlantis XII 181, (Fang): Einstein 34, Trilles 173, (Dahomй): Einstein 30.

A735.1. A735.1. Moon tied to sun so that when sun sinks moon is dragged up to light earth. Maori: Clark 46.

A735.2. A735.2. Sun and moon pursued by dark planet in black chariot. India: Thompson-Balys.

A736. A736. Sun as human being.

A736.1. A736.1. Sun and moon as man and woman. India: Thompson-Balys; Macobi: Alexander Lat. Am 319; Africa: Meinhof 200.

A736.1.1. A736.1.1. Sun sister and moon brother. Brother visits sister at night. She marks him to identify him. He flees and she follows with flaming brand. She is sun and he the moon.--*Rank Das Inzestmotiv 446ff.; Frazer Ovid III 31.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 196; Lappish: Friis Lappisk Mythologi 79; German: Hdwb. d. deutschen Aberglaubens I 642, II 1511; India: Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 10 No. 3.--Eskimo: *Thompson Tales 273 note 6; S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366, (Manasi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 393, (Witoto, Shipaya, Canelo, Warrau, Arawak): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (3) 54; African (Baluga): Einstein 176.

A736.1.2. A736.1.2. Sun-brother and moon-sister. Icel.: De la Saussaye 344; India: *Thompson-Balys.--N. A. Indian (Montagnais and Menominee): Alexander N. Am. 25.

A736.1.3. A736.1.3. Sun and moon as lovers. (Cf. A736.1.1.).--India: Thompson-Balys.--S. Am. Indian (Amazon): Alexander Lat. Am. 306, (Caviсa, Tumupasa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 448; African (Ekoi): Talbot 359.

A736.1.4. A736.1.4. Sun and moon married. *Fb. “sol” III 457b.--Lettish: Gray 321; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 133, Eberhard FFC CXX 113.--African: Werner African 232, (Fang): Trilles 171f.; Hatt Asiatic Influences 74f.--Tlingit: Alexander N. Am. 257; S. Am. Indian (Fuegian): Alexander Lat. Am. 342, (Jivaro): Stewart-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 627, Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 129, (Aymara): Tschopik BBAE CXLIII (2) 571, (Chibcha): Kroeber ibid. 908.

A736.1.4.1. A736.1.4.1. Sun and moon quarrel when sun eats up all their children but two. India: Thompson-Balys. Cf. Africa: Meinhof 200.

A736. A736. Moon kills sun’s children. Africa (Fang): Milligan Jungle 248.

A736.1.4.2. A736.1.4.2. Moon, sun are sister and brother, wife and husband. India: Thompson-Balys. Cf. A736.1.2.

A736.1.4.3. A736.1.4.3. Creator separates sun and moon to prevent birth of more stars. India: Thompson-Balys.

A736.2. A736.2. Sun as woman. S. Am. Indian (Mocovн): Mйtraux MAFLS XXXX 20.

A736.3. A736.3. Sun and moon as brothers. N. Am. Indian (Klikitat): Jacobs Northwest Sahaptin Texts 16; S. Am. Indian (Guarani): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93, (Chiriguano): Mйtraux ibid. 484; (Guaporй River): Lйvi-Strauss ibid. 379.

A736.3.1. A736.3.1. Sun and moon as twin brothers. S. Am. Indian (Mataco, Chamacoco): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366, (Amuesa): *Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 131.

A736.3.2. A736.3.2. Sun and moon brothers: sun clever, moon stupid. S. Am. Indian (Mataco, Chamacoco): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366, (Timbira, Sherente, Caingang, Mashachali): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (1) 397, 515.

A736.3.3. A736.3.3. Sun and his brother rise and set alternately. India: Thompson-Balys.

A736.4. A736.4. Sun and moon as sisters, daughters of sky-god. India: Thompson-Balys.

A736.5. A736.5. Children of the sun. Tonga: Gifford 115.

A736.5.1. A736.5.1. Son of sun so hot no one can hold it. S. Am. Indian (Caviсa, Tumupasa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 448.

A736.5.2. A736.5.2. Children from union with the sun turn into bit of blood in daytime as soon as they are exposed to sun; take human form (shape) again at sunset.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A736.6. A736.6. Sun and moon as friends. India: Thompson-Balys.

A736.7. A736.7. Sun‘s affection for human girl rouses moon’s jealousy. India: Thompson-Balys.

A736.7.1. A736.7.1. Sun marries woman. Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 35.

A736.8. A736.8. Original moon changed into sun and sun into moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

A736.9. A736.9. Sun cursed by moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

A736.10. A736.10. Human son of sun. Tonga: Gifford 114.

A736.11. A736.11. Contest between sun and moon. Chinese: Eberhard 219.

A737. A737. Causes of eclipses (sun or moon). *Hdwb. d. deutschen Aberglaubens II 1511; Penzer II 81f.--Estonian: Loortis Grundzьge I 153, 410ff.; Icel.: De la Saussaye 344; Jewish: Neuman; Korean: Zong in-Sob 11 No. 4; Hindu: Keith 137, 151, 192, 232f.; India: *Thompson-Balys.--Montagnais: Alexander N. Am. 25; Mataguaya (Pampean): Alexander Lat. Am. 319.

A737.0.1. A737.0.1. Origin of eclipse of moon. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A737.1. A737.1. Eclipse caused by monster devouring sun or moon. *Fb “solulv”; *Encyc. Religion and Ethics I 492a.; Gaster Oldest Stories 234; Gaster Thespis 206.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 279; Finnish: Kalevala rune 47; Jewish: Neuman; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 424; Jugo-Slav: Mбchal Slavic Myth 229; Armenian: Ananikian 48.--Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 736; India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: Wilken Indische Gids (1885) I 240; Tahiti: Henry 227; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 123, 158, 165, (Mocovн): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 20, (Manao): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 712, (Guarani, Manasн, Guarayъ, Chiriguano): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93, 393, 483, (Guayaki): Mйtraux-Baldus BBAE CXLIII (1) 444; (Toba, Abipуn, Mocovi, Mataco, Vilela): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366, (Eastern Brazil): Lowie ibid. 434 (Tucuna): Nimuendajъ BBAE CXLIII (3) 724.

A737.2. A737.2. Cause of eclipses: mother‘s curse laid upon her third son. India: Thompson-Balys.

A737.3. A737.3. Toad causes eclipses of the sun. India: Thompson-Balys.

A737.4. A737.4. Ghosts of the sun’s children return to cause eclipse. India: Thompson-Balys.

A737.5. A737.5. Moon‘s eclipse caused by moon’s interfering between attacker and person attacked. India: Thompson-Balys.

A737.6. A737.6. Eclipses caused by animal hiding sun behind his body. S. Am. Indian (Bacairi): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 348, (Lule): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366.

A737.7. A737.7. Eclipses from quarrels between moon and sun. S. Am. Indian (Botocudo): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 540.

A737.8. A737.8. Eclipses when sun smears his face on account of mourning. S. Am. Indian (Caviсa, Tumupasa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 448.

A737.8.1. A737.8.1. Sun hides face in shame: eclipse. Africa: Meinhof 207.

A737.9. A737.9. Eclipse as punishment by deity. Jewish: Neuman.

A737.10. A737.10. Eclipses because sun cannot endure tragic happenings of history. Jewish: Neuman.

A737.11. A737.11. Partial eclipses because of ailments of sun or moon. S. Am. Indian (Mojo): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 424.

A738. A738. Attributes of sun.

A738.1. A738.1. Physical attributes.

A738.1.1. A738.1.1. Sun and moon are balls of feathers. S. Am. Indian (Bacairi): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 347f., (Paressi): Mйtraux ibid. 360.

A738.1.2. A738.1.2. Sun a fat woman walking across sky. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 19.

A738.2. A738.2. Mental powers and disposition of sun.

A738.2.1. A738.2.1. Religious sun and moon. Jewish: Neuman.

A738.2.2. A738.2.2. Sun endowed with wisdom and passion. Jewish: Neuman.

A738.3. A738.3. Sun‘s healing powers. Jewish: Neuman.

A738.4. A738.4. Sun’s power over plants. Jewish: Neuman.

A739. A739. Nature and condition of the sun--miscellaneous.

A739.1. A739.1. Sun at the edge of the sky. Chinese: Graham.

A739.2. A739.2. War with the sun. India: Thompson-Balys.

A739.3. A739.3. Each of sun brothers works for a month and plays for the other eleven; were they to work all together, the world would be burned up by the heat.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A739.4. A739.4. Reason for variations in seasonal heat of sun. India: Thompson-Balys.

A739.5. A739.5. Why the sun is red. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Kamerun): Mansfield 235.

A739.6. A739.6. Sun sets and refuses to rise: must be coaxed back from underworld. India: Thompson-Balys.

A739.7. A739.7. Sun‘s all-seeing eye. Greek: Grote I 313.

A739.8. A739.8. Sun as caretaker of the poor. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 165.

A739.9. A739.9. Sun has weapons of iron to repel enemies. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 19.


A740--A759. THE MOON

A740. A740. Creation of the moon. (Cf. A710 to A719, where many of the motifs refer to the moon).--*Rьhle Sonne und Mond im primitiven Mythus (Tьbingen, 1925); *Roheim Mondmythologie und Mondreligion (Leipzig, 1927); Nielsen Die altarabische Mondreligion (Strassburg, 1904); Harley Moon Lore (London, 1885); Wolf Der Mond im deutschen Volksglauben (Bьhl, Baden, 1929).--Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Babylonian: Spence 79.--Indonesian: Dixon 177; Australian: ibid. 276ff.; Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 97 No. 18; Hopi: Alexander N. Am. 205; Quileute: Farrand JAFL XXXII 254ff.; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 205; Inca: Alexander Lat. Am. 240.

A741. A741. Moon from object (person) thrown into sky. Admiralty Is.: Dixon 112; Cook Group: ibid. 37; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 215.

A741.1. A741.1. Moon is water slung into sky. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 421.

A741.2. A741.2. Chest of sacrificed youth becomes the moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

A741.3. A741.3. Moon as grinder which brings fire out of the sun. India: Thompson-Balys.

A742. A742. Moon made from shining fragments. A cap is opened and shining things fall out. Children pick them up and put them into a box. At the end of the month the box is full. The full moon shines when all the fragments are gathered together.--Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 349.

A743. A743. Moon from transformed object.

A743.1. A743.1. Origin of moon from shell. Nauru (Pleasant Is.), Micronesia: Dixon 250.

A744. A744. Heavenly smith is hammering on the moon. Africa (Sudanese): Frobenius Atlantis VII 18f.

A745. A745. Family of the moon.

A745.1. A745.1. Moon born from first couple. Gilbert Is. (Micronesia): Dixon 254.

A745.2. A745.2. Mother of the moon: the most distant star in the sky. India: Thompson-Balys.

A745.3. A745.3. Moon younger brother of the sun. India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 158, 165.

A747. A747. Person transformed to moon. India: *Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 165, (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684, (Warrau): Kirchoff ibid. 879, (Chibcha): Kroeber BBAE CXLIII (2) 908; Norse: Boberg.

A750. A750. Nature and condition of the moon. Many motifs in A720 to A739 refer to the moon and are not here repeated.

A751. A751. Man in the moon. A man is said to be seen in the moon. Various explanations are given as to how he came to be there.--*Dh I 134; *Volksmann Am Urquell V 285, VI 75, 126, 199; *Cornelissen Ons Volksleven VI 168ff., 189ff.; *Kцhler-Bolte III 597; *Robinson Complete Works of Geoffrey Chaucer (Boston 1933) 929; *Brown English Lyrics of the Thirteenth Century (Oxford 1932) 234ff.; *Hench JAFL XLVIII 384; *G. de Raille RTP III 129ff.; Basset RTP XXIII 220 and references to earlier volumes.--Breton: *Sйbillot Incidents s. v. “homme”; Estonian: *Aarne FFC XXV 140 No. 7, Loorits Grundzьge I 427f.; Livonian: *Loorits FFC LXVI 81 No. 8; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 423; Armenian: Ananikian 52; Flemish: *De Meyer FFC XXXVII 82 No. 8; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 37, 214 No. 163, 221, 250.--Maori: Dixon 88; N. A. Indian (general): *Thompson Tales 291 n. 69, (Haida, Tlingit, Kwakiutl): Alexander N. Am. 257, (Loucheux): Barbeau JAFL XXVIII 255; Hottentot: Bleek 72 No. 33: Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Friends 130 No. 17.

A751.1. A751.1. Man in moon is person thrown or sent there as punishment. *Dh I 254ff.; *ibid. II 242 (Judas); Kцhler-Bolte I 114 (Judas), III 597; *Fb “ne” II 659b.; Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 275ff., (1928) 171; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3907; Rumanian: Schullerus FFC LXXVIII 84 No. 4; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 37f. No. 25; Madison County Virginia (U.S.A.): Hench JAFL XLVIII 384.--Isthmian tribes (Panama): Alexander Lat. Am. 192 (punishment for incest); Yuracare (West Brazil): Alexander ibid. 314.

A751.1.1. A751.1.1. Man in moon has punishment for burning brush on Sunday. **Hench The Man in the Moon and his Sticks (SFQ XIV 169).--North Carolina: Brown Collection I 631.

A751.1.2. A751.1.2. Man in moon is put there as punishment for cursing God. U.S.: Baughman.

A751.1.3. A751.1.3. Man in moon as punishment for disdainful sacrifice (Cain). Emerson “Medieval Legends of Cain” PMLA XXI 840ff.

A751.1.4. A751.1.4. Man in moon banished there for stealing bundle of thorns. Emerson PMLA XXI 840ff.

A751.2. A751.2. Man in the moon a rabbit (hare, other animal). *Werhan Die Sage 65; Fb “ne” II 659b.--Hindu- Keith 137, Penzer I 109 n. 1, II 82, V 101 n. 2, IX 143, Jataka Index s. v. “moon”, Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 675, 1079; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Anesaki 339.--Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 57, 89; S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503 (jaguar).

A751.3. A751.3. Frog in moon. S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 123.

A751.3.1. A751.3.1. Man in moon a frog which has jumped into person’s face and remains there. *Kцhler-Bolte I 473ff.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 291 n. 69.

A751.4. A751.4. Man in the moon: tarring of the moon. Man sets out to tar the moon and remains with his tar-bucket in the moon.--Finnish: *Aarne FFC VIII 4 No. 8; XXXIII 51 No. 8; Livonian: *Loorits FFC LXVI 81 No. 7; Estonian: *Aarne FFC XXV 140 No. 6.

A751.5. A751.5. Man in the moon from scratches or paint. S. Am. Indian (Caviсa, Tumupasa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 448, (Chamacoco): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366, (Guarani): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93, (Tembй): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 140, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 142f., (Peru): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 123.

A751.5.1. A751.5.1. Man in the moon: moon‘s face scratched by hare in retaliation for injury to hare. (Cf. A2216.3.)--Hottentot: Bleek 72 No. 33.

A751.5.2. A751.5.2. Man in the moon: dung (ashes) on moon’s face smeared there by sun. India: Thompson-Balys.

A751.5.2.1. A751.5.2.1. Moon wants to marry his sister the sun. She is angered and throws hot ashes on his face.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A751.5.3. A751.5.3. Mark of her mother‘s hand to be seen on moon’s shoulder. India: Thompson-Balys.

A751.5.4. A751.5.4. Mark of tiger‘s paw on moon. India. Thompson-Balys.

A751.5.5. A751.5.5. Moon spots are tattoo marks. India: Thompson-Balys.

A751.6. A751.6. Cotton tree and nettles on moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

A751.6.1. A751.6.1. Spots on moon a banyan tree planted there by creator to diminish its light. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

A751.7. A751.7. Two children in moon with yoke and bucket. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 184, Boberg.

A751.8. A751.8. Woman in the moon. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 242, Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/1010).

A751.8.1. A751.8.1. Man in the moon is an old woman busy with her spindle. India: Thompson-Balys.

A751.8.2. A751.8.2. Man in moon is a woman threshing corn with a dog by her side. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

A751.8.3. A751.8.3. Goddess in moon with calabash at her side. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 221.

A751.8.4. A751.8.4. Woman in moon’s oven seen on clear nights. Samoa: Clark 120.

A751.8.5. A751.8.5. Girl with tree carried to moon and is seen there. Samoa: Clark 119.

A751.8.6. A751.8.6. Goddess in moon beating tapa beneath tree. Tonga: Gifford 181.

A751.9. A751.9. Miscellaneous images on moon.

A751.9.1. A751.9.1. Rows of palm trees (black spots) on the moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

A751.9.2. A751.9.2. Bag in the moon. Samoa: Clark 89.

A751.9.3. A751.9.3. Giant in moon. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 736.

A751.10. A751.10. Particular individual is man in the moon.

A751.10.1. A751.10.1. Joshua as man in the moon. Jewish: Neuman.

A751.10.2. A751.10.2. Jacob as man in the moon. Jewish: Neuman.

A751.11. A751.11. Other marks on the moon. India: Thompson-Balys; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 192.

A753. A753. Moon as a person.

A753.1. A753.1. Moon as wooer. The moon is enamored of a mortal.--Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 61 n. 2 (Endymion); Estonian: Loorits Grundzьge I 427.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 273 n. 6a.

A753.1.1. A753.1.1. Moon abducts woman. Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XVI 29, (Cape York): Rasmussen III 50.

A753.1.2. A753.1.2. Moon (man) cohabits with woman. Maori: Beckwith Myth 74; Eskimo (Greenland): Holm 47; S. Am. Indian (Cubeo): Goldman BBAE CXLIII (3) 798.

A753.1.3. A753.1.3. Moon (goddess, woman) cohabits with mortal man. Maori: Beckwith Myth 244.

A753.1.4. A753.1.4. Moon married to mortal woman. India: Thompson-Balys (A753.2); Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XVI 29ff., (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 198, (Greenland): Rasmussen III 50, 52, Rink 441, Holm 47.

A753.1.4.1. A753.1.4.1. Moon married to son of sky-god. India: Thompson-Balys.

A753.1.4.2. A753.1.4.2. Moon is wife to all twelve brothers of the sun and they have her a month at a time because she ate up her sisters. India: Thompson-Balys.

A753.1.5. A753.1.5. Moon and mortal have child. Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 199, (Greenland): Holm 47.

A753.2. A753.2. Moon has house. Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XVI 30, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 598, (Greenland): Rasmussen I 81, 83, II 25, 33, III 51, 170, Rink 442, Holm 73, 75, 80.

A753.3. A753.3. Moon as person--miscellaneous.

A753.3.1. A753.3.1. Moon deceives sun. India: Thompson-Balys.

A753.3.2. A753.3.2. Moon steals from a garden. India: Thompson-Balys.

A753.3.3. A753.3.3. During day moon stays with his mother under the earth. S. Am. Indian (Ipurina): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 19.

A753.3.4. A753.3.4. Moon endowed with wisdom and passion. Jewish: Neuman.

A754. A754. Moon kept in box. (Cf. A755.1).--French Canadian: Barbeau JAFL XXIX 11.--N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 282 n. 45; German New Guinea: Dixon 112.--Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 421; Chinese: Graham.

A754.1. A754.1. Moon buried in pit. India: Thompson-Balys.

A754.1.1. A754.1.1. Moon falls into pit but is rescued by man. S. Am. Indian (Guayaki): Mйtraux-Baldus BBAE CXLIII (1) 444.

A755. A755. Causes of moon‘s phases. Irish: Beal XXI 323; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 183; Baltic: (Lithuanian and Lettish): Gray 320; Estonian: Loorits Grundzьge I 422f.; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 34 No 4; Hindu: Oldenberg Religion des Veda 171; Yakuts: Holmberg Siberian 424; India: *Thompson-Balys.--Maori: Dixon 88.--African: Werner African 227f. (Ekoi): Talbot 349, (Fang): Trilles 172.

A755.1. A755.1. Moon’s phases caused by its being put in box. (Cf.A754). When it is closed up in the box, it is dark; when taken out of the box, light.--Ekoi: Talbot 344.

A755.2. A755.2. Moon‘s phases caused by watcher’s death. Moon is hung in tree and is tended by four men. As one dies it loses a quarter. Later it is united in the lower world.--BP III 288ff. (Gr. No. 175).--Cf. Ekoi: Talbot 344.

A755.3. A755.3. Moon‘s waning caused by her sickness. Belden MLN XX 205; Penzer VI 119 n. 1.--Maori: Clark 182; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 19.

A755.3.1. A755.3.1. Sacrifice made to free moon from sickness and allow waxing. India: Thompson-Balys.

A755.4. A755.4. Moon cut in two by sun: hence waxes and wanes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A755.4.1. A755.4.1. Moon cut in half. India: Thompson-Balys.

A755.4.2. A755.4.2. Moon stolen and divided into quarters. German: Grimm No. 175.

A755.4.3. A755.4.3. Moon’s phases caused by animals gnawing at edge. S. Am. Indian (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 360.

A755.5. A755.5. Moon‘s phases caused by feeding or starving. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 19, (Ipurina): Mйtraux ibid. 20.

A755.6. A755.6. Moon’s phases as punishment for moon‘s misdoing. Jewish: Neuman.

A755.7. A755.7. Moon’s waning caused by menstrual period. India: Thompson-Balys.

A756. A756. Moon as sun‘s representative at night. Egyptian: Mьller 84.

A757. A757. Moon-boat. Lappish: Friis Lappisk Mythologi 79.

A757.1. A757.1. Moon-chariot. Icel.: Boberg.

A758. A758. Theft of moon. Moon is kept by a monster. It is stolen and brought to earth.--*BP III 288f. Cf. Thompson Tales 281 n. 42; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 483.--Finnish: Kalevala runes 47, 49.

A759. A759. Condition and nature of the moon--miscellaneous. For eclipse of the moon see A737, where both eclipses of the sun and moon are handled.

A759.1. A759.1. Moon has wooden weapons, therefore vulnerable. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 19.

A759.2. A759.2. Sun and moon as divine hero’s wedding presents. India: Thompson-Balys.

A759.3. A759.3. Why the moon is pale. India: Thompson-Balys.

A759.4. A759.4. Moon is hare covered with silver, which lives in crystal house with fifteen windows. It rests on a chariot and travels around Mount Meru.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A759.5. A759.5. Formerly seven moons. India: Thompson-Balys.

A759.6. A759.6. Moon under direct control of deity. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 854.

A759.7. A759.7. Planet Mars lies on moon to impart warmth to her lest she freeze the earth. (Cf. A780). Jewish: Neuman.


A760--A789. THE STARS

Note: the question of implicit meanings assumed by the proponents of “astralmythology” is not discussed here; only explicit statements in original sources are considered.

A760. A760. Creation and condition of the stars. *Normann Mythen der Sterne (Gotha 1925) 75ff.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 325--26; Irish myth: Cross; Babylonian: Spence 79; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.--Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 205; Eskimo (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 266; Maori: Clark 16; S. Am. Indian (Jivaro): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 148.

A760.1. A760.1. Stars created by creator. Jewish: Neuman.

A760.2. A760.2. Star from union of girl with peacock. India: Thompson-Balys.

A761. A761. Ascent to stars. People or animals ascend to the sky and become stars.--*Dh I 289.--Estonian: Loorits Grundzьge I 534f.; India: *Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 14 No. 6; Japanese: Ikeda.--Hawaii: Henry 345; Tonga: Gifford 20; Maori: Clark 50; Australian: Dixon 299; Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 174; S. Am. Indian (Jivaro): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 129, 140f., Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 627, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 34, (Yuracari): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 144, (Eastern Brazil): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (1) 434, (Tapirape): Wagley-Galvao BBAE CXLIII (3) 178, (Amyara): Tschopik BBAE CXLIII (2) 571; Ekoi: Talbot 355.

A761.1. A761.1. River taken to sky becomes star. Eridanos.--Fox 244.

A761.2. A761.2. Chariot from heaven takes couple to live with sages in the Great Bear. India: Thompson-Balys.

A761.3. A761.3. Stars as transformed lovers. India: Thompson-Balys.

A761.4. A761.4. Stars as fires in the hearths of ghosts. India: Thompson-Balys.

A761.5. A761.5. Stars are men peering through holes in sky. Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XVI 30.

A761.6. A761.6. Stars thought of as living beings. S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 879.

A762. A762. Star descends as human being. Persian: Carnoy 269; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 56.

A762.1. A762.1. Star-husband. Star takes mortal maiden as wife.--**Thompson “The Star-husband Tale,” Studia Septentrionalia IV (Oslo 1953) 93--163; N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 330 n. 193, Alexander N. Am. 94, Hatt Asiatic Influences. Cf. Estonian: Loorits Grundzьge I 538f.

A762.2. A762.2. Mortal marries star-girl. Chinese: Graham; African (Lamba): Doke Lamba Folk-Lore 14 No. 11; S. Am. Indian (Camacan): Mйtraux-Nimuendajъ BBAE CXLIII (1) 552, (Chaco): Mйtraux ibid. 369, (Sherente): Louis ibid. 516, (Mataco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 48, (Carajб): Mйtraux ibid. 49, (Chamacoco): ibid. 48, (Apinaye, Canella): ibid. 48.

A763. A763. Stars from objects thrown into sky. Germanic: Herrmann Nordische Mythologie 365, 440; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 328; India: Thompson-Balys; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 431.--African: Frobenius Atlantis I 85.--Fox: Jones PAES I 73.

A763.1. A763.1. Stars from arrows shot at sky. India: Thompson-Balys.

A763.2. A763.2. Stars hung by god in heavens to decorate it. India: Thompson-Balys.

A764. A764. Stars as pieces of the moon. *BP I 232; Kцhler-Bolte I 484, 505; Jewish: Neuman.

A764.1. A764.1. Stars as children of the moon. Cook Zeus I 523 n. 6.--Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: Kruyt Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde van Nederlandsch-Indiл LXXIX 470; Philippines: Beckwith Myth 537; S. Am. Indian (Amyara): Tschopik BBAE CXLIII (2) 571.

A764.1.1. A764.1.1. Stars as children of sun eaten by their father. Hence no stars in the day.--Frazer Ovid III 205; Hatt Asiatic Influences 74f.--India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Fang): Trilles 172.

A764.1.2. A764.1.2. Sun eats all his own children except morning star, while moon keeps all her children in hiding. India: Thompson-Balys.

A764.1.3. A764.1.3. Stars as children of sun and moon. Africa (Fang): Trilles 171, 174.

A764.2. A764.2. Stars as drops of the moon‘s blood. India: Thompson-Balys.

A764.3. A764.3. Most brilliant stars children of the sun; others are children of the moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

A764.4. A764.4. Stars are transformed spittle of the moon. India: Thompson-Balys.

A765. A765. Naming the stars. The “Great Star” names the stars.--Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 79.

A766. A766. Origin of constellations. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 176.--Quileute: Farrand JAFL XXXII 266; Ojibwa: Carson JAFL XXX 493; S. Am. Indian (Amazon): Alexander Lat. Am. 288, (Mojo): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 424, (Bacairi): Lйvi-Strauss ibid. 348.--African: Werner African 229.--For the origin of particular constellations see A770--A779.

A767. A767. Stars sing together. Hebrew: Job 38:7; Jewish: Neuman; Pawnee: Alexander N. Am. 110.

A769. A769. Creation of the stars--miscellaneous.

A769.1. A769.1. Stars are trees growing on the clouds. India: Thompson-Balys.

A769.2. A769.2. Stars rebel against God. Jewish: Neuman.

A769.3. A769.3. Stars supervised by angels. Jewish: Neuman.

A769.4. A769.4. Speaking stars. Jewish: Neuman.

A769.5. A769.5. Sun gives light to stars. S. Am. Indian (Viracocha): Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 550.

A770. A770. Origin of particular stars. **Normann Mythen der Sterne (Gotha 1925); *Frazer Ovid V 7 s.v. “constellations”.--Chinese: Werner 189.

A771. A771. Origin of the Great Bear (Ursa Major). *Andree Ethnographische Parallelen (1878) 104; *Handwb. d. Aberglaubens IX Nachtrдge 681f.; *Basset RTP XXVIII 112 with references to earlier volumes.--Danish: Kristensen Danske Sagn II (1893) 276; Greek: Fox 21 (Kallisto), 251; Jewish: Neuman; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 34 No. 5; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 81 Nos. 10, 11; Egyptian: Mьller 59; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 426; Hindu: Keith 102; Chinese: Graham; Korean: Zong in-Sob 12 No. 5.--N. A. Indian (Eskimo, Iroquois, Assiniboine, Blackfoot, Mandan, Sioux): Alexander N. Am. 9, 26, 96, *278 n. 14; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 93.

A771.1. A771.1. Origin of the Southern Cross. Analogous legends in the southern hemisphere with those of Ursa Major in the northern.--Andree Ethnographische Parallelen (1878) 113.--Macobi (Pampean): Alexander Lat. Am. 319.

A772. A772. Origin of Orion. Andree Ethnographische Parallelen (1878) 108; *RTP XXI 102 and references to earlier volumes; *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachtrдge 684f.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 177; Greek: Fox 249f.; Egyptian: Mьller 57; India: *Thompson-Balys.--Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 429; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 81 No. 12.--S. A. Indian (Tarahumare and Tepehuane): Alexander N. Am. 176; (Amazon) Alexander Lat. Am. 307; N. American Indian (California): Gayton and Newman 67; Africa (Tonga): Gifford 100.

A773. A773. Origin of the Pleiades. *Andree Ethnographische Parallelen (1878) 106; Frazer Ovid III 197 n. 4; *Basset RTP XXIII 396 and references to earlier volumes; *Dh II 83; Frazer Golden Bough VII 307ff.; *Fb “syvstjжrne”; *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX N. 687f.--Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 29; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 336, 417, 427, 430.--India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 56.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 291 n. 71; (Blackfoot) Alexander N. Am. 96; (California) Gayton and Newman 65;--S. A. Indian (Tarahumare and Tepehuane): Alexander N. Am. 176; (Chaco, Pampean): Alexander Lat. Am. 323; (Amazon) ibid. 306.--Maori: Clark 106, 178.--Eskimo (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 173.--Africa: Werner African 229.

A773.1. A773.1. Pleiades a princess and six suitors among whom she could not choose. *Kцhler-Bolte I 439f.

A773.2. A773.2. Pleiades six repudiated wives. They have been cast out for apparent infidelity.--Hindu: Keith 140.

A773.3. A773.3. Pleiades girls who died of grief. Greek: Fox 248.

A773.4. A773.4. Pleiades seven illegitimate children. *Fb “pige” II 816b.

A773.5. A773.5. Pleiades from hunters marooned in sky after felling world-tree. S. Am. Indian (Mataco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 25, BBAE CXLIII (1) 366.

A773.6. A773.6. Pleiades as swarm of bees. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 483.

A773.7. A773.7. Two stars from Great Bear constellation transferred to Pleiades. Jewish: Neuman.

A774. A774. Origin of the North Star. (Cf. A702.3.)--*Basset RTP XXII 355 and references to earlier volumes.--Hindu: Keith 165.

A775. A775. Origin of Hyades. Greek: Fox 46, 248ff., Frazer Apollodorus I 321 n. 5; African: Werner African 229; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 365, MAFLS XL 21.

A776. A776. Origin of constellation Lyra. Greek (Orpheus’s lyre).

A776.1. A776.1. Origin of Vega (Alpha Lyrae). Maori: Beckwith Myth 101; Korean: Zong in-Sob No. 6.

A777. A777. Origin of constellation Scorpio. Maori: Clark 56; Cook Is.: Clark 81, 83; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 483, (Toba, Vilela): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 21f.

A778. A778. Origin of the Milky Way. *Andree Ethnographische Parallelen (1878) 109; *Basset RTP XXII 167 and references to earlier volumes; *Fb “mжlkevej II 642.--Welsh: MacCulloch Celtic 100; Armenian: Ananikian 37; Bulgarian: ibid. 49.--Ekoi: Talbot 366; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 74; S. Am. Indian (Yuracari): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503f.

A778.0.1. A778.0.1. Origin of Magellanic Clouds. Tonga: Gifford 105, 109; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 21f., 47, (Chiriguano): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 483.

A778.1. A778.1. Milky Way a hunting party. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 436.--Tehuelche (Pategonia): Alexander Lat. Am. 336.

A778.1.1. A778.1.1. Milky Way is the Wild Hunt. German: Brunk Zs. f. Vksk. XIII 184; Russian: Ralston Songs of the Russian People 109; Hungarian: Spolyi Zs. f. deutsche Myth. II 161; Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 82; Greek-Latin: Cook Zeus II 37.

A778.2. A778.2. Milky Way as a road. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 20, Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 365.

A778.2.1. A778.2.1. Milky Way as path of souls (demons). Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 82.--Mandan, Pawnee: Alexander N. Am. 96, 117; S. Am. Indian (Amazon): Alexander Lat. Am. 307, (Chaco, Pampean): ibid. 323.

A778.3. A778.3. Milky Way as a river. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 435; Japanese: Ikeda.--Blackfoot: De Josselyn de Jong Blackfoot Texts 29ff.

A778.4. A778.4. Milky Way as a stitched seam in the sky. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 336, 434.

A778.5. A778.5. Milky Way as milk from breast of a woman. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 414.

A778.6. A778.6. Milky Way as the sperma of the gods. Eisler Weltenmantel und Himmelszelt 482.

A778.7. A778.7. Milky Way as path of a bird of passage. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 434; S. Am. Indian (Paс): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93, (Chiriguano): Mйtraux ibid. 483.

A778.8. A778.8. Milky Way is smoke (ashes). African: Werner African 231; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 21, (Mocovi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 365.

A778.9. A778.9. Milky Way as race track. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 66.

A778.10. A778.10. Abyss at end of Milky Way. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 20f.

A779. A779. Origin of stars--miscellaneous. Jewish: Neuman; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 22; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 21f.

A779.1. A779.1. Origin of Coal Sack. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 22, 47.

A779.2. A779.2. Origin of constellation Aquila. Gaster Thespis 293.

A779.3. A779.3. Origin of constellation Argo. Greek: Grote I 221.

A780. A780. The planets (comets, etc.).--*Normann Mythen der Sterne (Gotha 1925).--Chinese: Graham.

A780.1. A780.1. Planets supervised by angels. Jewish: Neuman.

A781. A781. Origin of Venus (planet). *RTP XVII 227 and references to earlier volumes.--Estonian: Loorits Grundzьge I 434f., 535--540; India: Thompson-Balys; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 432.--Eskimo: Alexander N. Am. 9; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 365, (Viracocha): Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 550; Africa (Fang): Trilles 136.

A781.1. A781.1. Origin of Morning Star. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 466; Chinese: Graham.--Maori: Clark 50; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 23, (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.

A781.2. A781.2. Origin of Evening Star. Greek: Fox 247; Maori: Clark 50; Tonga: Gifford 110.

A782. A782. Origin of Jupiter (planet). Africa: Werner African 229; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 19.

A786. A786. Origin of comets. Frazer Ovid III 198 n. 4.--Tahiti: Henry 227; S. Am. Indian (Viracocha): Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 551.

A787. A787. Relation of the planets to human life. Irish myth: Cross.

A788. A788. Origin of meteors. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 24, (Viracocha): Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 551.

A788.1. A788.1. Falling stars as pieces of the moon. S. Am. Indian (Guayaki): Mйtraux-Baldus BBAE CXLIII (1) 444.

A788.2. A788.2. Shooting star one that has come down to graze. India: Thompson-Balys.

A788.3. A788.3. Shooting stars spirits coming down to earth to make woman pregnant. India: Thompson-Balys.

A788.4. A788.4. Shooting stars are star-dung. India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 624.

A788.5. A788.5. Shooting stars are unfaithful wives. Africa (Fang): Trilles 174.

A790. A790. The heavenly lights.

A790.1. A790.1. Heavenly lights originate from firmament. Jewish: Neuman.

A791. A791. Origin of the Rainbow. *Wьnsche “Der Regenbogen in den Mythen und Sagen der Vцlker” Nord und Sьd LXXXII (1898) 70--82; *RTP XXIII 221 and references to earlier volumes.--Irish myth: Cross; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 30; India: Thompson-Balys.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 234; S. Am. Indian (Amuesha): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 149, (Botocudo): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 540, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 38; Zulu: Callaway 293, 295.

A791.1. A791.1. Rainbow as bow of deity. Gaster Thespis 261 n. 21; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 443f.

A791.2. A791.2. Rainbow as snake. African: Werner African 234; S. Am. Indian (Morй): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 406, (Ashluslay): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 38, (Vilela): ibid. 40.

A791.3. A791.3. Rainbow made as bridge by the gods. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 329.

A791.4. A791.4. Rainbow has three colors. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 329.

A791.5. A791.5. Rainbow is a transformed king; the lesser rainbow is the king’s wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

A791.6. A791.6. Rainbow from gods‘ emptying their drinking cups. India: Thompson-Balys.

A791.7. A791.7. Rainbow is horse of rain-god. India: Thompson-Balys.

A791.8. A791.8. Rainbow comes out of an anthill. India: Thompson-Balys.

A791.8.1. A791.8.1. Rainbow lives in a hole. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 38.

A791.9. A791.9. Origin of rainbow: transformed butterflies (souls of lovers). Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 266.

A791.10. A791.10. Rainbow as covenant between creator and men. Jewish: Neuman.

A795. A795. Origin of the Northern Lights (Aurora Borealis). Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 140 No. 8; Finnish: Aarne VIII 4 No. 9; Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 81, 287.--Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 153, (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 266.

A796. A796. Origin of the signs of the zodiac. Jewish: Neuman.

A797. A797. Origin of colors at sunrise and sunset. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (T-G. 3/191).


A800.--A899. The earth.

A800. A800. Creation of the earth. *H. F. Feilberg Skabelses og Syndflodssagn (1915); A. Kьhn Berichte ьber den Weltanfang bei den Indochinesen und ihren Nachbarvцlker (1935); Irish myth: Cross; Persian: Carnoy 280; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.--N. A. Indian (general): Thompson Tales 272 n. 1, (Ojibwa) Skinner JAFL XXXII 287, (Kaska) Teit JAFL XXX 441ff.--See also all references in this section (A800-839).

A801. A801. Earth born of Chaos. Greek: Grote I 4ff.

A802. A802. China first land to appear in our world. India: Thompson-Balys.

A810. A810. Primeval water: In the beginning everything is covered with water.--**Dh I 1--89 passim; Gaster Oldest Stories 69.--Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 325--26; Finnish: Kalevala rune 1; Egyptian: Mьller 48; Babylonian: Spence 71; Jewish: Neuman; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 313ff.; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 786; India: *Thompson-Balys.--Batak: Voorhoeve Oversicht 63ff.; Marquesas: Handy 122; Marshall Is.: Davenport 221; Oceanic: Dixon 8 n. 7 (Maori), 18f. (Samoa), 20 (Society Is., Tonga), 105 (Admiralty Is., Polynesia, Indonesia, Micronesia), 157 (Minahassa), 158f. (Borneo), 248f. (Marshall Is., Yap), 270 (Arunta); Bushongo: Werner African 144, African: Stanley 5; S. Am. Indian (Guarayu): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 437.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 279 n. 29, Alexander N. Am 260 (Haida), (Calif.): Gayton and Newman 53; Mixtec: Alexander Lat. Am. 86; Quichй: ibid. 160.

A810.1. A810.1. God and Devil fly together over primeval water. Dh I 6.

A810.2. A810.2. Primeval water to subside in a specified time. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 55.

A810.2.1. A810.2.1. Waters of heaven would engulf earth were it not for firmament. Jewish: Neuman.

A811. A811. Earth brought up from bottom of primeval water. (Cf. A812.)--India: Thompson-Balys.--New Britain, New Hebrides: Dixon 105.

A811.1. A811.1. Earth originates from fish brought from bottom of sea. The fish is hacked with knives; hence, mountains.--Oceanic (Maori, Hawaiian, Central Polynesian, Tonga, Samoan, New Hebrides, Union Group, Gilbert Is., New Britain): Dixon 43f.

A811.2. A811.2. Earth brought up by three gods. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 326.

A812. A812. Earth Diver. From a raft in the primeval sea, the creator sends down animals to try to bring up earth. After a number of animals have failed, one (often the muskrat) succeeds. The earth is made from the bit brought up.--**E. W. Count The Earth Diver and the Rival Twins (Proceedings 29th International Congress of Americanists [Chicago, 1952] 55--62); Walk “Die Verbreitung des Tauchmotivs in den Urmeerschцpfungs- (und Sintflut-) Sagen” Mitteil. d. anthrop. Gesellschaft Wien LXIII (1933) 60--76.--Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 318, *322ff.; Hatt Asiatic Influences 12--36, India: *Thompson-Balys.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 279 n. 30, (Calif. Indian): Gayton and Newman 53.

A812.1. A812.1. Devil as Earth Diver. Satan dives for earth at instance of God. Succeeds only third time (by use of right formula). He hides the earth under his tongue. It swells, and he must be rescued by God.--*Dh I 2--89 passim, *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachtrдge 277ff.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 3 No. 1; Estonian: Loorits Grundzьge I 455f., Aarne FFC XXV 139 No. 1; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 80 No. 1; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3005; Legends Nos. 7--10, 12f.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 313ff.

A812.2. A812.2. Earth from egg from bottom of sea recovered by bird.--Borneo: Dixon 165.

A812.3. A812.3. Creator sends crow, after creating her, to scout for earth-nucleus.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A813. A813. Raft in primeval sea. Creator is on the raft and there creates the earth. (Cf. A812.)--India: Thompson-Balys; Sumatra: Dixon 162.

A813.1. A813.1. Earth in form of raft supported by spirits. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.

A813.2. A813.2. Lotus-leaf raft in primeval sea. India: Thompson-Balys.

A813.3. A813.3. Creator rests on tree or stake. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 55.

A814. A814. Earth from object thrown on primeval water. India: Thompson-Balys.

A814.1. A814.1. Earth from stone thrown on primeval water. Oceanic: Dixon 18 (Samoa), 158 (Borneo), 163 n. 29--32. (Philippines, Samoa, Tonga, Micronesia).

A814.2. A814.2. Earth from sand strewn on primeval water. India: Thompson-Balys; Yap: Dixon 249.

A814.3. A814.3. Earth from decayed matter on primeval water. Mongolian, Japanese, Tungus: Holmberg Siberian 328f.; Japanese: Anesaki 223.--Hawaii: Dixon 15.

A814.4. A814.4. Earth from tree grown in primeval water. Tungus: Holmberg Siberian 329.

A814.5. A814.5. Earth from steam made by fire thrown into primeval water. Tungus: Holmberg Siberian 330.

A814.6. A814.6. Earth scattered in a circuit in four directions on primeval water. India: Thompson-Balys; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 55.

A814.7. A814.7. Earth from primeval water mixed with seeds of tobacco. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 55.

A814.8. A814.8. Earth from lotus seed placed on water. India: Thompson-Balys.

A814.9. A814.9. Earth from egg breaking on primeval water. (Cf. A1222).--India: Thompson-Balys.

A814.10. A814.10. Earth from creator’s spittle falling on primeval water.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A814.10.1. A814.10.1. Earth from spittle of primeval potter spreading on surface of water. India: Thompson-Balys.

A815. A815. Earth from turtle‘s back. Earth erected on back of a turtle floating in primeval water. (Cf. A844.1.).--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 279 n. 31.

A815.1. A815.1. Earth from serpent’s head. Earth reared on head of serpent floating in primeval water.--Borneo, Sumatra: Dixon 159f.

A816. A816. Earth rises from sea. *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachtrдge 279.--Icel: *Olrik Ragnarцk 23, MacCulloch Eddic 325.--Mixtec: Alexander Lat. Am. 86.

A816.1. A816.1. Stone emerges from primeval water. Devil sits on the stone, which becomes a mountain.--*Dh I 6.

A816.2. A816.2. Ocean under this world. India: Thompson-Balys.

A816.3. A816.3. God causes primeval sea to roll back and leave bare all the hills. India: Thompson-Balys.

A817. A817. Earth let down from sky on to primeval ocean. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 330.

A820. A820. Other means of creation of earth.

A821. A821. Earth made of lac. India: Thompson-Balys.

A822. A822. Earth made by mud shaken from back of primeval boar. India: Thompson-Balys.

A822.1. A822.1. World is transformed mud parrot in golden cage. India: Thompson-Balys.

A823. A823. Earth made by cups of earth placed on spider‘s web. India: Thompson-Balys.

A824. A824. Earth made by transformation of broken ground. India: Thompson-Balys.

A825. A825. Earth made by first couple dancing on bit of cloth laid on water. India: Thompson-Balys.

A826. A826. Earth sets like curds. India: Thompson-Balys.

A827. A827. Earth made by drying up of primeval water. India: Thompson-Balys.

A828. A828. Earth from worm scratched by creator’s nails. India: Thompson-Balys.

A828.1. A828.1. Earth excreted by worm. India: Thompson-Balys.

A830. A830. Creation of earth by creator. Genesis ch. I.--Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Tahiti: Henry 341; Marquesas: Handy 122; Pawnee: Alexander N. Am. 109.

A831. A831. Earth from body of person (animal).

A831.1. A831.1. Earth from body of son of deity. India: Thompson-Balys; Kamchadale: Holmberg Siberian 330.

A831.2. A831.2. Earth from giant‘s body (Ymir). (Cf. A614.1.). *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachtrдge 282.--Icel: MacCulloch Eddic 325; India: Thompson-Balys.

A831.3. A831.3. Earth by sacrifice of son and daughter of first couple. India: Thompson-Balys.

A831.4. A831.4. Earth by murder of first brother and sister. India: Thompson-Balys.

A831.5. A831.5. Earth from the body of murdered child. India: Thompson-Balys.

A831.6. A831.6. Earth from body of slain animal. India: Thompson-Balys.

A831.7. A831.7. Earth from body of divine suicide. India: Thompson-Balys.

A831.8. A831.8. Gods create the earth from their dead victim’s blood and bones. India: Thompson-Balys.

A831.9. A831.9. Earth created from Adam‘s body. Jewish: Neuman.

A832. A832. Creation because of creator’s lonesomeness. Dissatisfied at being alone in center of primeval water, God creates the earth.--*Dh I 35; India: Thompson-Balys.

A833. A833. Earth from creator‘s cuticle. (Cf. A1211.5.). India: Thompson-Balys; San Carlos Apache: Goddard PaAM XXIV 7.

A835. A835. Earth from nut in devil’s mouth. God throws a nut over his left shoulder. The devil catches it in his mouth. The nut grows rapidly and the devil spits it out.--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 80 No. 1.

A835.1. A835.1. Earth created from snow under divine throne. Jewish: Neuman

A836. A836. Creator prepared earth‘s nucleus as one would a rice cake. India: Thompson-Balys.

A837. A837. Creator creates earth piecemeal. Jewish: Neuman.

A840. A840. Support of the earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A841. A841. World-columns. Four (two, etc.) columns or supports sustain the earth.--Irish myth: Cross; Estonian: Loorits Grundzьge I 385, 400; Jewish: Neuman; Greek: *Grote I 70; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX III No. 66.--Sumatra: Dixon 163; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 286 n. 56; Maya: Alexander Lat. Am. 154.--See also references to A665.2.1.

A841.0.1. A841.0.1. The four world-columns fastened immovably by two gods with their mother’s hairs. India: Thompson-Balys.

A841.1. A841.1. Four world-cords. Earth is suspended from the sky by cords at four corners. India: Thompson-Balys; Cherokee: Alexander N.Am. 60.

A841.2. A841.2. Four maidens as earth-supports. One is at each of the cardinal points. (Cf. A842.).--Hindu: Keith 134.

A841.3. A841.3. Twelve iron pillars steady the earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A841.4. A841.4. Four earth-nails. India: Thompson-Balys.

A842. A842. Atlas. A man supports the earth on his shoulders.--Greek: Fox 88, *Grote I 70; Gaster Oldest Stories 129.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 286 n. 56b; Chibcha: Alexander Lat. Am. 203.

A842.1. A842.1. Goddess standing on her head supports earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A842.2. A842.2. Old woman supports earth on her head. India: Thompson-Balys.

A843. A843. Earth supported on post. The post has an old woman as guardian. When she is hungry the post shakes, causing earthquakes.--Finno-Ugric: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 222.--N. A. Indian (Tlingit, Hare): Boas RBAE XXXI 732.

A843.1. A843.1. Earth supported on cross of wood. S. Am. Indian (Guarani): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93, (Apapocuvб): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 136.

A844. A844. Earth rests on animal‘s back. *Encyc. Religion and Ethics I 491b.

A844.1. A844.1. Earth rests on turtle’s back. (Cf. A815.).--Siberian: *Holmberg Siberian 327; India: *Thompson-Balys.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 279 n. 31.

A844.2. A844.2. Earth supported by bull. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 311; Armenian: Ananikian 93.

A844.3. A844.3. Earth supported by fish. *Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachtrдge 281.--Siberian: Holmberg Siberian.

A844.4. A844.4. Earth supported by frog. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 311.

A844.5. A844.5. Earth rests on the horns of a bull who rests upon a fish. India: Thompson-Balys.

A844.6. A844.6. Earth rests on tortoise, serpent, elephant. (Cf. A1145.1.).--India: Thompson-Balys.

A844.7. A844.7. Earth rests on elephant‘s back. India: Thompson-Balys.

A844.8. A844.8. Earth rests on cobra’s head. India: Thompson-Balys.

A844.9. A844.9. Earth supported on great boar‘s tusk. India: Thompson-Balys.

A844.10. A844.10. Earth supported on vast number of birds’ legs. India: Thompson-Balys.

A844.11. A844.11. Earth rests on leviathan. Jewish: Neuman.

A844.12. A844.12. Serpent supports the earth. (Cf. A844.6.). Hindu: Keith 120, 155, Penzer VI 71 n. 1 (thousand-headed serpent); India: *Thompson-Balys.

A849. A849. Support of the earth--miscellaneous.

A849.1. A849.1. Earth founded on stone. Jewish: Neuman.

A849.2. A849.2. Earth rests on God’s arm. Jewish: Neuman.

A849.3. A849.3. Earth supported by prop. S. Am. Indian (Apapocuvб-Guaranн): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 36.

A850. A850. Changes in the earth.

A851. A851. How the earth became oblong. God the Father situated on one side of the earth, the Son on the other.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 3 No. 2; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 139 No. 3.

A852. A852. Making the earth smaller. Earth made too large. God learns from devil by trickery how to make it smaller.--*Dh I 3--89 passim, 127ff.

A853. A853. Making the earth larger. Gradually extended during creation. See references to A812 in which this idea is always involved.--Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 317.--Oceanic: Dixon 29; India: Thompson-Balys.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 279 n. 30.

A853.1. A853.1. Doubling size of the earth. Increase of population necessitates change.--Persian: Carnoy 307.

A855. A855. Opposite of present. Everything on the earth--courses of rivers, height of mountains, human reproduction, etc.--are at first the reverse of the present condition.--N. A. Indian: Kroeber JAFL XXI 225.

A856. A856. Hardening of the earth. At first it is soft, but is hardened by sun‘s rays.--India: Thompson-Balys.--Carib: Alexander Lat. Am. 39.

A856.1. A856.1. Primeval earth hardened by wind. India: Thompson-Balys.

A856.2. A856.2. Ground, previously all wet, dries up when first woman cuts her little finger and blood drips on ground. India: Thompson-Balys.

A857. A857. Steadying the earth. India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.

A857.1. A857.1. Why earth becomes warm and wet: two huge copper vessels steaming over fire are underneath earth.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A857.2. A857.2. Creator’s giant servant puts a valley where earth‘s crust is heavy and a mountain where it is light so as to stabilize it.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A857.3. A857.3. Creator’s giant servant puts trees to hold earth together where it slipped. India: Thompson-Balys.

A857.3.1. A857.3.1. Roots created to hold land firm. Tahiti: Henry 342.

A870. A870. Nature and condition of the earth. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 325.

A871. A871. Earth square with four quarters. Irish myth: Cross; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 308.

A871.0.1. A871.0.1. Taprobane at eastern end of the world. Irish myth: Cross.

A871.0.2. A871.0.2. Unextinguishable fire at end of earth. S. A. Indian (Mbayб, Mataco): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367.

A871.1. A871.1. Four streams from four corners of earth. Patch PMLA XXXIII 623 n. 77.

A871.2. A871.2. Four rivers, rising in paradise, water primitive world. Irish myth: Cross.

A872. A872. River that flows around the world. Greek: *Grote I 220, 232, 310 (River Ocean); Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A872.1. A872.1. Seven seas encircle the world. India: Thompson-Balys.

A873. A873. Above and below the earth are great clouds. India: Thompson-Balys.

A875. A875. Earth wheel-shaped (flat and round). Greek: Grote I 4, 310; Hindu: Keith 16; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 308.

A875.1. A875.1. Navel of the earth. Omphalos, the central point on the earth disc.--*Holmberg Baum des Lebens 150 s.v. “Mittelpunkt”; *Frazer Pausanias V 314f.; *Pease Cicero De Divinatione 353 (Bk. II 115); *Roscher Abh. kgl. Sдchs. Ges. d. Wiss. (Phil. hist. Kl.) XXIX (1913) 9, XXXI (1915) 1, Berichte d. kgl Sдchs. Ges. d. Wiss. (Phil. hist. Kl.) LXX (1918) 2; Warren Paradise Found (1885) 225ff.; Gaster Thespis 170f.; Jewish: Neuman; Norse: Boberg.

A875.1.1. A875.1.1. Mountain at center of earth. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1136.

A875.2. A875.2. Well in the midst of earth from which eleven rivers originate. (Cf. A871.1.) Icel.: Boberg.

A876. A876. Midgard Serpent. A serpent surrounds the earth.--Icel.: De la Saussaye 346, MacCulloch Eddic 279, 328, Boberg; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 345; Western Asia (general): Frobenius Erdteile VI 196; India: Thompson-Balys.--Arapaho: cf. Dorsey FM IV 13; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 57.

A876.1. A876.1. The leviathan that surrounds the globe. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A878. A878. Earth-tree. Tree of life or fate.--*Wьnsche “Das Wasser des Lebens in den Mдrchen der Vцlker” Zs. f. vgl. Litteraturgeschichte XIII 166ff.; **Holmberg Baum; Dh I 6 (five eastern branches given to man, others forbidden); *Albright Am. Jour. Semitic Langs. XXXIX 161.--*Handwb. d. Abergl. IX Nachtrдge 150ff., 200.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 331ff. (Yggdrasil); Irish Myth: Cross; Egyptian: Mьller 36.

A878.1. A878.1. Stream of paradise from roots of world-tree. Holmberg Baum 70ff.; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 320f., 334.

A878.1.1. A878.1.1. Other streams from roots of earth-tree. Icel.: Boberg.

A878.1.2. A878.1.2. Three wells under the three roots of earth-tree. Icel.: Boberg.

A878.2. A878.2. Lake of milk by tree of life. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 414.

A878.3. A878.3. Animals at earth-tree.

A878.3.1. A878.3.1. Snake at roots of earth-tree. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 319, 332; Boberg; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 357.

A878.3.2. A878.3.2. Hart(s) eating of the earth-tree. Holmberg Baum 67ff.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 332ff., Boberg.

A878.3.3. A878.3.3. Chattering squirrel in the earth-tree. Holmberg Baum 67ff. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 332ff., Boberg.

A878.3.4. A878.3.4. Wise eagle in the earth-tree. Holmberg Baum 67ff.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 332ff., Boberg.

A878.3.5. A878.3.5. Hawk in the earth-tree. Holmberg Baum 67ff.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 332ff., Boberg.

A878.3.6. A878.3.6. Golden cock in earth-tree. Icel.: Boberg.

A878.4. A878.4. Earth-tree furnishes health-giving and hunger-satisfying sap. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 350, 353.

A881. A881. Zones of earth corresponding to Zodiac. Jewish: Neuman.


A900--A999. Topographical features of the earth.

A900. A900. Topography--general considerations.

A901. A901. Topographical features caused by experiences of primitive hero (demigod, deity). Footprints of the gods, thoroughfares of heroes, etc.--*Dh II 8, 68, 199; *Hdwb. d. deutschen Aberglaubens III 240 s.v. “Fussspur”; *Wehrhan Die Sage 65; *Basset and others RTP XXIV 299 and references to earlier volumes.--Irish myth: Cross; Breton: MacCulloch Celtic 135; Icel.: De la Saussaye 280; Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 303 Nos. 22, 23; Finnish: Kalevala rune 1; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3008, Legends Nos. 12ff.; Greek: Fox 250.--Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 331; Japanese: Anesaki 248f.; Indo-Chinese: Scott Indo-Chinese 291; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 31, 768, 957, 1211.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 18; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 70; Africa (Fang): Trilles 153.--Cf. A911, A920.1.2, A920.1.5, A924, A931, A932, A933, A941.1, A941.2, A951, A955, A964, A972, A982.1, A984.

A901.1. A901.1. Topographical changes or landmarks due to battle between gods. India: Thompson-Balys.

A901.2. A901.2. Natural features because of combat of huge rock columns with each other. Marquesas: Handy 133.

A902. A902. Topographical features of the earth arranged by creator. (Cf. A0.)--Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.--African: Werner African 143.--N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 30.

A902.1. A902.1. Two creators go by different route to establish features of the earth. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 59.

A903. A903. Topographical features caused by animals. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.



A910. A910. Origin of water features--general.

A910.1. A910.1. Waters created on first day of creation. Jewish: Neuman.

A910.2. A910.2. Waters created as punishment. Jewish: Neuman.

A910.3. A910.3. Bodies of water in primitive abyss sink. Jewish: Neuman.

A910.4. A910.4. Bodies of water remnant of flood. S. A. Indian (Tupinamba): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 133.

A910.5. A910.5. Waters created by divine twins. S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 167.

A911. A911. Bodies of water from tears. (Cf. A901, A920.1.5, A941.2, A1012.)--Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 135; Nebraska: Pound WF VI 305--316; Finnish: Kalevala rune 4; African (Upoto): Einstein 127.

A913. A913. Origin of tides. *Hdwb. d. deutschen Aberglaubens II 513 s. v. “Ebbe und Flut”.--Persian: Carnoy 278.--Shetland Is.: Teit JAFL XXXI 198.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 293 n. 76a, and add (Malecite) Speck JAFL XXVIII 60, (Tahltan) Teit JAFL XXXII 201.

A913.1. A913.1. Tidal wave or surge marks place of death of person. (Cf. A920.1.4, A936.)--Irish myth: Cross.

A913.2. A913.2. Tide caused by breathing of sea-monster. Maori: Clark 180.

A913.3. A913.3. Ebb-tide goes to great whirlpool. Tonga: Gifford 144.

A913.4. A913.4. Tub that drips at high tide but holds water at low tide. Irish myth: Cross.

A914. A914. Mountains push water westward. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 54.

A915. A915. Why waters do not engulf the earth. Jewish: Neuman.

A917. A917. Quarrel between earth and waters. Jewish: Neuman.

A918. A918. Male and female waters. Jewish: Neuman.

A920. A920. Origin of the seas. Jewish: Neuman; Persian: Carnoy 270, 277f.--Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 87; Buin: Wheeler 28.--Hatt: Asiatic Influences 17.

A920.1. A920.1. Origin of lakes. Fb “sш” III 731a.--Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 135 (cf. A911), Cross; Indo-Chinese: Scott Indo-Chinese 291 (cf. A901).--Tahltan: *Teit JAFL XXXII, 219f.; Malecite: Speck JAFL XXX 481.

A920.1.0.1. A920.1.0.1. Origin of particular lake. India: Thompson-Balys.

A920.1.1. A920.1.1. Inexhaustible buckets as source of lakes. Chinese: Werner 221.

A920.1.2. A920.1.2. Lakes from digging of primeval ox. (Cf. A901.)--Kirghis: Holmberg Siberian 331.

A920.1.3. A920.1.3. Lake bursts forth to drown thief. Irish myth: Cross.

A939.1. A939.1. River bursts from well in pursuit.

A920.1.4. A920.1.4. Lakes burst forth to commemorate birth, death, battle, etc., of primitive hero. Irish myth: Cross.

A920.1.5. A920.1.5. Lakes originate from tears. (Cf. A901, A911.) Irish myth: Cross.

A920.1.5.1. A920.1.5.1. Lakes originate from belches. Irish myth: Cross.

A920.1.6. A920.1.6. Lake from urine of horse. (Cf. A933.) Irish myth: Cross.

A920.1.7. A920.1.7. Lake created by fairies. Irish myth: Cross.

A920.1.7.1. A920.1.7.1. Lake bursts forth to quell fairy war. Irish myth: Cross.

A920.1.8. A920.1.8. Lake bursts forth to drown impious people. Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 241ff., (1931) 162ff.; Fb “sш” III 731a; G. Schьtte in Danske Studier (1925) 117ff.

A920.1.8.1. A920.1.8.1. Lake from violating tabu. Irish myth: Cross; Africa: Bouveignes 21--29.

A920.1.9. A920.1.9. Lake bursts forth where island is plowed out. (See A951.)--Olrik Danske Studier (1910) 1ff.

A920.1.10. A920.1.10. Lakes made by giant or devil. Lithuanian: Balys Historical.

A920.1.11. A920.1.11. Woman transformed to pool of water. Irish myth: Cross.

A920.1.12. A920.1.12. Lake bursts forth where blind king plucks rushes. Irish myth: Cross.

A920.1.13. A920.1.13. Lake of milk formed through virtue of saint. Irish myth: Cross.

A920.1.14. A920.1.14. Lakes are daughters of the gods. India: Thompson-Balys.

A920.1.15. A920.1.15. Origin of the Dead Sea. Jewish: Neuman.

A920.1.16. A920.1.16. Lake originally filled with palm wine. Africa (Bushonga): Torday 235.

A920.2. A920.2. Origin of sea channels. Tonga: Gifford 87, 94.

A921. A921. Ocean the son of Earth and Heaven. Greek: Fox.

A922. A922. Ocean made from blood. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 325f.; Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 51 No. 7**; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 86 No. 45.--Oceanic: Dixon 37 n. 107, 108 (Polynesia, Samoa, Marquesas).

A923. A923. Ocean from creator’s sweat. Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 64.--Polynesian: Dixon 37 n. 106.

A923.1. A923.1. Ocean from urine. (Cf. A933.)--Buin: Wheeler Mono-Alu 28, Aurora (New Hebrides): Codrington II 372.

A924. A924. Miscellaneous origins of the ocean.

A924.1. A924.1. Origin of sea from overturned calabash. Haitian: Alexander Lat. Am. 29.

A924.2. A924.2. Origin of sea from rotting snakes. Buin: Wheeler Mono-Alu 28.

A924.3. A924.3. Sea released from tree-top. Papua: Kerr 25.

A924.4. A924.4. Sea from earth excavation. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 973.

A925. A925. Origin of various qualities of the sea.

A925.1. A925.1. Origin of high sea waves. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/441).

A925.2. A925.2. Origin of sea‘s color. Jewish: Neuman.

A925.3. A925.3. Origin of foul odor of sea. Jewish: Neuman; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 3/1110).

A925.4. A925.4. Origin of fresh water welling up in sea. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 96.

A925.5. A925.5. Origin of mournful sound of sea. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 21.

A925.6. A925.6. Origin of surf. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 436.

A925.7. A925.7. Origin of shining patches beneath sea. Tonga: Gifford 200.

A928. A928. Giant drinks up ocean. Hindu: Keith 146.--Cf. Icel.: Meyer Mythologie der Germanen (1903) 244 (Thor lowers level of ocean).

A930. A930. Origin of streams. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A930.1. A930.1. Creator of rivers. Jewish: Neuman.

A930.1.1. A930.1.1. Snake as creator of rivers and lakes. Papua: Kerr 57; Mono-Alu: Wheeler 67.

A931. A931. Meander-pursuit. (Cf. A901.)--A fugitive‘s doublings cause a river’s windings.--N. A. Indian: Kroeber JAFL XXI 224, (Micmac): Speck JAFL XXVIII 60, (Calif.): Gayton and Newman 62.

A933. A933. River from urine of goddess (giantess).--Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Herrmann Nordische Mythologie 368, Boberg; French: Sйbillot France II 327ff.; Sudanese: Frobenius Atlantis VI 219; India: Thompson-Balys; Korean: Zong in-Sob 15 No. 7.

A933.1. A933.1. River from the slaver of the Fenris-wolf. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 328; cf. India: Thompson-Balys.

A933.2. A933.2. River from vagina of first woman. S. A. Indian (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 359.

A934. A934. Various origins of rivers.

A934.1. A934.1. Rivers from digging of primeval ox. (Cf. A920.1.2.)--Kirghis: Holmberg Siberian 331.

A934.2. A934.2. Rivers formed where certain stones are placed. Each of seven children are to go in a different direction, to walk a mile and put down a stone, then another mile and a stone, etc. Thus rivers are formed.--Ekoi: Talbot 366.

A934.3. A934.3. Rivers burst forth to commemorate birth, death, battle, etc., of primitive hero. (Cf. A901, A920.1.4.)--Irish myth: Cross.

A934.4. A934.4. Rivers where god drags his staff. India: Thompson-Balys.

A934.5. A934.5. Rivers originate through saint‘s prayer during drought. Irish myth: Cross.

A934.6. A934.6. Hail-storm leaves twelve chief rivers in Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.

A934.7. A934.7. River bursts from well in pursuit. Irish myth: Cross.

A934.8. A934.8. Rivers from mythical well. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 330, 333.

A934.9. A934.9. Stream unexpectedly bursts from side of mountain. Irish myth: Cross.

A934.10. A934.10. Origin of river: from a girl drowned in a well. India: Thompson-Balys.

A934.11. A934.11. River from transformation.

A934.11.1. A934.11.1. Girl reincarnated as river so god Vishnu can lie in its bed in the form of a stone. India: Thompson-Balys.

A934.11.2. A934.11.2. Person transforms self to river. India: Thompson-Balys.

A934.11.3. A934.11.3. Goddess in anger breaks herself into five parts: hence, five branches of a river. India: Thompson-Balys.

A934.11.4. A934.11.4. Origin of river: transformed flowing honey. India: Thompson-Balys.

A934.12. A934.12. Peacock shows rivers the way to the big valley so they will not go round and round. India: Thompson-Balys.

A935. A935. Origin of falls (cataracts). Irish myth: Cross.--Malecite: Speck JAFL XXX 480; S. A. Indian (Chibcha): Kroeber BBAE CXLIII (2) 908; African (Upoto): Einstein 135.

A937. A937. Why there is no mist on a certain river: fanned away with a pair of eagle’s wings. India: Thompson-Balys.

A938. A938. Rivers and streams offspring of marriage of Ocean and his sister. Greek: Grote I 6.

A940. A940. Origin of other bodies of water.

A941. A941. Origin of springs. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.--Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 114 No. 69; S. A. Indian (Amuesa): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 131.

A941.0.1. A941.0.1. Origin of a particular spring. India: Thompson-Balys.

A941.1. A941.1. Springs originate from horse‘s hoof-prints. (Cf. A901.)--Malten Jahrb. d. kaiserlichen deutschen archдologischen Inst. XXIX 185.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 134, 328, Herrmann Saxo II 216; Greek: Fox 40, 213; Hungarian: Ipolyi Zs. f. deutsche Mythologie u. Sittenkunde II 273; German: Hdwb. d. deutschen Aberglaubens s.v. “Brunnen”; India: Thompson-Balys.

A941.1.1. A941.1.1. Spring from urine of horse. (Cf. A920.1.6., A933.)--Irish myth: Cross.

A941.1.2. A941.1.2. Spring breaks forth where fairy horse lies down. Irish myth: Cross.

A941.2. A941.2. Springs originate from tears. (Cf. A901, A911.)--Greek: Fox 41; Jewish: Neuman.

A941.3. A941.3. Spring from striking earth with sword. Sйbillot France II 181ff.; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 114 No. 69.

A941.3.1. A941.3.1. Spring breaks forth where magic spear strikes ground. (Cf. A941.5.1.). Irish myth: Cross.

A941.3.2. A941.3.2. Spring where god throws his staff or spear. Oceanic: Beckwith Myth 64ff.

A941.4. A941.4. Spring breaks forth to commemorate experiences of hero (deity). (Cf. A901, A913.1, A920.1.4.)

A941.4.1. A941.4.1. Spring breaks forth to commemorate place of death or burial. Irish myth: Cross; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 188.

A941.4.2. A941.4.2. Spring breaks forth at primitive hero‘s need. Irish myth: Cross.

A941.4.2.1. A941.4.2.1. Spring breaks forth at need of demigod’s warriors. Icel.: Herrmann Saxo II 216, MacCulloch Eddic 134, Boberg.

A941.5. A941.5. Spring breaks forth through power of saint. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A941.5.0.1. A941.5.0.1. Fountain breaks forth through power of Virgin Mary. Irish myth: Cross.

A941.5.0.2. A941.5.0.2. Wells break forth at birth of Christ. Irish myth: Cross.

A941.5.1. A941.5.1. Spring breaks forth where saint smites rock. (Cf. A941.3.1.) Irish myth: Cross.

A941.5.2. A941.5.2. Many-colored fountain breaks forth where saint strikes earth with his foot.

A941.5.3. A941.5.3. Spring breaks forth through power of saint at place where leper pulls out clump of rushes. Irish myth: Cross.

A941.5.4. A941.5.4. Spring breaks forth where animal delivers book left behind by saint. Irish myth: Cross.

A941.5.5. A941.5.5. Spring breaks forth where saint‘s stolen cow is found. Irish myth: Cross.

A941.5.6. A941.5.6. Cloth from goddess, when spread by holy man over a spot, causes water to spring from earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A941.5.7. A941.5.7. Origin of springs where deity dug. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 212.

A941.5.8. A941.5.8. Spring from innocent king’s blood. Icel.: Boberg.

A941.6. A941.6. Breaking forth of springs partial cause of Flood. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A941.7. A941.7. Springs from beneath magic (holy) object.

A941.7.1. A941.7.1. Spring from beneath world-tree. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 330--333; Jewish: Neuman.

A941.7.2. A941.7.2. Spring from roots of sacred tree when arrow is shot into it. Fiji: Beckwith Myth 317.

A941.7.3. A941.7.3. Stream from under holy of holies in temple. Jewish: Neuman.

A942. A942. Origin of hot springs (geysers). Jewish: Neuman.

A942.1. A942.1. Hot springs rise where Christ bathed his feet. (Cf. A901.)--Dh II 68.

A942.2. A942.2. Origin of salt springs. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 326.



A950. A950. Origin of the land. Chinese: Graham; Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 47.

A951. A951. Contours of land caused by plowing of goddess. (Cf. A901.)--*Olrik in Danske Studier (1910) 1ff.; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 181; Danish: De la Saussaye 280.

A951.1. A951.1. River valley licked out by giant beast. Irish myth: Cross.

A951.2. A951.2. Contours of land caused by rooting of swine. Irish myth: Cross.

A951.3. A951.3. Contours of land caused by occult hero driving harrow. India: Thompson-Balys.

A952. A952. Land rises out of sea. Tuamotu: Beckwith Myth 75.

A953. A953. Land thrown down from heaven. Tonga: Gifford 15.

A954. A954. Land born from goddess. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 302.

A955. A955. Origin of islands.

A955.0.1. A955.0.1. Islands created by order of deity. Marquesas: Handy 122f.; Marshall Is.: Davenport 221.

A955.1. A955.1. Islands as deity‘s stepping-stones. (Cf. A901.)--Greek: Fox 250.

A955.2. A955.2. Island created by shooting arrow. (Cf. D936, D1092.)--Greek: Pauly-Wissowa s.v. “Anaphe” 2060, Apollonius Rhodius IV 1709ff.

A955.3. A955.3. Origin of island’s shape and position.

A955.3.1. A955.3.1. Origin of an island‘s shape. India: Thompson-Balys.

A955.3.2. A955.3.2. Origin of island’s position. Mono-Alu, Farau: Wheeler 70.

A955.3.2.1. A955.3.2.1. Primeval hero moves islands into their present position. *Frazer Pausanias II 48.--Japanese: Anesaki 248ff., Ikeda; Marshall Is.: Davenport 222.

A955.4. A955.4. Island plowed out by goddess. (See A951.).

A955.5. A955.5. Islands from cow and calf transformed by evil eye of one-eyed god. Irish myth: Cross.

A955.6. A955.6. Islands from stones cast by giantess. (Cf. A901, A963.5.)--Irish myth: Cross.

A955.7. A955.7. Islands from webs woven by primeval spiders. India: Thompson-Balys.

A955.8. A955.8. Island fished-up by demigod (hero). Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 61, 227, 308; Tonga: Beckwith Myth 369, Gifford 15, 20; Maori: Clark 48ff.; Marquesas: Handy 103; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (x-G. 13/52).

A955.9. A955.9. Goddess gives birth to islands. Tonga: Gifford 102.

A955.10. A955.10. Islands from transformed object or person. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 347; Tahiti: Henry 129, 346; Marshall Is.: Davenport 222; Tonga: Gifford 24, 68, 179; Marquesas: Handy 44.

A955.11. A955.11. Islands originally form continent, later separated. Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 468; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 216f., 230, 328; Marquesas: Handy 112; Tonga: Gifford 81; Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 389.

A955.12. A955.12. Old woman as guardian of floating islands of the gods. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 68.

A956. A956. Origin of peninsulas. Greek: Aeschylus Suppliants line 542.--Tonga: Gifford 68.

A957. A957. Origin of desert. Jewish: Neuman.

A960. A960. Creation of mountains (hills). Norwegian: Solheim Register 22; Persian: Carnoy; Chinese: Graham; Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 47.

A961. A961. Mountains from primeval animal.

A961.1. A961.1. Hills from flapping of primeval bird. Hills and valleys are formed from the flapping of a giant turkey-buzzard when the earth is still plastic.--Yuchi: Alexander N. Am. 62.

A961.2. A961.2. Mountains from hacked-up fish drawn from bottom of primeval water. Earth originates from a fish drawn from the water. It is hacked up and thus made to form mountains.--Maori: Dixon 43.

A961.3. A961.3. Mountain from accident to primeval lizard. Lizard passing through a mountain is broken; his fore and hinder parts become mountains.--Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 215.

A961.4. A961.4. Mountains spring from scattered parts of slain giant serpent‘s body. India: Thompson-Balys.

A961.5. A961.5. Mountains (cliffs) from bones of killed giant. Icel.: Boberg.

A962. A962. Mountains (hills) from ancient activities of god (hero).

A962.1. A962.1. Mountain from part of deity’s (hero‘s) body. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 170 (bones), 188f.; Maori: Beckwith Myth 379 (navel); Tahiti: Henry 339 (ribs, spine).

A962.2. A962.2. Mountains made with God’s hand. Jewish: Neuman.

A962.3. A962.3. Mountains from primeval journeys of a god. (Cf. A901.)--Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 332.

A962.4. A962.4. Mountains pressed together by God. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 4 No. 4, XXXIII 51 No. 4.

A962.5. A962.5. Mountains made with the hand. Jewish: Moreno Esdras.

A962.6. A962.6. Mountains originated from primeval journeys of the first man. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 14.

A962.7. A962.7. Hills from hero‘s striking (earth) with sword. Irish myth: Cross.

A962.8. A962.8. Origin of hills and ridges: pieces of shattered god’s head. India: Thompson-Balys.

A962.9. A962.9. Mountains and hills are former sons, daughters of gods. India: Thompson-Balys.

A962.10. A962.10. Hills represent loads from culture-hero‘s shoulders. India: Thompson-Balys.

A963. A963. Mountains from stones (soil, sand) dropped or thrown.

A963.1. A963.1. Mountains from stones dropped from giant’s clothes. He carries the stones in his clothes but loses them as he walks.--German: Grimm Deutsche Mythologie I 443; Hdwb. d. Abergl. I 1043; French: Sйbillot France IV 7ff.; Swedish: Wessman 68 Nos. 581--3.--Indonesian: L. de Backer L‘archipel indien 232ff.

A963.2. A963.2. Mountains from breaking of God’s sieve. He is sifting stones and the bottom of the sieve breaks, letting huge stones and mountains fall through. (Cf. A971.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 4 No. 5; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 34 No. 1.

A963.3. A963.3. Soil dropped to form mountains. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 59.

A963.4. A963.4. Mountains and hills from stones thrown by giant at church. Germanic: Hdwb. d. deutschen Aberglaubens s. v. “Findlingssteine”; Celtic: Thurneysen Irische Helden- und Kцnigssage 431; Danish: Schmidt Danmarks Kaempesten (1932) (DF XXXIX) 66ff.; Kristensen Danske Sagn III (1895) 19ff., (1931) 11ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 493--96; Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 68 Nos. 586--591.

A963.5. A963.5. Hills from stones cast by giants. Irish myth: Cross.

A963.6. A963.6. Hill from anvil (cast by supernatural smith). Irish myth: Cross.

A963.7. A963.7. Hill from sand left by passersby.--Lithuanian: Balys Historical.

A963.8. A963.8. Hill as unfinished tower built in the likeness of Nimrod‘s tower. Irish myth: Cross.

A963.9. A963.9. Clay soil dropped from sky to form hill. Tonga: Gifford 39.

A964. A964. Mountains (hills) from ancient contest (fight).

A964.1. A964.1. Holes in hills result of fight between gods. India: Thompson-Balys.

A964.2. A964.2. Mountains fight each other: cause of their present shape. India: Thompson-Balys.

A964.2.1. A964.2.1. Mountains fight each other for honor of being the spot for the revelation. Jewish: Neuman.

A964.3. A964.3. Battle of demons: hills torn up. India: Thompson-Balys.

A965. A965. Origin of mountain chain.

A965.1. A965.1. One mountain in love with another stretches leg out to meet her: origin of a mountain chain. India: Thompson-Balys.

A966. A966. Origin of volcanoes. Maori: Clark 43.

A967. A967. Origin of mounds. Tonga: Gifford 121.

A967.1. A967.1. Mounds from horns cast by cattle. Irish myth: Cross.

A968. A968. Origin of cliffs.

A968.1. A968.1. Cliffs become hard. Were formerly soft but become hard by God‘s order. (Cf. A975.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 3 No. 3; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 139 No. 2.

A968.2. A968.2. Cliff from lovers’ leap. Lovers in despair throw themselves from a high place. This becomes a cliff.--*Crane Vitry 220f. No. 214; Ward Cat. Romances III 17; U.S.: Baughman.--Common among the North American Indians.

A969. A969. Creation of mountains and hills--miscellaneous.

A969.1. A969.1. Mountain from buried giant. India: Thompson-Balys.

A969.2. A969.2. Cloud on lofty male mountain induced by a beautiful female mountain to bow to her feet: hence their present shape. India: Thompson-Balys.

A969.3. A969.3. Mountains and valleys formed from great fire. India: Thompson-Balys.

A969.4. A969.4. Hills because sky asked earth to wrinkle up its feet. India: Thompson-Balys.

A969.5. A969.5. Water freezes and forms mountains. Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 482.

A969.6. A969.6. Hill brought to country as adopted child. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 379.

A969.7. A969.7. Origin of mountains as punishment. Jewish: Neuman.

A969.8. A969.8. Origin of crevasse. Africa (Bushongo): Torday 251.

A969.9. A969.9. Mountain or hills from actions of the devil. England: *Baughman.

A970. A970. Origin of rocks and stones. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 325f.; Jewish: Neuman.--Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 47.

A971. A971. Origin of rocks from breaking of God‘s sieve. See references in A963.2.

A972. A972. Indentions on rocks from prints left by man (beast). (Cf. A901.)--*Fb “sten” III 552b; *Andree Ethnographische Parallelen (1878) 96; Dh II 8.--Irish: Thurneysen Irische Helden-u. Kцnigssagen 189, Cross; Icel.: Boberg; Danish: Schmidt DF XXXIX 13ff.; French: Sйbillot France I 369ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.--N. A. Indian: Krickeberg Indianermдrchen aus Nordamerika 245, Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 59; Aztec: Krickeberg Mдrchen der Azteken 60, 204, and passim; S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 132.

A972.1. A972.1. Indentions on rocks from imprint of gods and saints. *Toldo Studien zur vgl. Literaturgeschichte V 337ff.; Andree Ethnographische Parallelen (1878) 95.--Irish myth: *Cross; Eng., Scot., Ire., Wales, U.S.: *Baughman; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 977; Greek: *Grote I 180.--Hawaii Beckwith Myth 65, 142, 212f.; S. Am. Indian (Munderucъ): Horton BBAE CXLIII (3) 281.

A972.1.1. A972.1.1. Indentions on rocks from footprints of Christ. Dh II 199.--Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Kirialaxsaga 66.

A972.1.2. A972.1.2. Priest stamps on stone to prove truth of pope; print is still visible. England: Baughman.

A972.1.3. A972.1.3. Footprints of holy man are still seen in stone where he stood to preach. England: Baughman.

A972.2. A972.2. Indentions on rocks from footprints of fairies (angels, devils). Jegerlehner Oberwallis 303 Nos. 22, 23.--Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 500ff.

A972.2.1. A972.2.1. Indention on rock from footprint of angel. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A972.2.2. A972.2.2. The devil’s footprint. Eng., Wales, U.S.: *Baughman.

A972.3. A972.3. Holes in stones caused by piercing by saint‘s finger. Irish: Plummer Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae clvi.

A972.3.1. A972.3.1. Holes in stone caused by saint (warrior). Irish myth: Cross.

A972.3.1.1. A972.3.1.1. Indentions on rock from weapons (limbs) of robbers through power of saint. Irish myth: Cross.

A972.3.1.2. A972.3.1.2. Indentions on rocks from footprints of saint’s cow. Irish myth: Cross.

A972.4. A972.4. Imprint of horse in rocks.--French: Sйbillot France I 383ff.; Danish: Thiele Danmarks Folkesagn I 209, II 47, Schmidt DF XXXIX 22--23; German: Юiрriks saga I 157, 220.--India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

A972.5. A972.5. Indentions on rocks from marks of various persons.

A972.5.1. A972.5.1. Indentions on rocks from head of infant hero (saint). Irish myth: Cross.

A972.5.2. A972.5.2. Chasms between rocks mark “leaps” of giants, heroes, etc. Irish myth: Cross.

A972.5.3. A972.5.3. Indentions on rock from paws of King Arthur‘s dog. Irish myth: Cross.

A972.5.4. A972.5.4. Indentions on rocks from weapons, knees, and elbows (of persons slain by hero). Irish myth: Cross.

A972.5.5. A972.5.5. Rocks or hill-tops flat because persons (gods) slept or cooked on them. Irish myth: Cross.

A972.5.6. A972.5.6. Hole in stone caused by weapon of warrior. Irish myth: Cross.

A972.6. A972.6. Indentions on rocks caused by giants. Irish myth: Cross.

A972.7. A972.7. Great fish killed by hero and cut into sixteen pieces: the great stones may still be seen. India: Thompson-Balys.

A973. A973. Origin of stones: punishment for discourtesy. Jesus asks a man what he is sowing. He answers, “Stones.” Jesus turns the crop to stones. This is how stones originate.--*Dh II 95.--Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 140 No. 4; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 80 No. 2, England: Baughman.

A974. A974. Rocks from transformation of people to stone. Greek: Fox 175; Icel.: Boberg.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 175; Marshall Is.: Davenport 229; Tonga: Gifford 99, 130; Marquesas: Handy 106; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo: Boas RBAE VI 639; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 97.

A974.1. A974.1. Certain stones are druids transformed by power of saint. Irish myth: Cross.

A974.2. A974.2. Certain stones are transformed giants. Irish myth: Cross.

A975. A975. Why stones became hard. By God’s order. (Cf. A968.1.)--Schmidt DF XXXIX 36; von Sydow Folkeminder och Folktankar VI 73; Fb “Adam” IV 3a.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 3 No. 3; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 139 Nr. 2; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 80 Nos. 3, 4.--Oceanic: Beckwith Myth 88.

A975.1. A975.1. Why stones no longer grow. Devil sows stones; God sends cold to prevent their growing. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3015, Legends Nos. 16f.

A975.1.1. A975.1.1. Why stones no longer grow: punishment for injuring foot of holy person. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3015. Legends Nos. 19, 25.

A975.2. A975.2. Why certain rock produces fire when struck with steel.

A975.2.1. A975.2.1. Fire producing rock result of contest between god of fire and god of rain. India: Thompson-Balys.

A976. A976. Why rocks at river are covered with moss. Jamaica Negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 259 No. 49.

A977. A977. Origin of particular stones or groups of stones.

A977.1. A977.1. Giant responsible for certain stones. (Cf. A963.1.)--Canada, England, U.S., Wales: *Baughman; Icel.: Boberg.

A977.2. A977.2. Devil throws stones. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

A977.2.1. A977.2.1. Devil and man throw stones in contest. England, Wales: *Baughman.

A977.2.2. A977.2.2. The devil throws stones at church or churchmen. (Cf. A963.4.)--England: *Baughman.

A977.2.3. A977.2.3. Devil throws down quoits when he is told that it is wrong to play on Sunday. They remain as stones to this day.--England: Baughman.

A977.3. A977.3. Devil drops stones. England: *Baughman.

A977.3.1. A977.3.1. The devil drops stones from apron. (Cf. A963.1.)--England, Ireland: *Baughman.

A977.4. A977.4. The devil turns object or animal to stone which is still seen. England, U.S.: *Baughman.

A977.5. A977.5. Origin of particular rock. India: Thompson-Balys.

A977.5.1. A977.5.1. Certain stones are cheeses transformed by saint. (Cf. A974.)--Irish myth: Cross.

A977.5.2. A977.5.2. Pile of stones in certain chapel formed of fragments of salmon transformed by saint. Irish myth: Cross.

A977.5.3. A977.5.3. Stone column is membrum virile of ancient hero. Irish myth: Cross.

A977.5.4. A977.5.4. Two rocks from split and transformed lapdog. Irish myth: Cross.

A978. A978. Origin of minerals.

A978.1. A978.1. Origin of minerals from body of dead culture hero. Persian: Carnoy 294.

A978.2. A978.2. Iron created to punish cedar‘s pride. Jewish: Neuman.

A978.3. A978.3. Origin of emeralds from marvelous vase broken into pieces. India: Thompson-Balys.

A979. A979. Other stories about stone origins. Tahiti: Henry 341; Marquesas: Handy 132; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 18, 22.

A979.1. A979.1. Stone rent at time of crucifixion. England: Baughman.

A980. A980. Origin of particular places.

A983. A983. Origin of valleys or hollows. Jewish: Neuman; Tonga: Gifford 89.

A984. A984. Pillars of Hercules at Gibraltar set up by Hercules. (Cf. A901.)--Greek: Fox 86.

A986. A986. Bridge of the Gods. A conflict of the gods breaks a primeval bridge and thus causes a rapid in a river (the Columbia River at The Dalles, Oregon).--Salishan: Alexander N. Am. 134.

A988. A988. Cairn marks burial place. Irish myth: Cross.

A989. A989. Origin of particular places--miscellaneous.

A989.1. A989.1. Dark brown patches on soil mark place where marvelous cow (Glas) and her calf lay. Irish myth: Cross.

A989.2. A989.2. Roads marked out by supernatural cows. Irish myth: Cross.

A989.3. A989.3. Certain stones are druids’ (saints‘) seats (chairs). Irish myth: Cross.

A989.4. A989.4. Pile of stones (cairn) marks site of battle. Irish myth: Cross.

A990. A990. Other land features.

A991. A991. Origin of villages. Jegerlehner Oberwallis 308 No. 36; India: Thompson-Balys.

A992. A992. Origin of sacred places. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3725; India: Thompson-Balys.

A992.1. A992.1. Origin of sacred post (placed there by ancestral culture hero). India: Thompson-Balys.

A992.2. A992.2. Sacred place where thunderbolt fell down. Blinkenberg The Thunderweapon (Cambridge 1911); Handwb. d. Abergl. II 325 “Donnerkeil”.

A992.3. A992.3. Ground bursts open and a temple rises from it. India: Thompson-Balys.

A994. A994. Five great roads of Ireland “discovered” on night of king’s birth. Irish myth: Cross.

A995. A995. Origin of cities. Jewish: Neuman.

A996. A996. Origin of settlements (places later to be settled). Jewish: Neuman.

A997. A997. Origin of boundaries. Jewish: Neuman.

A998. A998. Origin of clay. India: Thompson-Balys.


A1000--A1099. World calamities and renewals.

A1000. A1000. World catastrophe. The world is destroyed. The incidents are usually the same whether a final destruction is thought of or a destruction which may be overcome by a renewal of the earth.--**Olrik Ragnarцk; Fb “verden” III 1039ab; *G. Neckel Studien zu den germanischen Dichtungen vom Weltuntergang (Stzb. d. Heidelberger Akad. d. Wissenschaften 1918); **H. Fischer Weltwenden (1928); **Henne-am Rhyn Das Jenseits: kulturgeschichtliche Darstellung der Ansichten ьber .... Weltuntergang (1881); **Reitzenstein Weltuntergangsvorstellungen (Kyrkohistoriska Еrsskrift [Uppsala 1924]).--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 336ff.; Irish myth: *Cross; Jewish: *Neuman; Egyptian: Smith Dragon 111; Hindu: Keith 105.--S. Am. Indian (Guarani): *Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 124.

A1001. A1001. Series of world catastrophes. **Olrik Ragnarцk; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 336ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3012, Legends No. 15.--Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 95.

A1002. A1002. Doomsday. Catastrophes precede the Day of Judgment. *Olrik Ragnarцk.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 336ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Estonian: Loorits Grundzьge I 461ff.; Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307), *Neuman; Hindu: Keith 105; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 279.--pawnee: Alexander N. Am. 116ff.--Cf. Revelations passim.

A1002.1. A1002.1. Widespread calamity when feast of John the Baptist shall fall on certain day. Irish myth: Cross.

A1002.2. A1002.2. Signs before the Day of Judgment. **Heist Fifteen Signs Before Doomsday (East Lansing, Michigan, 1952).--Irish myth: Cross.

A1002.2.1. A1002.2.1. No rainbow for fifteen years before the Day of Judgment. Irish myth: Cross.

A1002.2.2. A1002.2.2. Bleeding wood as sign of Doomsday. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.3.).

A1002.2.3. A1002.2.3. Talking stone as sign of Doomsday. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.4).

A1002.2.4. A1002.2.4. Unusual migration of birds as sign of Doomsday. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.5.).

A1003. A1003. Calamity as punishment for sin. Jewish: *Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Maori: Beckwith Myth 317; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 158.

A1005. A1005. Preservation of life during world calamity. (Cf. A1020, A1038, A1045.)--Persian: Carnoy 308; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 484.

A1005.1. A1005.1. Preservation of life of certain persons in Ireland during Flood. (Cf. A1006.5.)--Irish myth: Cross.

A1005.2. A1005.2. Inclosure made during world calamity and only best types of animals and men preserved. Persian: Carnoy 308; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1005.3. A1005.3. Holy Land not ravaged by deluge. Jewish: Neuman.

A1006. A1006. Renewal of world after world calamity. Icel.: De la Saussaye 352, Boberg; Jewish: *Neuman.--S. Am. Indian (Bakairi): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 347, (Namicuara): Lйvi-Strauss ibid. 369.

A1006.1. A1006.1. New race from single pair (or several) after world calamity. (Cf. A1038, A1045.)--*Olrik Ragnarцk 479 s.v. “Erneuerung”.--Greek: *Grote I 93; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.--Marquesas: Handy 110; Ellice Is.: Beckwith Myth 270; Hawaii: ibid. 315; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 91; S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 144, (Chiriguano): ibid. 157, 163, 170f., (Guaporй River): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 379; African (Lamomi): Bouveignes 29.

A1006.2. A1006.2. New race from incest after world calamity. Hindu: Keith 92; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

A1006.3. A1006.3. New race made of red earth after world calamity. Smith Dragon 121.

A1006.4. A1006.4. New race from union of girl and rat. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1006.5. A1006.5. Ireland repopulated by persons who escape flood. Irish myth: Cross.

A1006.6. A1006.6. Ireland, waste for centuries after flood, is repopulated by immigrants. Irish myth: Cross.

A1006.7. A1006.7. Whole tribe descended from lone woman-survivor of doomed city. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1006.8. A1006.8. One bear-child escapes death, is ancestor of all bears. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1006.9. A1006.9. After world-fire life recreated from tree. Africa (Fang): Trilles 132f.

A1007. A1007. World calamity will begin in Palestine. Jewish: Neuman.

A1009. A1009. World catastrophes--miscellaneous.

A1009.1. A1009.1. First race of men perishes when sun first rises. S. Am. Indian (Aymara): Tschopik BBAE CXLIII (2) 571, (Chibaya): La Barre ibid. 585.

A1009.2. A1009.2. Animate and inanimate objects attempt to destroy humanity. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 158.

A1009.3. A1009.3. Large stone falls from sky killing all but one couple. S. Am. Indian (Morй): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 406.

A1010. A1010. Deluge. Inundation of whole world or section.--**Anderson Nordasiatische Flutsagen; **Andree Die Flutsagen (Braunschweig, 1891); **Diestel Die Sintflut und die Flutsagen des Altertums@2 (Berlin 1876); *Woods Encyc. Religion and Ethics s.v. “Deluge”; **Winternitz Die Flutsagen des Altertums (Wien 1901); **Fischer Weltwenden: Die grossen Fluten in Sage und Wirklichkeit (Leipzig 1925); **Gerland Der Mythus von der Sintflut (Bonn 1912); **Usener Die Sintflutsagen untersucht (Bonn 1899); Ley Eiszeit (Anhang: Eiszeit u. Sintflut) (Erfurt 1928); *Riem Die Sintflut in Sage und Wissenschaft (Hamburg 1925); *F. von Schwarz Sintflut und Vцlkerwanderung (Stuttgart 1894); **Feilberg Skabelses og Syndflodssagn (1915); *Maria Alice Moura Pessoa A Bibliographic Study of the Deluge Myth in the Americas (MA Thesis, Columbia University 1948).--Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 19, *Frazer Apollodorus I 55 n. 1, II 88 n. 2; Egyptian: Mьller 75f.; Persian: Carnoy 270; Hindu: Keith 105, Charpentier Kleine Beitrдge 34 n. 1; India: Thompson-Balys; Indo-Chinese: Scott 267, 278ff.; Chinese: Graham; Korean: Zong in-Sob 16 No. 8; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 361ff.--Indonesian: Dixon 178ff., 256f.; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 189; Melanesian: Cole. 119f.; Polynesian: ibid. 38; Samoan: ibid. 17; Australian: ibid 280; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 307, 314.--N. A. Indian (general): *Thompson Tales 286 n. 57, Alexander N. Am. 299 f. n. 49, also 177, 180, 203, 205 (Pima, Walapai, Sia, Hopi); Sinkyone: Kroeber JAFL XXXII 347; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 55; Eskimo (Central): Boas RBAE VI 637, (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 452, (Cape York): Rasmussen III 48, (Northwest Canada): Pйtitot Traditions 2; Maya: Alexander Lat. Am. 152f.; Mixtec: ibid. 87; S. Am. Indian (Carib): Alexander Lat. Am. 39, (Chibcha): ibid. 203, (Amazon tribes): ibid. 311, (Jivaro, Yugua): Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 627, 736, (Cubeo): Goldman ibid. (3) 798, (Aymara): Tschopik ibid. (2) 571, (Zaparoans, Pebans): Steward ibid. (3) 532, (Bacairi): Lйvi-Strauss ibid. (3) 347, (Nambicuara): Lйvi-Strauss ibid. (3) 369, (Guaporй): Lйvi-Strauss ibid. (3) 379, (Caingang): Mйtraux ibid. (1) 473, (Eastern Brazil): Lowie ibid. (1) 397.--African: *Wagener 13ff.

A1010.1. A1010.1. Sun and moon do not shine during deluge. Jewish: Neuman.

A1010.2. A1010.2. Great flood lasts eight months. Maori: Beckwith Myth 316.

A1011. A1011. Local deluges. **Schmarsel Die Sage von der untergegangenen Stadt; *RTP XXVIII 27 and references to earlier volumes.--Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 81 n. 2; Jewish: Neuman.

A1011.1. A1011.1. Flood partially caused by breaking forth of springs. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1011.2. A1011.2. Flood caused by rising of river. S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 170.

A1011.3. A1011.3. God’s promise never to destroy world by water does not apply to local floods. Jewish: Neuman.

A1012. A1012. Flood from fluids of the body.

A1012.1. A1012.1. Flood from tears. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 287 n. 57b; polynesian: Dixon 38 n. 117.

A1012.1.1. A1012.1.1. Flood from Adam’s tears of repentance. Dh I 223.

A1012.1.2. A1012.1.2. Flood from tears of grieving lover. N. Am. Indian (N‘tlaka’panaq): British Association for the Advancement of Science LXIX 574f.; S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Nordenskiцld Indianerleben 253f.

A1012.2. A1012.2. Flood from urine. *Jochelson JE VI 367 (Koryak, Eskimo, Athapascan Indians).

A1012.2.1. A1012.2.1. Flood caused by loosing fairy horse and allowing it to stale. Irish myth: Cross.

A1012.3. A1012.3. Flood from blood. American Indian (Mono): Gifford JAFL XXVI 306.

A1012.3.1. A1012.3.1. Flood from slain giant‘s blood. Icel.: Boberg.

A1013. A1013. Flood from belly. It flows from pierced belly of monster.--Indonesian: Dixon 196 n. 33; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 287 n. 57c.; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 127.

A1013.1. A1013.1. Vomiting of a whale causes flood. N. Am. Indian (Dйnй): Petitot Traditions (Paris 1886) 318f.

A1015. A1015. Flood caused by gods or other superior beings. (Cf. A1018.)--Babylonian: Jensen Gilgamesch Epos XI 53ff., 69ff.; Marquesas: Handy 109f.; S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 133, (Yuracare): ibid. 503.

A1015.1. A1015.1. Flood from conflict of gods. Sea god and rain god.--Cook Group: Dixon 39 n. 121, 122; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Campana Archivio per l’Antropologia et la Etnologia XXXII 22.

A1015.1.1. A1015.1.1. Flood from conflict of monsters (giant animals). S. Am. Indian (Araucanian): Cooper BBAE CXLIII (2) 753, (Aymara): Tschopik ibid. (2) 571, (Chiriguano): Mйtraux ibid. (3) 484.

A1015.2. A1015.2. Spirit causes deluge. Jegerlehner Oberwallis 299 No. 10.--S. Am. Indian (Eastern Brazil): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (1) 434, (Guaporй River): Lйvi-Strauss ibid. (3) 379.

A1015.3. A1015.3. Flood caused by deity stamping on floor of heavens. Maori: Beckwith Myth 250, Clark 162.

A1016. A1016. Pseudo-scientific explanations of the flood. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684; Tuamotu: Beckwith Myth 267.

A1016.1. A1016.1. Flood from animals‘ boring into ground (turtles, crawfishes, etc.). American Negro (Georgia): Harris Remus No. 5.

A1016.2. A1016.2. Deluge produced by hot liquid which burns as it floods. American Indian (Salinan): Mason JAFL XXVII 163f., (Krawak): Ehrenreich Mythen und Legenden 49.

A1016.3. A1016.3. Flood caused by melting of ice after great spell of cold. N. Am. Indian (Dйnй): Petitot Traditions 373--378; S. Am. Indian (Gusinde): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 37.

A1016.4. A1016.4. Flood from broken calabashes of water. American Indian (Puerto Rico): Fewkes RBAE XXV 73f., (Carajб): Baldus Ensaios de Etnologia Brasileira 174, Lowie Encyc. Rel. Ethics s.v. “flood”.

A1016.5. A1016.5. Making mountains out of flat earth causes flood. N. Am. Indian (Apache): Goddard PaAM XXIV 28f.

A1016.6. A1016.6. Moon falls into sea and causes flood by overflowing. S. Am. Indian (Fueginos): Coazzi Rev. Chil. Hist. Geogr. X 31.

A1016.7. A1016.7. Flood whenever shard at earth’s core moves. Jewish: Neuman.

A1017. A1017. Flood caused to satisfy emotional need.

A1017.1. A1017.1. Desire of man for sun causes flood. S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Mйtraux BBAE CXXXIV 26.

A1017.2. A1017.2. Flood caused by prayer. Maori: Beckwith Myth 316.

A1017.3. A1017.3. Flood caused by curse. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 484.

A1018. A1018. Flood as punishment. *Frazer Old Testament I 144--360; Spanish Exempla: Keller.--Jewish: Neuman; Greek: Fox 158; Babylonian: Spence 45f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1056.--Society Is.: Dixon 39 n. 120; Hawaiian, Maori, Marquesas: ibid. 40; N. Am. Indian (Calif.): Gayton and Newman 59, (Pomo): Angelo JAFL XLVI 241, (Wishosk): Kroeber JAFL XVIII 96, (Apache): Goddard PaAM XXIV 8, (Hopi): Voth FM VIII 53, (Zuсi): Benedict Zuсi Mythology I 10ff.; Caribbean (Cuan): Stewart BBAE CXLIII (4) 267; S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 369, (Cubeo): Goldman JAFL LIII 244, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 29, (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 315.--See also references to “Sintflut” in A1010 and A1015, where in nearly all cases the gods produce the flood as punishment.

A1018.1. A1018.1. Flood as punishment for breaking tabu. Fiji, Tahiti, Maori, Andaman: Beckwith Myth 316--319; S. Am. Indian (Toba, Mataco, Lengua): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367.

A1018.2. A1018.2. Flood as punishment for incest. American Indian (Namba): Mьller Anthropos XXIX 186.

A1018.3. A1018.3. Flood brought as revenge for injury. Tuamotu: Beckwith Myth 318; N. Am. Indian (Carrier): Jennes JAFL XLVII 141ff., (Ts‘etsaut): Boas JAFL IX 262, (North Pacific Tribes): Boas Indianische Sagen 79, (Haida): Swanton BBAE XXIX 142, (Kwakiutl): Boas and Hunt JE III 100, (Mono): Gifford JAFL XXVI 326, (Shasta): Dixon JAFL XXIII 36, (Pima): Lloyd Aw-Aw-Tam 36ff., (Ojibwa): Jones-Michelson PAES VII 151, 271, (Menomini): Skinner and Satterlee PaAM XIII 255--260, Hoffman RBAE XIV 133; Central and S. Am. Indian (Cahita): Beals BBAE CXLII 216f., (Bororo): Baldus Ensaios de Etnologia Brasileira 176ff., (Tupinamba): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 133.

A1019. A1019. Deluge--miscellaneous.

A1019.1. A1019.1. Subsidence of earth beneath flood. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1019.2. A1019.2. Serpent king causes flood by damming rivers. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1019.3. A1019.3. Flood because earth has become too thickly populated. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1019.4. A1019.4. Flood puts out world-fire. (Cf. A1030.)--S. Am. Indian (Tupinamba): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 133, (Tucuna): Nimuendajб ibid. 724, (Cubeo): Goldman JAFL LIII 244.

A1020. A1020. Escape from deluge.

A1021. A1021. Deluge: escape in boat (ark). *Dh I 258ff.--Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 324, Boberg; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Greek: Fox 19, Grote I 93; Hebrew: Genesis, ch. 6, 7, 8; Jewish: Moreno Esdras; Babylonian: Spence 173f.; Hindu: Keith 99; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1056; Chinese: Graham, Eberhard FFC CXX 84; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 364.--Pelew Is. (Micronesia): Dixon 257; Maori: Beckwith Myth 316.--American Indian: *Thompson CColl II 452, (Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 637f., (Carrier): Jenness JAFL XLVII 141ff., (Chipewyan): Lowie PaAM X 195, (Coos): Frachtenberg CU I 45--49, (Kathlamet): Boas BBAE XXVI 23, (Nootka): Sapir JAFL XXXII 353ff., (Chimariko): Dixon UCal. V 304, (Salishan): Teit MAFLS XI 13, 132; (Crow): Lowie paAM XXV 16, (Cochiti): Benedict BBAE XCVIII 2ff., (White Mountain Apache): Goodwin MAFLS XXXIII 50ff., (Ojibwa): Radin JAFL XLI 70ff., (Choctaw): Bushnell AA n. s. XII 528f., (Shawnee): Spencer JAFL XXII 319, (Natchez): Swanton BBAE LXXXVIII 121, 214, (Aztec): Alexander Lat. Am. 85f., (Arawak): ibid 273, (Carib): ibid. 39, (Mbaya): Muller Anthropos XXIX, (Mura): Nimuendajъ BBAE CXLIII (3) 265, (Taulipang): Camara Cascudo Antologia de Folclore Brasileira 124ff. (These are only a selection of the American Indian references).

A1021.0.1. A1021.0.1. Persons excluded from Noah‘s ark build another ark and sail to Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.

A1021.0.2. A1021.0.2. Escape from deluge in wooden cask (drum). Chinese: Graham; S. A. Indian (Guaporй): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 379.

A1021.0.3. A1021.0.3. Deluge: escape in gourd. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1021.0.4. A1021.0.4. Deluge: escape on floating tree. Korean: Zong in-Sob 16 No. 8.

A1021.0.5. A1021.0.5. Deluge: escape in hollow tree trunk. American Indian (Seneca): Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 636ff., (Mexican): Bancroft Native Races of the Pacific States of America (New York 1874--76) III 66ff.

A1021.0.6. A1021.0.6. Deluge: escape on floating building. American Indian (Tlingit): Bancroft Native Races V 14, (Cahita): Beals BBAE CXLII 216f.

A1021.1. A1021.1. Pairs of animals in ark. Seed of all beings put into ark to escape destruction.--See references to “Sintflutsage” in A1010; also Dh I 267ff.--Irish myth: Cross; Hebrew: Genesis 6:19; Babylonian: Spence 175; Hindu: Keith 147.--Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 85f.

A1021.2. A1021.2. Bird scouts sent out from ark. *Dh I 283.--Irish myth: Cross; Hebrew: Genesis 8:7ff., Neuman; Babylonian: Spence 176.

A1022. A1022. Escape from deluge on mountain. Greek: Grote I 93; Hebrew: Genesis 8:4, Neuman; Hindu: Keith 99; India: Thompson-Balys.--Philippine: Dixon 179; Borneo: ibid. 180; West Caroline Is.: ibid. 257; Australian: ibid. 280; Polynesian: ibid 38 n. 118; Cook Group: ibid. 39 n. 121; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 215.--N. Am. Indian (Bella-Bella): Boas MAFLS XXV 1f., (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 232ff., (Luiseсo): Du Bois UCal VIII 157, (Shasta): Dixon JAFL XXIII 36, (Blackfoot): Wissler paAM II 19, (Chiricahua Apache): Opler MAFLS XXXVII 1f., (Zuсi): Benedict CU XXI 10ff.; S. Am. Indian (Araucanian): Alexander Lat. Am. 330, (Inca): ibid. 230, (Yunca, Peru): ibid. 230, (Caingang, Amazon): ibid. 312. (Only a selection of references for North and South America.).

A1023. A1023. Escape from deluge on tree. India: Thompson-Balys.--American Indian (Paiute): Steward UCal XXXIV 372, (Plains Cree): Skinner JAFL XXIX 350, (Fox): Jones JAFL XIV 233ff., (Catawba): Speck CU XXIV 23, (Ackawoi): Alexander Lat. Am. 270, (Caingang): ibid. 312, (Guayaki): Mйtraux-Baldus BBAE CXLIII (1) 444, (Maina): Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 649.

A1024. A1024. Escape from deluge in cave. Andaman Is.: Beckwith Myth 319; American Indian (Cheyenne): Dorsey FM IX 36, (Arawak, Antis, Yuracare): Spence The Problem of Atlantis 95.

A1025. A1025. Escape from deluge on island. Society Is.: Dixon 39.

A1026. A1026. Escape from deluge on foot. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 84.

A1027. A1027. Rescue from deluge by fish. Hindu: Keith 75, 99.

A1028. A1028. Bringing deluge to end.

A1028.1. A1028.1. Trickster sticks spear in ground and leads water to sea, ending deluge. S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 369.

A1028.2. A1028.2. Birds fill sea with dirt and overcome flood. S. Am. Indian (Caingang): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 473.

A1029. A1029. Escape from deluge--miscellaneous.

A1029.1. A1029.1. Marvelous tree survives deluge. Irish myth: Cross.

A1029.2. A1029.2. (Four) persons who, in four quarters of the world, survived the flood and thus preserved ancient tradition. Irish myth: Cross.

A1029.3. A1029.3. Escape from deluge in pot or jar. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 170, (Guarayu): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 438.

A1029.4. A1029.4. Flood: refuge in huge gourds with seven rooms in each. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1029.5. A1029.5. Escape from deluge in box or basket. American Indian (Thompson River): Teit JE VIII 230, (Apache): Gould JAFL XXXIV 319, Russell JAFL XI 253ff., (Guarayu): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 438, (Cubeo): Goldman ibid. (3) 798, (Chaco): Nordenskiцld Indianerleben 253f.

A1029.6. A1029.6. Survivors of flood establish homes. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 170f.

A1030. A1030. World-fire. A conflagration destroys the earth. Sometimes (as with the flood legends) the tradition is somewhat local and does not refer to an actual destruction of the whole earth; sometimes the fire marks the end of the world.--*Olrik Ragnarцk 483 s. v. “Weltbrand”, *Danske Studier (1913) 204ff.; *Eisler Weltenmantel und Himmelszelt 452.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 336ff., Boberg; Greek: Grote I 94; Lithuanian: Balys Tautosakos Darbai VI 133f.; Jewish: Neuman; Babylonian: Meissner Babylonien und Assyrien II 118; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 368ff.; Hindu: Keith 105; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 84.--Maori: Dixon 47 n. 33; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 287 n. 57d.; S. Am. Indian (Yuracare, W. Brazil): Alexander Lat. Am. 313, (Araucanian): ibid. 330, (Chaco, Tupinamba, Apapocuva-Guarani, Tembй, Shipaya, Carajб, Mura, Cashinawa, Witoto, Arawak, Yuracare): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 36 (Mataco): ibid. 35, (Toba): ibid. 33, (Tucuna): Nimuendajъ BBAE CXLIII (3) 724, (Bacairi): Lйvi-Strauss ibid. (3) 347.

A1031. A1031. Causes of world-fire.

A1031.1. A1031.1. A “flame of fire swifter than a blast of wind” as punishment for the sin of the Irish. Irish myth: Cross.

A1031.2. A1031.2. World-fire after theft of fire. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1031.3. A1031.3. Evil demons set world on fire. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare, Tupinamba, Arawak): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 36.

A1031.4. A1031.4. Fall of sun causes world-fire. S. Am. Indian (Toba, Mataco, Lengua): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367, (Mocovi): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 34.

A1031.4.1. A1031.4.1. All countries burned while the wife of sun god pours fire from a small bowl. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1031.5. A1031.5. World-fire because of man’s arrogance. African (Fang): Trilles 131.

A1031.6. A1031.6. Miscellaneous reasons for world-fire. S. Am. Indian (Witoto, Apapocuva-Guarani): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 36, (Toba): ibid. 19, (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 316.

A1035. A1035. Quenching the world-fire.

A1035.1. A1035.1. Rain invoked to destroy world-fire. Maori, Melanesian: Dixon 49.

A1035.2. A1035.2. Creator puts out world-fire with his staff. S. A. Indian (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 316.

A1036. A1036. Earth recreated after world-fire. S. Am. Indian (Munderucъ): Horton BBAE CXLIII (3) 282.

A1038. A1038. Men hide from world-fire and renew race. (Cf. A1006.1., A1045.)--Swiss: Jegerlehner Oberwallis 311 No. 47; India: Thompson-Balys.--S. Am. Indian (Toba, Arawak, Mura, Yuracare, Tupinamba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 34--36, (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 158; African (Fang): Trilles 133f.

A1039. A1039. World-fire--miscellaneous.

A1039.1. A1039.1. Vulture sent out as scout to see whether earth has cooled from world-fire. (Cf. A1021.2.).

A1040. A1040. Continuous winter destroys the race. Spoken of as “Fimbulwinter”. It ushers in the end of the world.--*Olrik Ragnarцk 479; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 336ff.; Persian: Carnoy 309.--S. Am. Indian (Toba, Pilagб, Tierra del Fuego): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 30, 37, (Chaco): Mйtraux BBAE CLXIII (1) 367.

A1045. A1045. One pair escapes continuous winter and renews race. (Cf. A1006.1, A1038.)--*Olrik Ragnarцk 479 s. v. “Fimbulwinter”.

A1046. A1046. Continuous world-eclipse. India: Thompson-Balys.--S. Am. Indian (Toba, Mocovi, Mataco, Choroti): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367, (Tupinamba): Mйtraux ibid. (3) 131, (Guarani): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 33.

A1046.1. A1046.1. World-eclipse ended by bat making sun smile. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1050. A1050. Heavens break up at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarцk 480 s. v. “Himmel”.

A1051. A1051. Behavior of stars at end of world.

A1051.1. A1051.1. Stars fall down at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarцk 482 s. v. “Sterne”; Irish myth: Cross.

A1051.2. A1051.2. End of world when stars in one constellation overtake those in another. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 425.

A1052. A1052. Behavior of sun at end of world.

A1052.1. A1052.1. Sun devoured by monster at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarцk 482 s.v. “Sonne”.

A1052.2. A1052.2. Sun shining at night as sign of Doomsday. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.1).

A1052.3. A1052.3. End of world when four (seven) suns appear in sky. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 157, II 566.

A1053. A1053. Behavior of moon at end of world.

A1053.1. A1053.1. Moon shining by day as sign of Doomsday. (Cf. A1002.) Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.2).

A1057. A1057. Seven days silence in whole universe at the end of the world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.10).

A1058. A1058. End of world when culture hero removes one of the world-props. S. Am. Indian (Guaranн): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93.

A1060. A1060. Earth-disturbances at end of world. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1061. A1061. Earth sinks into sea at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarцk 479 s.v. “Erde”.

A1061.1. A1061.1. Earthquakes at the end of the world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.12).--S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 158.

A1062. A1062. Mountains fall together at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarцk 484 s. v. “Zusammenstьrzen”.

A1063. A1063. Water-disturbances at end of world.

A1063.1. A1063.1. Sea makes extraordinary noise and throws out fishes at end of world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.6).

A1063.2. A1063.2. Sea water mixes with fresh water at end of the world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.8).

A1065. A1065. Continuous drought at end of world. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 736; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 171.

A1066. A1066. Sun will lock moon in deep ditch in earth‘s bottom and will eat up stars at end of world. Africa (Fang): Einstein 36.

A1067. A1067. Extraordinary wind at end of the world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.15).

A1068. A1068. Sun thrown on fire: period of darkness, rain. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 83.

A1069. A1069. Flow of molten metal at end of world. Persian: Carnoy 262.

A1070. A1070. Fettered monster’s escape at end of world. Giant, or monster, is fettered in depths of the earth. His movement causes earthquakes. When he succeeds in freeing himself from the fetters and escapes, the world will end.--*Olrik Ragnarцk 278, 478ff. s.v. “Erdbebenriese”, “Schlange”, “Raubtier”, “Ungeheuer”, Danske Studier (1913) 3ff.; Anholm Danske Studier (1904) 141; *Krohn Der gefangene Unhold; *Von der Leyen Der gefesselte Unhold.--Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: De la Saussaye 246; Lettish and Lithuanian: Gray 322; Persian: Carnoy 324; Babylonian: Spence 78.

A1070.1. A1070.1. Birth of monsters as sign at end of world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.7).

A1071. A1071. Fettering of underground monster. Gaster Thespis 160, 329.

A1071.1. A1071.1. Underground monster fettered by trick. Is persuaded to try on fetters. (Sometimes told of fettering Satan, who plays same role.)--*Type 803; *Olrik Ragnarцk 204ff., 248ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Lithuanian Legends of the Devil in Chains (Tautosakos Darbai III [1937] 321--331.)

A1071.2. A1071.2. Forging of chain for fettered monster. Smiths hit once in three or four times on the bare anvil. All of these blows go to forging chains for the monster (devil).--Olrik Ragnarцk 204ff., 248ff., 253 (Prometheus), 269 (Loki).

A1072. A1072. Form of fettered monster.

A1072.1. A1072.1. Fettered monster in human form. *Olrik Ragnarцk 83f.

A1072.2. A1072.2. Fettered monster as ferocious animal. *Olrik Ragnarцk 85, 481 s.v. “Erdbebenriese”.--S. Am. Indian (Guarani): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93.

A1072.3. A1072.3. Fettered monster as snake. *Olrik Ragnarцk 84, 482 s. v. “Schlange”.

A1072.4. A1072.4. Fettered monster as dragon. Irish myth: Cross; Gaster Thespis 160, 329.

A1074. A1074. Fettered monster‘s captivity.

A1074.1. A1074.1. Monster fettered with sword just out of reach. If he reaches it he will free himself.--*Olrik Ragnarцk 136ff., 184ff., 225.

A1074.2. A1074.2. Fettered monster’s vain attempt to reach sword with man‘s help. Could he reach it he would escape.--*Olrik Ragnarцk 139ff., 185, 223ff.

A1074.3. A1074.3. Fettered monster questions visitor. He asks “Are lambs still being produced?” or the like; i.e. is nature still normal? He must remain fettered till he hears that nature’s laws no longer hold.--*Olrik Ragnarцk 149ff., 180ff.

A1074.4. A1074.4. Fettered monster preyed upon by vulture. Cf. Prometheus.--*Olrik Ragnarцk 151ff., 183f., 288.

A1074.5. A1074.5. Fettered monster kept just out of reach of water. The water is always drunk by vulture as he is ready to take it.--*Olrik Ragnarцk 151ff., 183f., 288.

A1074.6. A1074.6. Fettered monster vainly loosens his stake. Each time he loosens it, it is driven in the ground.--*Olrik Ragnarцk 186f., 289.

A1074.7. A1074.7. Fettered monster‘s weakened chains renewed by supernatural power. Are almost licked in two by dog but then renewed.--*Olrik Ragnarцk 152, 189ff., 217f., 289.

A1074.8. A1074.8. Fettered monster’s weakened chains renewed by stroke of a smith. (Cf. A1071.2.)--*Olrik Ragnarцk 152, 189ff., 217f., 289; Fb “smed” III 402a.

A1075. A1075. End of world heralded by coming of Antichrist, a gigantic destructive one-eyed monster. Irish myth: Cross.

A1075.1. A1075.1. Signs before the birth of Antichrist. Irish myth: Cross.

A1080. A1080. Battle at end of world. Armageddon.--Revelations 16:16; Fb “krig” II 296b.; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman, Moreno Esdras (N307.13).

A1080.1. A1080.1. Horse shall wade in blood at Armageddon. *Fb “hest” I 600a.

A1081. A1081. Battle of the gods at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarцk 480 s.v. “Gцtterschlacht”.

A1082. A1082. Battle of gods and monster at end of world. Jewish: Neuman.

A1082.1. A1082.1. Battle of gods and giants at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarцk 480 s.v. “Gцtterschlacht”.

A1082.2. A1082.2. Odin battles Fenris Wolf at end of world. (Cf. A1070.)--*Olrik Ragnarцk 479 s.v. “Fenris-wolf”.

A1082.2.1. A1082.2.1. Other gods battle Fenris wolf at end of world. Icel.: Boberg.

A1082.2.2. A1082.2.2. God battles hound of hell at end of world. Icel.: Boberg.

A1082.3. A1082.3. Thor battles Midgard serpent at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarцk 481 s.v. “Midgardschlange”.

A1082.3.1. A1082.3.1. End of world to come at disease and death of snake encircling the world. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1082.4. A1082.4. God battles Leviathan at end of world. Jewish: Neuman.

A1082.5. A1082.5. God conquers Satan at end of world. Jewish: Neuman.

A1082.6. A1082.6. Battle of saints with Lucifer at end of world. *Hdwb. d. Abergl. II 781ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Tautosakos Darbai VI 133f.

A1082.7. A1082.7. Battle of angels with Leviathan and Behemoth at end of world. Jewish: Neuman.

A1084. A1084. Prophecy of defeat in battle as sign of end of the world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M324.1).

A1085. A1085. End of the gods. *Olrik Ragnarцk 51f.; Irish myth: Cross.

A1087. A1087. Monsters kill each other off at end of world. Jewish: Neuman.

A1090. A1090. World calamities and renewals: miscellaneous motifs.

A1091. A1091. Natural laws inoperative at end of world. *Olrik Ragnarцk 46ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Chinese: Graham.

A1091.1. A1091.1. Three horses from dove‘s egg on last day. *Fb “hest” I 600a.

A1093. A1093. End of world announced by trumpet. *Olrik Ragnarцk 116ff.

A1095. A1095. The Messianic Age. Jewish: **Neuman.

A1097. A1097. Extraordinary man at end of the world. Jewish: Moreno Esdras (M307.16).

A1099. A1099. World calamities--additional motifs.

A1099.1. A1099.1. World destroyed by rain of stones. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1099.2. A1099.2. World devoured by ogre. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

A1099.3. A1099.3. World turned topsy-turvy and eaten by an earthworm. India: Thompson-Balys.


A1100--A1199. Establishment of natural order.

A1100. A1100. Establishment of natural order.

A1101. A1101. The four ages of the world. A development of the present order through four stages or periods, the golden, silver, bronze, and iron ages, or the like.--**Encyc. Religion and Ethics s.v. “Ages of the World”.--Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 17, Grote I 62; Hindu: Keith 105, Penzer IV 240 n. 1, VII 1 n. 5; Chinese: Ferguson 33.

A1101.1. A1101.1. Golden age. A former age of perfection.--Hdwb. d. Abergl. III 927ff.--Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: De la Saussaye 165, MacCulloch Eddic 327, 378 n. 49, Boberg; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 35 No. 8; Greek: Fox 105, Grote I 62; Jewish: Neuman; Persian: Carnoy 300, 305; Hindu: Keith 103; India: Thompson-Balys.--Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G 13/50); Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 66; Carib: ibid 262; Ackawoi: ibid. 269.

A1101.1.1. A1101.1.1. Reign of peace and justice (under certain king). Icel.: Herrmann Saxo II 377; Irish myth: Cross; Persian: Carnoy 300, 305; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Ferguson 33.

A1101.1.2. A1101.1.2. Even trees could speak in golden age. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1101.1.3. A1101.1.3. Former age: spirits and ogres lived with men, and gods appeared in human guise. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1101.2. A1101.2. Reversal of nature in former age.

A1101.2.1. A1101.2.1. Formerly men plowed and cattle were their masters. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1101.2.2. A1101.2.2. Formerly men ate grass: cattle ate rice and pulse. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1101.2.3. A1101.2.3. Formerly men dumb: birds and animals talked. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1101.2.4. A1101.2.4. Formerly men could go safely beneath the sea. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z-G. 13/50).

A1102. A1102. Why powers of nature work on Sabbath. Jewish: Neuman.

A1103. A1103. Nature transformed by God once in seven years. Jewish: Neuman.

A1110. A1110. Establishment of present order: waters.

A1111. A1111. Impounded water. Water is kept by monster so that mankind cannot use it. A hero defeats the monster and releases the water. (The monster is sometimes a giant frog.)--*Chauvin VI 3 No. 181, VII 132 No. 399.--Hindu: Keith 33 (guarded by dragon); India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Ferguson 155; Japanese: Anesaki 276.--Australian: Dixon 279, 297; Papua: Ker 25; Baining of New Britain: ibid. III; Samoan, Melanesian: ibid 38 n. 109, 110.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 293 n. 76, (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 201, 203; S. Am. Indian (Bacairi, Amazon): Alexander Lat. Am. 313, (Botocudo): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 540, (Caingang): Lowie ibid. (1) 397, (Bolivia, Peru): Jijena Sanchez Perro Negro 134.--Africa: Stanley 8, (Basuto): Jacottet 148 No. 21, 154 No. 22 cf. 8 No. 1, (Hottentot): Bleek 27 No. 14, (Ekoi): Talbot 144, 197, (Ababua): Einstein 101.

A1113. A1113. God promises never again to destroy world by water. Jewish: Neuman.

A1115. A1115. Why the sea is salt. New Guinea: Ker 25; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 43.

A1115.1. A1115.1. Why the sea is salt: because of wrecked salt ship.--Fb “hav” I 565b, IV 203a.--Dutch: Volkskunde XVII 23.

A1115.2. A1115.2. Why the sea is salt: magic salt mill. Stolen by sea-captain, who takes it aboard and orders it to grind. It will stop only for its master; ship sinks and mill keeps grinding salt.--*Type 565; *BP II 438ff.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 283; cf. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 108.

A1115.3. A1115.3. Why the sea is salt: heavy rain showers on ashes of wood burnt by primeval fire. S. Am. Indian (Tupi): Ehrenreich 16, (Tupinamba): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 133.

A1116. A1116. Origin of sea-waves.

A1116.1. A1116.1. Sea-waves are (manes of) sea-god’s horses. Irish myth: Cross.

A1117. A1117. Origin of foam on waters. West Indian: Parsons JAFL XXXII 443.

A1118. A1118. Origin of swirling motion of water. Animals and birds scratch in it.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 283f.; Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 4 No. 7, XXXIII 51 No. 7; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 140 No. 5; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 81 No. 6.

A1119. A1119. Establishment of present order: waters--miscellaneous.

A1119.1. A1119.1. Why sea is blue. New Guinea: Ker 25.

A1119.2. A1119.2. Why sea waters are warm: kept so by Leviathan. Jewish: Neuman.

A1119.3. A1119.3. Origin of sea‘s unpleasant odor. Jewish: Neuman.

A1120. A1120. Establishment of present order: winds. Jewish: Neuman; India. Thompson-Balys.--Tonga: Gifford 16; Quileute: Farrand JAFL XXXII 269ff.; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 224.

A1121. A1121. Breathing of deity (spirit) causes winds. Chinese: Werner 77; Maori: Clark 19; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 175, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 153, (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 267; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 28.

A1122. A1122. Cave of winds. Winds originally confined in caves.--Roman: Virgil Aeneid I lines 52 ff.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 457.--Maori: Dixon 55; Western Mono: Gifford JAFL XXXVI 328 No. 9.

A1122.1. A1122.1. Hole of winds: stopper destroyed. The hole is stopped with a wooden stopper, which is destroyed. The country dries up.--Chauvin II 110 No. 75.

A1122.2. A1122.2. Wind a bird dwelling in mountain-hole. Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 107.

A1122.3. A1122.3. Lost wind found in hollow tree: has been banished and is needed by men. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1122.4. A1122.4. Wind comes through holes in sky when gut covering is cut. Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 498.

A1123. A1123. Winds as children of titans (giants). Greek: Grote I 6.

A1125. A1125. Winds caused by flapping wings. A giant bird causes the wind with his wings. The wings are cut by the culture hero so that the bird cannot flap so hard.--Gaster Thespis 158; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 276; Babylonian: Spence 117; India: Thompson-Balys.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 292 n. 74; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Friends 39ff. No. 5.

A1125.1. A1125.1. Wind caused by flapping of ears of giant. Peigan: Uhlenbeck Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenshappen XIII (1) 64.

A1126. A1126. Wind caused by wind-god’s movements. When the son of the wind lies down, the wind blows.--Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 101ff.

A1127. A1127. Winds of the four quarters established. Winnebago, Omaha: Alexander N. Am. 99; Quileute: Farrand-Meyer JAFL XXXII 271 No. 13.

A1127.1. A1127.1. Effect of the four winds on weather. Jewish: Neuman.--Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 224; Ojibwa: Jones JAFL XXIX 372.

A1127.1.1. A1127.1.1. North wind tempers fury of south wind. Jewish: Neuman.

A1127.1.2. A1127.1.2. South wind causes heat and hurricanes. Jewish: Neuman.

A1127.2. A1127.2. Gentle west wind said to be exhausted from fleeing deity. Maori: Clark 46.

A1128. A1128. Regulation of winds. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1128.1. A1128.1. Angels‘ wings protect earth from winds. Jewish: Neuman.

A1128.2. A1128.2. When wind-spirit is awake it storms; asleep, it is calm. Tonga: Gifford 53.

A1129. A1129. Establishment of present order: winds--miscellaneous.

A1129.1. A1129.1. Colors of winds. Irish myth: Cross.

A1129.1.1. A1129.1.1. Creator establishes twelve winds, each a different color. Irish myth: Cross.

A1129.2. A1129.2. Origin of monsoon: from chewed skin and spit of pair of divine friends eating guavas. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1129.3. A1129.3. Wind is blind. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1130. A1130. Establishment of present order: weather phenomena.

A1130.1. A1130.1. Angels set over clouds, winds, and rains. Jewish: Neuman.

A1130.2. A1130.2. Origin of storms in sixth heaven. Jewish: Neuman.

A1131. A1131. Origin of rain. India: Thompson-Balys; Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 113.

A1131.0.1. A1131.0.1. Regulation of rains. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

A1131.0.2. A1131.0.2. Why it rains most in the hills. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1131.1. A1131.1. Rain from tears. Jewish: Neuman; Ekoi: Talbot 344; Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 448; Maori: Clark 19.

A1131.1.1. A1131.1.1. Rain from urine. Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 61, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 600, (East Greenland): Rasmussen I 100; Koryak: Jochelson JE VI 142.

A1131.2. A1131.2. Rainy weather sent by saint as punishment. *Dh II 176ff.

A1131.3. A1131.3. Rain from sea in upper world. Fb “hav” IV 203a.--Jewish: Neuman; Eskimo (East Greenland): Rasmussen I 81; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 26, (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684.

A1131.4. A1131.4. Rain from container in sky. Gaster Thespis 192; Eskimo (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 266, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 153, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 600, (East Greenland): Holm 95; S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco, Ashluslay): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366.

A1131.4.1. A1131.4.1. Rain kept in waterskin dragged along sky floor. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1131.5. A1131.5. Rain from rain-god (rain spirit). See all references to A287.--Greek: Fox 159 (Zeus); S. Am. Indian (Toba, Chamacoco, Mataco): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366, MAFLS XL 26f.

A1131.6. A1131.6. Rain shed by stars. Gaster Thespis 212.

A1132. A1132. Origin of dew. Knoop Zs. f. Vksk. XXII 89; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 331ff.; Jewish: Neuman.

A1133. A1133. Origin of clouds. Jewish: Neuman; Maori: Clark 19; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 97; Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 79; S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366.

A1133.1. A1133.1. Origin of clouds from Ymir’s brain. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 325f., Boberg.

A1133.2. A1133.2. Origin of clouds: creator ornaments the sky with clouds so that the mountains are sometimes shaded. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1133.3. A1133.3. Clouds as smoke rising to sky. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 26f.

A1133.4. A1133.4. Clouds as God‘s shield. Jewish: Neuman.

A1134. A1134. Origin of mist (fog). India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 176.

A1135. A1135. Origin of wintry weather.

A1135.1. A1135.1. Origin of cold in winter.

A1135.1.1. A1135.1.1. Origin of cold: sun turns fiery face upward. Jewish: Neuman.

A1135.2. A1135.2. Origin of snow. Irish myth: Cross; Flemish: De Meyer FFC XXXVII 83 No. 9b; Jewish: Neuman.--Eskimo (West Greenland): Rasmussen II 33, Rink 44.

A1135.2.1. A1135.2.1. Snow from feathers or clothes of a witch (Frau Holle).--*Hoffmann-Krayer Zs. f. Vksk. XXV 119 n. 5; *Fb “sne” III 427b.

A1135.3. A1135.3. Origin of frost. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 22; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1135.4. A1135.4. Origin of hail. S. Am. Indian (Aymara): Tschopik BBAE CXLIII (2) 571.

A1137. A1137. Causes of hot weather: God bores hole in hell. Jewish: Neuman.

A1141. A1141. Origin of lightning. Jewish: Neuman.--Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 113; Liberia: Bundy JAFL XXXII 422f.; Nootka: Sapir JAFL XXXII 354; Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 61, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 175, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 600.

A1141.1. A1141.1. Lightning as fiery snake. Siberian, Finnish: Holmberg Siberian 445.

A1141.2. A1141.2. Lightning from flashing sword. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1141.3. A1141.3. Lightning from heavenly horses striking hoofs against stars. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1141.4. A1141.4. Lightning as god‘s whip. Gaster Thespis 157; Jewish: Neuman.

A1141.5. A1141.5. Lightning as God’s messenger. Jewish: Neuman.

A1141.6. A1141.6. Lightning produced by deity. Greek: Grote I 8; Jewish: Neuman; Maori: Clark 168.

A1141.7. A1141.7. Lightning from fire. S. Am. Indian (Chorotн, Lengua, Ashluslay): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 366, (Tupinamba): Mйtraux ibid. (3) 132.

A1141.7.1. A1141.7.1. Lightning as torches of invisible dancers. Africa (Fang): Trilles 174.

A1141.8. A1141.8. Origin of lightning--other motifs. S. Am. Indian (Toba, Mataco, Chamacoco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 27f., (Huamachuco): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 151.

A1142. A1142. Origin of thunder. *Blinkenberg The Thunderweapon in Religion and Folklore (Cambridge 1911); *Saintyves Pierres magiques (Paris 1936); Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 82 No. 9a.; India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.--Cook Group: Dixon 88; Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 175, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 153, (Cape York): Rasmussen III 62; Nootka: Sapir JAFL XXXII 354; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 683f.; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 97, (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 113, Liberian: Bundy JAFL XXXII 422f.

A1142.0.1. A1142.0.1. Origin of thunderbolt. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1142.1. A1142.1. Creator‘s (deity’s) voice makes thunder. Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Werner 77.

A1142.2. A1142.2. Thunder from flying dragon. Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 440.

A1142.3. A1142.3. Persons escape to sky and become thunder. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 96; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 177.

A1142.4. A1142.4. Origin of thunder clouds: from wings of mountains. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1142.5. A1142.5. Thunder is sound of God‘s gun. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1142.5.1. A1142.5.1. Thunder caused by God beating his weapon. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1142.5.1.1. A1142.5.1.1. Thunder from crashing of stones in moon as goddess beats tapa. Samoa: Clark 121.

A1142.5.1.2. A1142.5.1.2. Thunder from thunder-spirit beating his children. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684.

A1142.6. A1142.6. Cause of thunder: sounds of the horses’ hoofs as gods play ball. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1142.6.1. A1142.6.1. Thunder from clashing weapons of warring spirits in sky. S. Am. Indian (Chamacoco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 26.

A1142.7. A1142.7. Thunder from deity separating the winds which try to unite. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1142.8. A1142.8. Thunder is noise of waterskin which rain-god drags along sky floor. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1142.9. A1142.9. Thunder made by giants in sky. Greek: Grote I 5, 8, 12, (Cyclops).

A1142.9.1. A1142.9.1. Thunder the drums of dead. Africa (Fang): Trilles 174.

A1145. A1145. Cause of earthquakes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1145.1. A1145.1. Earthquakes from movements of subterranean monster. (Cf. A844).--*Encyc. Religion and Ethics I 491b; *Olrik Ragnarцk 278; Icel.: De la Saussaye 264.--Greek: Fox 211 (Poseidon); Jewish: Neuman; Egyptian: Mьller 104; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 311f.; Armenian: Ananikian 93; India: Thompson-Balys.--S. Am. Indian (Chibcha): Kroeber BBAE CXLIII (2) 908.

A1145.2. A1145.2. Earthquakes from movements of sea-monster. Irish myth: Cross.

A1147. A1147. Origin of stormy sky.

A1147.1. A1147.1. Origin of red sky (blood). Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 448; Tahiti: Henry 339.

A1148. A1148. Origin of tornado sunsets; i.e., peculiar sunsets foreboding tornadoes.--Ekoi: Talbot 364.

A1150. A1150. Determination of seasons. Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 87 n. 3; India: Thompson-Balys.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 288 n. 60, (Ojibwa): Jones JAFL XXIX 372, Carson JAFL XXX 493, (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 226, 246, (Naskapi): Speck JAFL XXVIII 76.

A1150.1. A1150.1. Establishment of times for sowing and reaping. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1151. A1151. Theft of the seasons. Certain seasons are lacking. A culture hero steals the season from a monster and brings it to his people.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 288 n. 60a.

A1152. A1152. Boneless man turned over to produce seasons. N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 276 n. 16.

A1153. A1153. Seasons produced by marriage of North and South. N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 288 n. 61.

A1154. A1154. Genealogy of summer and winter. Icel.: Boberg.

A1155. A1155. Why days lengthen in spring. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 83 No. 9d.

A1156. A1156. Why days shorten in autumn: the real sun sets very early because the red cockscomb plant, used to kill his brother sun with, grows to its full height during this time.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A1157. A1157. Causes of seasons--deities push sun back and forth at solstices. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 119.

A1160. A1160. Determination of the months. Jewish: Neuman.--Ojibwa: Carson JAFL XXX 493.

A1161. A1161. February‘s shortage of days. Days stolen by January and March.--*Kцhler-Bolte I 380f.; Destriche RTP II 53; Gaidoz Mйlusine VII No. 11 (with references to earlier numbers); Shaineanu Romania XVIII 107.

A1170. A1170. Origin of night and day. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1171. A1171. Origin of day.

A1171.1. A1171.1. Opening of creator‘s eyes creates day. (Cf. A0.)--Chinese: Werner 78.

A1171.2. A1171.2. Windows in firmament shed light. Irish myth: Cross.

A1171.3. A1171.3. Angels of the day: Jewish: Neuman.

A1171.4. A1171.4. Origin of day: son of the night and the dawn. Icel.: Boberg.

A1172. A1172. Determination of night and day. After much discussion, the relative length of these divisions is determined.--Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Maori: Clark 43, 46; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 289 n. 62; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 683; African (Fang): Einstein 169.

A1172.1. A1172.1. Regulation of sunshine. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1172.2. A1172.2. Wallet containing night and day. Sйbillot Incidents s.v. “bissac”.

A1172.3. A1172.3. Night and day have steeds and chase each other. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 200.

A1174. A1174. Origin of night. India: Thompson-Balys; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 205.

A1174.1. A1174.1. Night (darkness) in package. Released.--Munderucъ: Alexander Lat. Am. 310; Arawak, Carib, Surinam: ibid. 274.

A1174.2. A1174.2. Why some nights are dark and some light. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1174.3. A1174.3. Purchase of night. Originally no night. Culture hero goes to distant land and buys it. He introduces sleep, etc. Cock to crow for day. (Cf. B755, J2272.1.).--Banks Is.: Dixon 113.

A1174.3.1. A1174.3.1. Night stolen and kept in jar. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 683.

A1174.4. A1174.4. Night caused by deity wrapping himself in dark mantle. Maori: Clark 17, 21.

A1177. A1177. Why sun shines on Saturday (Friday). *Dh II 30.--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 83 No. 9c; Jewish: Neuman.

A1178. A1178. Origin of “yesterday” and “today.” India: Thompson-Balys.

A1179. A1179. Origin of night and day--miscellaneous.

A1179.1. A1179.1. Origin of twilight.

A1179.1.1. A1179.1.1. Twilight reflection of fires of hell. Jewish: Neuman.

A1179.2. A1179.2. Origin of dawn.

A1179.2.1. A1179.2.1. Dawn reflection of roses of paradise. Jewish: Neuman.

A1180. A1180. Establishment of present order--miscellaneous motifs.

A1181. A1181. Determination of world center. By reaching to its ends.--N. A. Indian: Kroeber JAFL XXI 223.

A1182. A1182. Determination of world quarters. The four cardinal points.--Yuma: N. Curtis Craftsman XVI 560.

A1185. A1185. Wings cut from flying mountains. In beginning mountains have wings. They are cut off by thunderbolt.--Hindu: Penzer VI 3 n. 1; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1186. A1186. Measuring the world. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1187. A1187. Creator appoints a chief for each class of created things: Lucifer for demons, Sion for mountains, etc.--Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1191. A1191. All things receive names. Chinese: Graham; Jewish: Neuman.

A1195. A1195. Origin of echo. Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 172.

A1196. A1196. Why salt disappeared from forests. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.




A1200--A1299. Creation of man.

A1200. A1200. Creation of man. *Hdwb. d. Abergl. I 460 s.v. “Anthropogonie”; *DeCock Volkssage, 146ff.; *Basset RTP XVIII 542 and references to earlier volumes.--Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 34 No. 6; Jewish: *Neuman; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 371ff.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 283 n. 49, (Calif.): Gayton and Newman 94; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XI 338, (N. Alaska and Mackenzie River): Jenness 80, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 152, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 167; Quichй: Alexander Lat. Am. 163.

A1201. A1201. Man created to rule the earth. Africa (Fang): Trilles 131.

A1205. A1205. Unacceptable gods as first inhabitants of earth. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 60.

A1210. A1210. Creation of man by creator. *Dh I 89.--Irish myth: Cross; Greek: *Grote I 71; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3030; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Werner 81.--Maori: Dixon 23, 26; Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 312; Hawaiian, Tahitan: Dixon 26; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 92; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684, (Tucuna): Nimuendajъ ibid. 724; Africa (Fjort): Dennett 105, (Ibo of Nigeria): Basden 282, (Ekoi): Talbot 373.

A1211. A1211. Man made from creator’s body. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1211.0.1. A1211.0.1. Man springs into existence from deity’s body by his mere thinking. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1211.1. A1211.1. Man from dirt mixed with creator‘s blood. Eitrem Opferritus und Voropfer der Griechen und Rцmer (Skrifter Akad. Oslo 1914 No. 1 426).--Gaster Oldest Stories 69; Babylonian: Spence 81.--New Britain: Dixon 107 (figures drawn on ground and sprinkled with creator’s blood).

A1211.2. A1211.2. Man from sweat of creator. Dh I 113; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 33.--Persian: Carnoy 293.

A1211.3. A1211.3. Man from spittle of creator. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 32; Oceanic: Dixon 24.

A1211.3.1. A1211.3.1. Being made from spittle of the gods. Icel.: De la Saussaye 233.

A1211.4. A1211.4. Man made from creator‘s eye. Egyptian: Mьller 70ff.

A1211.5. A1211.5. Man made from dirt rubbed from creator’s (hero‘s) body. (Cf. A833). India: Thompson-Balys.

A1211.5.1. A1211.5.1. Man made from broken off toenail of creator. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.

A1211.6. A1211.6. Primeval human pair spring from two drops of urine of creator (woman from half-drop). India: Thompson-Balys.

A1211.7. A1211.7. First man the result of maid having licked semen-stained loin cloth of creator’s teacher. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1211.8. A1211.8. Primeval crab pulls first five living creatures out of his side. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1212. A1212. Man created in creator‘s image. Jewish: *Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 43.

A1215. A1215. Man originates from god who comes to earth. West Caroline Is.: Dixon 250.

A1216. A1216. Man as offspring of creator. Greek: Fox 11.--India: Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: Dixon 156, 167, Voorhoeve Overzicht 64.

A1216.1. A1216.1. Mankind from masturbation of creator with earth. (Cf. A615.1.) Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 314.

A1217. A1217. Devil’s unsuccessful attempt to vivify his creations as God has done. Succeeds only in making animal.--Dh I 90ff., 156ff.; *Fb “menneske” II 578a.--Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 4, 39, 41, 149; Jewish: *Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 61; Maidu: Dixon BAM XVII 39ff. No. 1.

A1217.1. A1217.1. Rebel angels oppose creation of man. Jewish: *Neuman.

A1218. A1218. Man created by co-operation of the gods. *BP III 54.--Icel.: De la Saussaye 263, MacCulloch Eddic 327; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 39; Jewish: Neuman; Greek: Fox 15.

A1220. A1220. Creation of man through evolution. Hawaiian: Dixon 15f.; Samoan: ibid. 18, 28; Maori: ibid. 27.

A1220.1. A1220.1. Progressive degeneration to present race of men. Greek: *Grote I 64.

A1221. A1221. Mankind from unusual primeval mating. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1221.1. A1221.1. Mankind begotten by giant‘s two feet. He touches one foot with the other and begets progeny.--Icel.: De la Saussaye 342 (Ymir).

A1221.2. A1221.2. Mankind from “Peace and Quiet fructified by Light.” Hawaiian: Dixon 16.

A1221.3. A1221.3. Mankind from mating of pairs of reeds. Igorot (Luzon): Dixon 176.

A1221.4. A1221.4. Mankind from mating of tree and vine. Borneo: Dixon 159; Samoan: ibid. 164 n. 37.

A1221.5. A1221.5. Mankind from mating of frog and “daughter of fire.” Africa: Bouvergnes 33, 40.

A1221.6. A1221.6. Mankind from human-animal mating. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 88.

A1222. A1222. Mankind originates from eggs. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 89 No. 49; India: Thompson-Balys; Oceanic: Dixon 109 (Fiji, Torres Straits, Admiralty Is.), 109 n. 17 (Polynesia, Indonesia, Micronesia), 160 (Sumatra), 169f. (Indonesia), Handy 125 (Marquesas); S. Am. Indian (Jivaro): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 148, (Mbaya): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367.

A1224. A1224. Descent of man from animals. *Lang Myth I 179, 184; *Hdwb. d. Abergl. I 465; *Frazer Old Testament I 33ff.--Australian: Van Gennep Mythes et lйgendes d’Australie 2f., 8f.; Koryak: Jochelson JE VI 374; Eskimo (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 168, (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 261, (Greenland): Rink 471, (Cape York): Rasmussen III 85, (W. Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 359, (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 152, (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 482, (Mackenzie River): Jenness RCanAE XIII 81; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 104.

A1224.0.1. A1224.0.1. Mankind is descended from marriage of human being and animal. Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 482, cf. Thompson Tales n. 2; S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.

A1224.1. A1224.1. Mankind descended from tadpoles. Wa (Indo-Chinese): Scott Indo-Chinese 293.

A1224.2. A1224.2. Mankind descended from worms or larvae. Eastern Indonesian: Dixon 169; Tonga: Gifford 15f.; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684.

A1224.3. A1224.3. Woman created from dog‘s tail. Eve.--*Dh I 114ff.; *Bolte Zs f. Vksk. XI 255 n. 3; Polнvka ibid. XVI 212.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VII 5 No. 11, XXXIII 52 No. 11; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 140 No. 10; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 82 No. 17; Flemish: DeMeyer XXXVII 83 No. 11; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 36ff., 52, 65.

A1224.4. A1224.4. Mankind born from a cow. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1224.5. A1224.5. Descent of men from monkeys. Chinese: Graham.

A1224.5.1. A1224.5.1. Men are monkeys who have lost their tails. Chinese: Graham.

A1224.6. A1224.6. Mankind descended from fish. S. Am. Indian (Tucuna): Nimuendajъ BBAE CXLIII 93, 294.

A1224.7. A1224.7. Creation of man by creator from ants. He commands them to become men.--Greek: Fox 11.

A1225. A1225. First men undeveloped. Rudimentary and amorphous, gradually assume present shape.--Arunta: Dixon 272; Borneo: ibid. 159; Society Is.: ibid. 29, 164; Nias Is., Samoan: ibid. 164 n. 35, 36.

A1225.1. A1225.1. First couple organically united. Like Siamese twins. (Cf. A1275.2.)--Jewish: Neuman.--S. Am. Indian (Chaco): Alexander Lat. Am. 322, (Lengua): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 267.

A1225.2. A1225.2. Man originally without hands and feet. Boy steals them from Python, and afterward men have them.--Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 376.

A1225.2.1. A1225.2.1. Man given hands, feet, mouth and nose by monkey. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 68.

A1226. A1226. Man created after series of unsuccessful experiments. Greek: *Grote I 62; Quichй: Alexander Lat. Am. 163ff.; Cakchiquel: ibid. 180; Banks Is.: Beckwith Myth 61.

A1226.1. A1226.1. Creator makes man out of butter first; it would not stand up and melted. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1227. A1227. Different types of men produced from one original type. Jewish: Neuman.

A1230. A1230. Emergence or descent of first man to earth.

A1231. A1231. First man descends from sky. *Lang Myth I 75; India: *Thompson-Balys; German New Guinea: Dixon 111; Northern Australia: ibid. 274; Kei Is. (Indonesia): ibid. 156; Eastern Indonesian: ibid. 167.--N. A. Indian: Krickeberg Indianermдrchen aus Nordamerika 10; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 517; Carib: Alexander Lat. Am. 38; S. Am. Indian (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 315, (Yagua): Steward-Mйtraux ibid. (3) 736, (Warrau): Kirchoff ibid. (3) 880, (Bacairi): Lйvi-Strauss ibid. (3) 347, (Tiatinagua): Mйtraux ibid. (3) 448, (Toba, Mataco): Mйtraux ibid. (1) 367, Mйtraux MAFLS XL 21f., 101.--African: Werner African 152.

A1231.1. A1231.1. Mankind from featherless bird sent from sky. Sumatra: Dixon 169.

A1232. A1232. Mankind ascends from under the earth. (Cf. A1631.) Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.--S. Am. Indian (Chaco, Pampean): Alexander Lat. Am. 322, (Tereno, Caduveo, Mbaya): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367, (Inca): Rowe ibid. (2) 315, (Munderucъ): Horton ibid. (3) 281, (Viracocha): Steward-Mйtraux ibid. (3) 550, (Chamacoco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 25; N. Am. Indian (Zuсi): *Benedict 337.

A1232.1. A1232.1. Mankind from bones of dead brought from underworld. Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 90.

A1232.2. A1232.2. Mankind emerges from lake. A woman and boy. They marry and populate earth.--Chibcha (with reference to other South American tribes): Alexander Lat. Am. 199.

A1232.2.1. A1232.2.1. Mankind emerges from water. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1232.3. A1232.3. Mankind emerges from caves. India: Thompson-Balys; Haitian: Alexander Lat. Am. 30; S. Am. Indian (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 317, (Aymara): Tschopik ibid. (2) 571, (Araucanian): Cooper ibid. (2) 753, (Yuracare): Mйtraux ibid. (3) 503, (Mbaya): Mйtraux ibid. (1) 367, (Tiatinagua): Mйtraux ibid. (3) 449, (Caduveo): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 106; African: Werner African 147.

A1232.3.1. A1232.3.1. Mankind emerges from a pit. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1234. A1234. Mankind emerges from ground. Greek: *Grote I 177; Australian: Dixon Oc. Myth. 271; Papuan (British New Guinea): ibid. 110; Indonesian: ibid. 169 n. 79--81; Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 312; Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 47; African: Werner African 147.

A1234.1. A1234.1. Earth as virgin mother of Adam. *Denk Zs. f. Vksk. XII 352.

A1234.1.1. A1234.1.1. Primeval human pair spring from womb of Mother Earth. (Cf. A1270.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A1234.2. A1234.2. Mankind emerges from mountain. Pijaos (Colombia): Alexander Lat. Am. 200.

A1234.3. A1234.3. Spontaneous generation. Scientists find child on deserted island. They suggest that he has emerged from the ground. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

A1234.4. A1234.4. Earth gives birth to woman. Chinese: Graham.

A1236. A1236. Mankind emerges from tree. (Cf. A1251.)--Indonesian: Dixon 168f.; Papuan (British New Guinea): ibid. 110; Sumatra: ibid 160.--S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Kirchoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880, (Chamacoco): Mйtraux ibid. (1) 367; African: Werner African 145f.

A1236.1. A1236.1. Mankind emerges from buds on trees. Nias Is.: Dixon 167; Sumatran: ibid. 160.

A1236.2. A1236.2. Tribes emerge from melon. Lao, Wa (Indo-China): Scott Indo-Chin. 286, 289.

A1240. A1240. Man made from mineral substance.

A1241. A1241. Man made from clay (earth). *Dh I 89-III passim; Barton JAOS XXXIX 287; *Frazer Old Testament I 3--29.--Irish myth: Cross; Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 51 n. 5, Fox 10f., 13, 208; Jewish: *Neuman; Hindu: Penzer III 59; Babylonian: Spence 86; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 373; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 114ff.--Polynesian (Maori, Hawaii, Tahiti, Society Is., Marquesas): Dixon 24--26; Indonesian: ibid. 172ff. n. 96--100, 104--106; Australian: ibid. 273; Marquesas: Handy 122f.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 44ff.; Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 315.--Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 454; N. A. Indian: Krickeberg Indianermдrchen 267, 307, 321f., (Calif.): Gayton and Newman 56; S. Am. Indian (Lengua): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367, (Apapocuva-Guarani): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 136; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 85; Quichй: ibid. 163.

A1241.1. A1241.1. Man made from piece of clay thrown on ground. Babylonian: Spence 162.

A1241.2. A1241.2. Man made from sand sprinkled with water. Muzo (Colombia): Alexander Lat. Am. 200.

A1241.3. A1241.3. Man made from clay image and vivified. (Cf. A1241.2, A1252.1.)--Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 4, 34f.; Jewish: *Neuman, Moreno Esdras; Indonesian: Dixon 172ff.; Banks Is., New Hebrides: ibid. 107; Hawaii: *Beckwith Myth 43--46; S. Am. Indian (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 315, (Yuracare): Mйtraux ibid. (3) 504; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 94.

A1241.4. A1241.4. Man made from earth reddened with blood of human sacrifice. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1241.4.1. A1241.4.1. Man from clay and animal’s blood. Africa (Loango): pechuлl-Loesche 267.

A1241.5. A1241.5. Man made of earth brought from four different places. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1245. A1245. Man created from stones. Hdwb. d. Abergl. I 463.--Greek: *Frazer Apollodorus I 55 n. 2; Fox 11.--Nauru (Pleasant Is.): Dixon 252; Tongan, Samoan, Melanesian: ibid. 158; Indonesian: Kruyt Het Animisme 469.--Central American: Van Cappelle Mythen en Sagen uit West Indiл 19; S. Am. Indian (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 315, (Paressi): Mйtraux ibid. (3) 359.

A1245.1. A1245.1. New race from stones thrown over head after deluge. (Cf. A1254.1.).--Greek: Frazer Apollodorus I 55 n. 2, Fox 19.

A1245.2. A1245.2. Mankind from vivified stone image. (Cf. A1241.3, A1252.1.).--Indonesian: Dixon 174.

A1245.3. A1245.3. Mankind from cleft rock. Formosa: Dixon 170; Gilbert Is.: ibid. 251.

A1245.4. A1245.4. Mankind from salty stone (ice block) licked by cow. (Audhumla).--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 63, 324, Boberg.

A1245.5. A1245.5. Man born from mountains. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1246. A1246. Mankind originates from shell. New Hebrides: Dixon 110.

A1247. A1247. Mankind originates from metals. Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 85.

A1250. A1250. Man made from vegetable substance.

A1251. A1251. Creation of man from tree. (Cf. A1236, A1275.6.)--Hdwb. d. Abergl. I 461, 955; Holmberg Baum 69; BP III 54.--Icel.: Herrmann Nordische Mythologie 579, MacCulloch Eddic 327f., Boberg; Greek: Fox 11; Hindu: Berguigne La religion vйdique I 100.--Australian: Dixon 274; Island of Nieue: ibid. 30; Melanesian: ibid. 106; Solomon Is.: ibid. 110; Ceram, Amboina, Formosa, Borneo, Nias: ibid. 168; Indonesian: Voorhoeve Overzicht 65, Kruyt Het Animisme 465.--Central American: Van Cappelle 18; S. Am. Indian (Tembй): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 140.

A1252. A1252. Creation of man from wood. Borneo: Dixon 174f.; S. Am. Indian (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 360.

A1252.1. A1252.1. Mankind from vivified wooden image. (Cf. A1241.3, A1245.2)--Indonesian: Dixon 172ff.; Admiralty Is., Banks Is.: ibid. 106; India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Bacairi, Amazon): Alexander Lat. Am. 312.

A1253. A1253. Creation of man from fruit (nut).

A1253.1. A1253.1. Creation of man from fruit.

A1253.1.1. A1253.1.1. Creation of man from fig. S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 108.

A1253.1.2. A1253.1.2. First man born from apple. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 90 No. 49.

A1253.2. A1253.2. Creation of man from nut.

A1253.2.1. A1253.2.1. Creation of woman from coconut. The first man throws a coconut on the ground and thus creates the first woman.--New Britain: Dixon 107f.

A1253.2.2. A1253.2.2. Men from long nuts, women from short ones. S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 108.

A1254. A1254. Man created from seeds. Burmese: Scott Indo-Chin. 281; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 450; Isthmian tribes (Panama): Alexander Lat. Am. 193; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684.

A1254.1. A1254.1. New race from seeds thrown over head after deluge. (Cf. A1245.1., A1006.)--Tamanac (Carib): Alexander Lat. Am. 271.

A1255. A1255. Man made from plant. Sulka (New Britain): Dixon 130, 132 n. 2.

A1255.1. A1255.1. Man from sugar-cane stalks. Solomon Is., New Britain: Dixon 110.

A1255.2. A1255.2. Man from ears of corn. Navaho: Alexander N. Am. 158.

A1256. A1256. Man made from herb. Tunja (Colombia): Alexander Lat. Am. 200.

A1256.1. A1256.1. Man made from grass. Hindu: Penzer IV 128.--Ata (Mindanao): Dixon 176.

A1260. A1260. Mankind made from miscellaneous materials. Indonesian: Dixon 176.

A1260.1. A1260.1. Man made from combination of different objects. Grimm Deutsche Mythologie I 468ff.--Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 371.

A1260.1.1. A1260.1.1. Man made of four elements. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1260.1.2. A1260.1.2. Man made of substances from eight different sources. Irish myth: Cross.

A1260.1.3. A1260.1.3. Adam’s body made of eight (four) things. Body, earth; bones, stones; veins, roots; blood, water; hair, grass; thoughts, wind; spirit, clouds--or warmth, fire; cold, air; dryness, earth; instability, water.--*Dh I 111ff.; Kцhler-Bolte II 1ff.--Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 326f.; Siberian: *Holmberg Siberian 376.

A1260.1.4. A1260.1.4. Seven substances employed in composition of human body. Jewish: Neuman.

A1260.1.5. A1260.1.5. Man made of clay with bones of stone, with blood of water and with vines for veins. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1261. A1261. Man made from water. Greek: Fox 10; Jewish: Neuman.

A1261.1. A1261.1. Man created from sea-foam. *Dh I 18f., cf. 23.

A1261.2. A1261.2. Man created from egg formed from sea-foam. Minahassa (Celebes): Dixon 157.

A1262. A1262. Man created from sweat. Icel.: De la Saussaye 342.

A1262.1. A1262.1. Man created from sweat, heat, and breath. Irish myth: Cross.

A1263. A1263. Man created from part of body.

A1263.1. A1263.1. Man created from blood. Jewish: Neuman.

A1263.1.1. A1263.1.1. Man created from blood-clot. Chatham Is., Samoan, Melanesian: Dixon 30; Admiralty Is., Polynesian, Indonesian, Melanesian, New Britain: *ibid. 109 n. 17.

A1263.1.2. A1263.1.2. Man from blood of game animal. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684.

A1263.2. A1263.2. Man created from fingernail. Yuracare (West Brazil): Alexander Lat. Am. 314.

A1263.3. A1263.3. Man created from rubbings of skin. India: Thompson-Balys; Zuсi: Parsons JAFL XXIX 394 n. 1.

A1263.4. A1263.4. Man created from spittle of holy person. *Fb “spytte” III 515b.

A1263.5. A1263.5. Man created from animal horns that bloomed and bore him as fruit. Chinese: Graham.

A1263.6. A1263.6. Man created from culture hero‘s genitals. Koryak: Jochelson JE VI 139, 165, 168, 178, 218.

A1263.7. A1263.7. Man created from animal bone. Jewish: Neuman; Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 51.

A1265. A1265. Men created from sown dragon’s teeth. Cadmus, Jason.--Grierson FL XXXIII (1922) 380.--Greek: Fox 10, 45, 112; Frazer Apollodorus I 315 n. 2.

A1266. A1266. Man created from food.

A1266.1. A1266.1. Man made from meat-ball. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 89 No. 49.

A1268. A1268. Man created from ashes (cinders). India: Thompson-Balys; Gilbert Is. (Micronesia): Dixon 252; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 85.

A1268.1. A1268.1. Tribe born from fire. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1270. A1270. Primeval human pair. India: *Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Apapocuva-Guarani): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 138, (Yuracare): Mйtraux ibid. 144, (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 359.

A1270.1. A1270.1. Primeval human pair live in innocence. Tonga: Gifford 15.

A1271. A1271. Origin of first parents.

A1271.1. A1271.1. Sun, moon, and stars bring forth first parents. Sun and moon beget son; morning and evening star beget daughter; these, the first parents, are at first without understanding, but it is awakened later by demigods.--Pawnee: Alexander N. Am. 110.

A1271.2. A1271.2. Sun and moon beget stones and birds: these transformed to first parents. Baining of New Britain: Dixon 110.

A1271.3. A1271.3. First parents children of god. Persian: Carnoy 294; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 88.

A1271.4. A1271.4. First parents originate from gold which is from body of first man. Born fifteen years old.--Persian: Carnoy 294.

A1273. A1273. Twin first parents. Persian: Carnoy 294f.

A1273.1. A1273.1. Incestuous first parents. India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine: Dixon 171f.

A1275. A1275. Creation of first man‘s (woman’s) mate. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1275.1. A1275.1. Creation of first woman from man‘s rib. *Dh I 115ff.; *Frazer Old Testament I 9f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.--Spanish Exempla: Keller; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 34, 36ff., 52, 65; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 379; Hawaiian: Dixon 24; cf. Central Caroline Is.: ibid. 251, Beckwith Myth 43, 46.

A1275.1.1. A1275.1.1. Deity creates princess from prince’s body and gives her to him. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1275.2. A1275.2. First man split in two to form mate. (Cf. A1225.1.)--Jewish: Neuman; Hindu: Carnoy 316.

A1275.3. A1275.3. Of ten original men one magically changes sex. New Hebrides: Dixon 107; Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 49.

A1275.4. A1275.4. Creator makes woman and then begets man by her. New Zealand: Dixon 24f.; Society Is.: ibid. 25; Marquesas: ibid. 26.

A1275.5. A1275.5. Man creates a woman from melted butter, sour milk, sour cream and curds offered on the waters. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1275.6. A1275.6. First woman‘s mate made from transformed tree. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 144.

A1275.7. A1275.7. First man created from nothing wanders until he finds mate. Eskimo (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 261.

A1275.8. A1275.8. Why Eve was not made at first along with Adam. Irish myth: Cross.

A1275.9. A1275.9. First man descends on earth, falls in love with and marries a fairy. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1275.10. A1275.10. First created man catches woman in his snare. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1276. A1276. Man chosen as best gift by primeval women. In beginning only women on earth. Deity kills one by accident and promises anything as reparation. They choose man.--Ekoi: Talbot 98.

A1277. A1277. Offspring of first parents.

A1277.1. A1277.1. First parents devour offspring. Persian: Carnoy 297.

A1277.2. A1277.2. Primeval human pair allowed to bear all children they wish. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 67.

A1277.3. A1277.3. Son of first human couple murdered by tiger sent by god; his head becomes the sun, his chest the moon, and his blood gives the red earth its color. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1277.4. A1277.4. First man and woman bring in children and clothe them. Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 47.

A1279. A1279. Primeval human pair--miscellaneous.

A1279.1. A1279.1. Of first parents husband so hideous he is kept hidden. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1280. A1280. First man (woman). Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 276, 280f.; Tahiti: Beckwith Myth 120; Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 315.

A1281. A1281. Condition of first man (woman).

A1281.1. A1281.1. First man covered with horny substance. (Cf. A1310.1.)--*Dh I 225; Jewish: Neuman.--Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 34; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 376.

A1281.2. A1281.2. Man at first covered with hair. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 34; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 383.

A1281.2.1. A1281.2.1. Change of animal and human skin in ancient times. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1281.3. A1281.3. Man at first naked. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1281.4. A1281.4. Men originally self-luminous. Jewish: Neuman; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 385.

A1281.5. A1281.5. First man created circumcised. Jewish: Neuman.

A1281.6. A1281.6. Adam at first nameless. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1281.6.1. A1281.6.1. Adam‘s name composed of initial letters of four stars from the four quarters of the heavens. Irish myth: Cross.

A1282. A1282. The mother of men. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 93.

A1282.1. A1282.1. Mother of the world gives birth to three sons. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1285. A1285. Activities of first man.

A1285.1. A1285.1. First man made chief over whole world. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 44.

A1285.1.1. A1285.1.1. In response to Adam’s prayer, God sends him to earth to be father of mankind. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1290. A1290. Creation of man--other motifs.

A1291. A1291. Man created by supernatural creature, not deity.

A1291.1. A1291.1. Man created by angels. Jewish: Neuman.

A1293. A1293. Devil in God‘s absence puts sickness in Adam’s body. Dh I 98ff.

A1295. A1295. Creation in covered vessel. Men (or animals) created in a basket or from a bundle, or from under a blanket.--N. A Ind.: Kroeber JAFL XXI 223; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684.

A1296. A1296. Multiplication of man by fragmentation. S. Am. Indian (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 406.

A1297. A1297. First human being killed by jealous brothers (reptiles and insects). India: Thompson-Balys.


A1300--A1399. Ordering of human life.

A1300. A1300. Ordering of human life. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1301. A1301. Men at first as large as giants. Dh I 242ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Greek: *Grote I 5; Jewish: Neuman.

A1310. A1310. Arrangement of man‘s bodily attributes.

A1310.1. A1310.1. Change in bodily form at fall of man. Adam’s body was formerly horn-like. (Cf. A1281.1.)--Dh I 225.--Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3035, Balys Legends Nos. 34, 45--49.

A1310.2. A1310.2. Assembling the body. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1310.3. A1310.3. Why men are clothed in skin. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1310.4. A1310.4. Why women have marks on the belly. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1311. A1311. Origin of hands and feet. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1311.1. A1311.1. The lizard hand. Man‘s hand is modeled on that of the lizard.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 288 n. 59; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 56.

A1311.2. A1311.2. Why God changed right hand into left. Man loses hand with which he gives devil a box on ears.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 6 No. 19.

A1311.3. A1311.3. Origin of fingernails. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1312. A1312. Origin of human skeleton.

A1312.1. A1312.1. Origin of knee-caps. A stone that magically joins self to woman’s body.--Ekoi: Talbot 394.

A1312.2. A1312.2. Why an uneven number of ribs. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 83 Nos. 21, 22.--Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 226 (floating ribs).

A1313. A1313. Origin of sex-organs.

A1313.0.1. A1313.0.1. Origin of eunuchs. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1313.0.2. A1313.0.2. Origin of sex differentiations. Africa (Loango): Pechuлl-Loesche 267.

A1313.1. A1313.1. Origin of male sex-organs. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 6 No. 21, XXXIII 52 No. 21; India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.--Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 141 No. 14; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3040, Balys Legends Nos. 50--57; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 83f. Nos. 28--30; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 84 No. 21.--Plains Ojibwa: Skinner JAFL XXXII 283; Plains Cree: Skinner JAFL XXIX 351.

A1313.2. A1313.2. Origin of female sex-organs. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 6 No. 22, XXXIII 52 No. 22; India: *Thompson-Balys; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 141 No. 14; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3040, Balys Legends Nos. 50--57; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 83f. Nos. 27, 29, 30; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 84 No. 22.

A1313.2.1. A1313.2.1. Origin of clitoris. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1313.3. A1313.3. Misplaced genitalia. Originally genitals are misplaced. They are properly arranged by the culture hero.--Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 56f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 288 n. 59a.; Hatt Asiatic Influences 84f.

A1313.3.1. A1313.3.1. Vaginal teeth broken. Women originally had toothed vaginas. Culture hero breaks teeth so that women will be harmless to men. (See practically all references to F547.1.1, Vagina Dentata.)--S. Am. Indian (Toba, Mataco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 99, 105, Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367.

A1313.4. A1313.4. Origin of women’s breasts. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 6 No. 20; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 83 No. 27; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 53ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.--S. Am. Indian (Apapocuva-Guarani): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 137.

A1313.4.1. A1313.4.1. Women at first with breasts on their foreheads. S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.

A1313.5. A1313.5. Origin of placenta. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1315. A1315. Origin of hair and beard. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1315.1. A1315.1. Why men become gray-headed. Dh I 314.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 6 No. 18.

A1315.2. A1315.2. Origin of bald heads. Christensen Molboerne 212 No. 70; Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 6 No. 17, XXXIII 52 No. 17; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 82 No. 20; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 84 No. 17; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1315.3. A1315.3. Origin of beard. *Dh I 228ff.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 5 Nos. 13, 14, XXXIII 52 No. 13; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 83 Nos. 23, 24; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 141 No. 11; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 58--62, 70.

A1315.4. A1315.4. Origin of hair around mouth and eyes. Original dispute between Hair and Stomach. Stomach compelled to stay on inside of man. Hair stands on guard at mouth and eyes to see that Stomach does not escape.--Ekoi: Talbot 394.

A1315.5. A1315.5. Origin of pubic hairs. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1315.6. A1315.6. Origin of eyelashes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1316. A1316. Origin of facial features. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1316.0.1. A1316.0.1. Man at first with two faces, separated at birth of first woman. Jewish: Neuman.

A1316.1. A1316.1. Distribution of noses. The earlier comers receive big noses, the later small.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 5 No. 15.

A1316.1.1. A1316.1.1. Forming of the nose. Nose was made from clay taken from the posterior of the already created man.--Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 35.

A1316.2. A1316.2. Why men blink. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1316.3. A1316.3. Origin of eyes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1316.3.1. A1316.3.1. Distribution of eyes. Jewish: Neuman.

A1316.3.2. A1316.3.2. Why there are one-eyed women. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 104.

A1316.3.3. A1316.3.3. Men originally blind: eyes opened by accident. Africa (Dahomey): Einstein 18f.

A1316.4. A1316.4. Origin of ears. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1316.5. A1316.5. Origin of tongue. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1316.6. A1316.6. Origin of teeth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1317. A1317. Origin of urine and excreta. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1319. A1319. Origin of other bodily attributes.

A1319.1. A1319.1. Origin of Adam‘s apple. Forbidden fruit sticks in Adam’s throat.--*Dh I 208ff.; *Fb “Adamsжble” IV 4.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 5 No. 16, XXXIII 52 No. 16; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 35 No. 10; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 34; U.S.: Baughman; Jewish: Neuman.

A1319.2. A1319.2. Why men lack tails. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 117 No. 72; Piegan: Michelson JAFL XXIX 409.

A1319.3. A1319.3. Why ear-wax is inside the ear. Cameroons: Gantenbein 69ff., Lederbogen Mitt. d. Sem. f. orient. Spr. IV 175f. No. 11.

A1319.4. A1319.4. Why the posterior of man is large. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 35.

A1319.5. A1319.5. Origin of the liver. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1319.6. A1319.6. Origin of blood. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1319.7. A1319.7. Why the center of man‘s eye is black: blackened by spirits to make themselves invisible. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1319.8. A1319.8. Origin of sweat. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1319.9. A1319.9. Origin of sneezing. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1319.10. A1319.10. Origin of itching. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1319.11. A1319.11. Origin of the sensation of tickling. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1319.12. A1319.12. Originally man rejuvenated himself by snake-like change of skin. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 411.

A1319.12.1. A1319.12.1. Why man does not change his skin: ancient contest lost by toad, representing man, won by lizard. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1319.13. A1319.13. Why man’s neck is its present size. Marshall Is.: Davenport 231.

A1319.14. A1319.14. Origin of man‘s skin. Jewish: Neuman.

A1320. A1320. Determination of span of life. *Kцhler-Bolte I 42.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 288 n. 60b.

A1321. A1321. Men and animals readjust span of life. At first, thirty years are given to all animals and to man. For the animals it is too long, for man too short. Man is given a portion of animals’ lives. Years 1--30 vigorous (man‘s own); 30--48 burdens and blows (ass’s); 48--60 no teeth (dog‘s); 60--70 foolish (monkey’s).--*BP III 290 (Gr. No. 176); *Fb “menneske” II 577b; Halm Aesop No. 173; Wesselski Bebel II 135 No. 103.--Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3060, Balys Legends Nos. 113f.; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1321.1. A1321.1. Why children learn to walk later than animals. African (Cameroon): Mansfield 231, 237.

A1322. A1322. Determination of relation between birth-rate and death-rate. Japanese: Anesaki 224.

A1323. A1323. Long span of life for first man. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 108.

A1325. A1325. Short span of life for first men. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 116, 411 s.v. “Alter.”

A1326. A1326. Why babies die so easily. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 103.

A1330. A1330. Beginnings of trouble for man. Shasta and Athapascan: Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 225; Africa (Congo): Weeks 205.

A1331. A1331. Paradise lost. Original happy state forfeited because of one sin.--*H. Schmidt Die Erzдhlungen von Paradies und Sьndenfall (Tьbingen 1931); J. Feidmann Paradies und Sьndenfall (1913); *Frazer Old Testament I 45--76; Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Persian: Carnoy 296, 309; Burmese: Scott Indo-Chin. 265, 269f.; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 43ff., 61.

A1331.1. A1331.1. Paradise lost because of forbidden fruit (drink). (Cf. A1346).--*Dh I 208ff.; *Frazer Old Testament I 45ff.; Irish myth: Cross; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 34.--Persian: Carnoy 297; India: Thompson-Balys; Burmese, Indo-Chinese: Scott 265, 289.--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45; Quichй: Alexander Lat. Am. 171; Yuracare: ibid. 315; Biloxi: Dorsey and Swanton BBAE XLVII 32; African (Baluba): Einstein 199.

A1331.1.1. A1331.1.1. Paradise lost because of forbidden food. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1331.2. A1331.2. Paradise lost because of brother-sister incest. Persian: Carnoy 310.

A1331.2.1. A1331.2.1. Paradise lost because first woman is seduced. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 43, 61.

A1333. A1333. Confusion of tongues. Originally all men speak same language. Because of a sin they come to speak different languages.--*Frazer Old Testament I 384ff.; Jewish: Neuman; Irish myth: Cross.--India: Thompson-Balys; Chin (Indo-China): Scott 266f.; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 365.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 285 n. 53; Maya: Alexander Lat. Am. 132.

A1333.1. A1333.1. Confusion of tongues partly due to lack of understanding of difference between the word for “stick” and the word for “stone.” Irish myth: Cross.

A1335. A1335. Origin of death. S. S. Cohon The Origin of Death (Journal of Jewish Lore and Philosophy [1919]); Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 377; Japanese: Anesaki 224, 233; Burmese: Scott IndoChinese 264.--Africa (Angola): Wagener Afrikanische Parallelen 9ff., Chatelain 249, (Bushman): Bleek and Lloyd 60, (Congo): Weeks 217 No. 12, (Ekoi): Talbot 177, (Liberian): Bundy JAFL XXXII 407f., (Fang): Trilles 131.--Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 178; Maori: Dixon 54; Australian: ibid. 285; Melanesian: ibid. 117f. *n. 53; Micronesian: ibid. 252f.; Indonesian: ibid. 170 (Borneo), 174, *182; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 43; Raratonga: ibid. 158; Banks Is.: ibid. 61.--N. A. Indian: R. Dangel Mythen vom Ursprung dies Todes bei den Indianern Nordamerikas (Mitt. der Anthrop. Gesellschaft in Wien LVIII [1928] 341--374); *Krappe Nieuw Theologisch Tijdschrift (1928) 242ff.; *Thompson Tales 284 n. 51; Chitimacha: Swanton JAFL XXX 476; Sinkyone: Kroeber JAFL XXXII 346; Tahltan: Teit *JAFL XXXII 206f.; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 64; Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XX 486, (Cape York): Rasmussen III 48, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 173; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 171, (Cubeo): Goldman BBAE CXLIII (3) 798, (Yuracare): Mйtraux ibid. (3) 503, (Warrau): Kirchoff ibid. (3) 880.

A1335.1. A1335.1. Origin of death from falsified message. *Dh III 22; *Wesselski Theorie 43; Gaster Oldest Stories 91.--African: Werner African 160ff., 167, (Hottentot): Bleek 69 No. 31, 71 No. 32, 72 No. 33, 74 No. 35, (Basuto): Jacottet 46 No. 6, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 129 No. 23, (Togo): Einstein 5, (Sandeh): Casati I 222; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684, (Tropical Forests): Lowie ibid. (3) 55.

A1335.1.1. A1335.1.1. Origin of death: wrong messenger goes to God. Wesselski Theorie 44.

A1335.2. A1335.2. Origin of death from bad creator’s unsuccessful imitation. The bad creator attempts in vain to endow his creations with life like the good creator. Fails and thus introduces death.--Banks Is.: Dixon 106; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 61.

A1335.3. A1335.3. Origin of death from unwise choice. Choice between two bundles, one containing tempting articles, the other everlasting life. People choose the large bundle and lose everlasting life.--Congo: Weeks 218 No. 13.

A1335.4. A1335.4. Origin of death when early people put on new skins. Child fails to recognize mother, who puts old skin back on.--Wesselski Theorie 45.

A1335.5. A1335.5. Origin of death: serpent given immortality instead of man. Renews his skin.--**Delarue Nouvelle Revue des Traditions Populaires (1950) 262--275; Wesselski Theorie 45; Gaster: Oldest Stories 81.

A1335.6. A1335.6. Origin of death: punishment for scorning deity. Wesselski Theorie 45; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1335.6.1. A1335.6.1. Origin of death: disrespectful answer to God. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1335.7. A1335.7. First son who died before his father after the Flood. Irish myth Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1335.8. A1335.8. Origin of death because world is overpopulated. India: *Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 173; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 171.

A1335.9. A1335.9. Origin of death because people weary of living. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1335.9.1. A1335.9.1. Death sent into the world by culture hero (God) when he got tired of man. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1335.10. A1335.10. Men die because a snake comes to prey on mankind while creator rests. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1335.11. A1335.11. God of world of the dead demands that men die so he will have subjects. (Cf. A487) India: Thompson-Balys.

A1335.12. A1335.12. Death origin: God sends a woman to sell poisoned curds to man. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1335.13. A1335.13. God sends centipede down to introduce death into the world through its poisoned sting. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1335.14. A1335.14. Death comes into the world by treachery of the gods: stick used by man for scratching his back is changed into cobra.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A1335.15. A1335.15. God punishes man by killing his child: origin of death. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 187.

A1336. A1336. Origin of murder. Hebrew: Genesis 4:8ff.; Jewish: Neuman; Greek: Grote I 7.--Congo: Weeks 207 No. 4; Ila of Rhodesia: Smith and Dale 350 No. 5.

A1337. A1337. Origin of disease. *Dh I 98ff.--Finnish Kalevala rune 45; Greek: Grote I 72 (Pandora‘s Box); Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 461; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 187.--Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 278, 282; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 113, 502; Shasta: Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 227; S. Am. Indian (Cubeo): Goldman BBAE CXLIII (3) 798.

A1337.0.1. A1337.0.1. Disease caused by the gods. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1337.0.1.1. A1337.0.1.1. Pestilence brought to man in box by messenger from creator. S. Am. Indian (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 318.

A1337.0.2. A1337.0.2. Disease caused by ghosts. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1337.0.3. A1337.0.3. Disease caused by witchcraft. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1337.0.4. A1337.0.4. Disease caused by menstrual blood. (Cf. D1003.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A1337.0.5. A1337.0.5. Disease as punishment. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1337.0.6. A1337.0.6. Disease to prevent man enjoying himself too much. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1337.0.7. A1337.0.7. Origin of sickness and misfortune: monstrous births from brother-sister incestuous union. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1337.1. A1337.1. Origin of ulcers. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 142 No. 21; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 42.

A1337.2. A1337.2. Origin of cholera. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1337.3. A1337.3. Origin of epilepsy. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1337.4. A1337.4. Origin of fever. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1337.5. A1337.5. Origin of itch. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1337.6. A1337.6. Origin of leprosy. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1337.7. A1337.7. Origin of smallpox. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1337.8. A1337.8. Origin of illness from fire and cold. Africa (Togo): Einstein 5f.

A1338. A1338. Origin of physical defects. Wicked people entering heaven on rope fall to earth and are injured. St. Peter misunderstands what God says and lets them fall.--Spanish: Boggs FFC XC No. 758A.

A1338.1. A1338.1. Origin of cripples. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 114f.

A1339.1. A1339.1. Origin of blindness. Jewish: Neuman; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 145.

A1341. A1341. Origin of war among men. Irish myth: Cross; Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 469; Africa (Konnoh): Willans 136.

A1341.1. A1341.1. Origin of battle-shouting. Irish myth: Cross.

A1341.2. A1341.2. Origin of duelling. Irish myth: Cross.

A1341.3. A1341.3. Origin of thefts and quarrels. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1342. A1342. Origin of quarrelling. Greek: Grote I 7; S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503.

A1343. A1343. Origin of lying. Greek: Grote I 7; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 113, 911; Jewish: Neuman.

A1344. A1344. Origin of tears and sighs. Wienert FFC LVI 37; Halm Aesop Nos. 138, 355; Greek: Grote I 7, 72; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1344.1. A1344.1. The “three first cries that made their way to God”: the cry of the blood of Abel, etc. Irish myth: Cross.

A1345. A1345. Origin of hunger. Greek: Grote I 7; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Liberian: Bundy JAFL XXXII 421f.; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 216, 221.

A1345.1. A1345.1. Origin of thirst. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1346. A1346. Man to earn bread by sweat of his brow. (Cf. A1331.1.)--Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 158; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1346.1. A1346.1. Man must work as punishment for theft of fire. Greek: Fox 14.

A1346.2. A1346.2. Man must labor for a living: at first everything too easy. Full crops produce themselves, trees drop sugar etc.--Greek: Grote I 61; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Seneca: Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 462; S. Am. Indian (Mataco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 59f.

A1346.2.1. A1346.2.1. Cotton at first already spun into threads. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1346.2.2. A1346.2.2. First people have everything they wish (life without work). India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Fang): Trilles 144.

A1346.2.3. A1346.2.3. Men are too happy: pain and sickness created. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1346.2.4. A1346.2.4. Canoes at one time self-propelling. Marshall Is.: Davenport 222.

A1348. A1348. Mankind’s escape from trouble.

A1348.1. A1348.1. Wren helps mankind restore prosperity to the world. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1350. A1350. Origin of sex functions. (Cf. A1556.)

A1351. A1351. Origin of childbirth. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.--Maori: Dixon 78; Polynesian, Melanesian, Micronesian: ibid. 79 n. 79--82; Maori, Hawaii, Cook Is., Fijis: Beckwith Myth 502--504; Hawaii: ibid. 284, Marquesas: Handy 58, 122, 128; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 288 n. 59a, (Tahltan): *Teit JAFL XXXII 207 n. 2.

A1351.1. A1351.1. Origin of childbirth pains. Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Togo): Einstein 8f.

A1351.2. A1351.2. Origin of abortions. Jewish: Neuman.

A1352. A1352. Origin of sexual intercourse. Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 63--66; India: *Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Tonga: Gifford 18; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 684; Africa (Mkulwe): Einstein 18f., (Loango): Pechuлl-Loesche 267.

A1352.1. A1352.1. Origin of unrestricted sexual intercourse between husband and wife. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

A1352.2. A1352.2. Means of persuading persons to intercourse. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

A1352.3. A1352.3. Former intercourse by navel. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1355. A1355. Origin of menstruation. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 6 No. 25, XXXIII 53 No. 25; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1355.1. A1355.1. Origin of menstruation--Eve and the serpent. It is a punishment because Eve had intercourse with the serpent.--Dh I 211; Jewish: Neuman.

A1355.1.1. A1355.1.1. Origin of menstruation: punishment because Eve ate forbidden fruit. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1355.2. A1355.2. Origin of menstruation--Virgin Mary‘s garment. She hides her garment and a maiden finds it.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 6 No. 24; Jewish: Neuman.

A1355.3. A1355.3. Previously men menstruated. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1357. A1357. Culture hero teaches women how to rear their children. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 112f.

A1358. A1358. Origin of sterility among women. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1360. A1360. Man’s growth and maturity.

A1361. A1361. Why children are helpless for so long. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 84 No. 36; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 43f.; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 83 No. 11c.

A1365. A1365. Why a lad at puberty is energetic and later lazy. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 239.

A1370. A1370. Origin of mental and moral characteristics.

A1371. A1371. Why women are bad. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1371.1. A1371.1. Bad women because of head exchanged with devil. Devil (serpent) and woman fight. St. Peter cuts off their heads and exchanges them.--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 83 No. 11b.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3047, Balys Legends Nos. 82--93.

A1371.2. A1371.2. Bad women combination of nine different animals. Stiefel Zs. f. Vksk. VIII 163.

A1371.3. A1371.3. Bad women from transformed hog and goose. Peter, having only one daughter, foolishly promises her to three men. He asks the Lord to create two others. This request is granted. The first creature he meets on two successive mornings he is to greet, and they will be transformed. He meets a hog and a goose. His two new daughters have these characteristics.--*Dh II 191ff.; Fb “sш” III 449b.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 411.

A1372. A1372. Origin of other special characteristics of women.

A1372.1. A1372.1. Why women are prattlers. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 83 No. 11a.

A1372.2. A1372.2. Why women laugh much. When Eve sees her first child she laughs over its smallness.--Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 141 No. 16.

A1372.3. A1372.3. Why women are roving. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 73; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 114.

A1372.4. A1372.4. Why women have a treble voice. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 141 No. 13; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 84 No. 34.

A1372.5. A1372.5. Why women are deceitful. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 462.

A1372.6. A1372.6. Why some women are good-looking. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 220.

A1372.7. A1372.7. Origin of pleasant and unpleasant women. Contest arranged by Virgin Mary--laughter forbidden for some time.--Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 79.

A1372.8. A1372.8. Why women never have leisure. Because they refused to show God the way, saying they had no time.--Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3046, Balys Legends Nos 74--78.

A1372.9. A1372.9. Why women are subservient to men. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 70ff.; India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Munderucъ): Horton BBAE CXLIII (3) 282.

A1372.10. A1372.10. Why women keep washing themselves. St. Andrew, sent to get salt to keep people clean, gets drunk and forgets. There is only enough for men.--Venezuela: Dominguez Collection II No. 33 (Archive of Venezuelan Institute of Folklore).

A1373. A1373. Why women attract men.

A1373.1. A1373.1. Why good-looking but soft, useless women attract men. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 220; cf. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 456.

A1375. A1375. Origin of jealousy and selfishness. Irish myth: Cross; Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 112 No. 19.

A1375.1. A1375.1. Why some married people quarrel and accuse each other of infidelity. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 456.

A1376. A1376. Why man excels woman. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 236.

A1377. A1377. Origin of laziness. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 238f.

A1381. A1381. Origin of bravery.

A1381.1. A1381.1. Why people do not fear earthquakes. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 227.

A1382. A1382. Origin of fear.

A1382.1. A1382.1. Why man is fearful in the jungle. Africa: Stanley 78.

A1383. A1383. Origin of shame for nakedness.

A1383.1. A1383.1. Shame for nakedness appears to first woman. (Leaves for clothes).--Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Baluba): Einstein 19.

A1384. A1384. Origin of evil inclinations.

A1384.1. A1384.1. Origin of evil inclinations: punishment for fall of man. Jewish: Neuman.

A1384.2. A1384.2. Evil inclination enters body at time of conception. Jewish: Neuman.

A1386. A1386. Origin of drunkenness. Jewish: Neuman.

A1388. A1388. Origin of hatred. Jewish: Neuman.

A1388.1. A1388.1. Hate released among mankind. Greek: Fox 78.

A1390. A1390. Ordaining of human life--miscellaneous.

A1391. A1391. Why other members must serve belly. Result of a debate between members of the body.--India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 393.

A1391.1. A1391.1. Why all limbs are dependent on body. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 234.

A1392. A1392. First walk by Adam. Irish myth: Cross.

A1394. A1394. Men live by the breath of the gods. (Cf. A1241.3.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A1399. A1399. Ordaining of human life--additional motifs.

A1399.1. A1399.1. Origin of laughter. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1399.2. A1399.2. Origin of dreams. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1399.2.1. A1399.2.1. Origin of sleep. India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Tucuna): Nimuendajъ BBAE CXLIII (3) 724.

A1399.3. A1399.3. Origin of spitting. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1399.4. A1399.4. Origin of coughing. India: Thompson-Balys.


A1400--A1499. Acquisition of culture.

A1400. A1400. Acquisition of human culture.

A1401. A1401. Culture originated by previous race of men. N. A. Indian: Kroeber JAFL XXI 226 s.v. “Departed race.”

A1402. A1402. The gods build houses, and fashion tools. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 327.

A1403. A1403. God teaches people to work. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3057, Balys Legends Nos. 110f.

A1404. A1404. Gods teach people all they know. Marquesas: Handy 123; S. Am. Indian (Cariri): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (1) 559.

A1405. A1405. Culture originated by ancestor of tribes. Jewish: Neuman; S. Am. Indian (Tucuna): Nimuendajъ BBAE CXLIII (3) 724.

A1410. A1410. Acquisition of livable environment.

A1411. A1411. Theft of light. Light originally absent is stolen by culture hero.--Jewish: Neuman; Hindu: Keith 34.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 281 n. 42; Eskimo (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 205, S. Am. Indian (Tapirape): Wagley-Galvao BBAE CXLIII (3) 178. Cf. Finnish: Kalevala rune 47.

A1411.1. A1411.1. Light kept in box (basket). Stolen.--N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 282 n. 45.

A1411.2. A1411.2. Theft of light by being swallowed and reborn. The hero transforms himself to a particle. The daughter of the guardian of light swallows him as she is drinking water. He is reborn. As a child in the house he steals light.--India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 282 n. 44.

A1412. A1412. Origin of light--miscellaneous. Jewish: Neuman.

A1412.1. A1412.1. Light originated from shield of old cobra supporting the earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1412.2. A1412.2. Origin of light: souls of dead in heaven. Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 48.

A1412.3. A1412.3. Acquisition of daylight by culture hero. S. Am. Indian (Tucuna): Nimuendajъ BBAE CXLIII (3) 724.

A1414. A1414. Origin of fire. **Frazer Fire.--Irish myth: Cross; Persian: Carnoy 284.--Micronesian: Dixon 254f.; N. A. Indian (Kaska): *Teit JAFL XXX 443, (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 219, (Sinkyone): Kroeber JAFL XXXII 347, (Shasta): Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 210, (Calif. Indian): Gayton and Newman 63; Aztec: Alexander Lat. Am. 93; S. Am. Indian (Jibaro, Peru): Karsten (rev. JAFL XXXII 446), (Tropical Forest): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (3) 55, (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 158, 171.

A1414.1. A1414.1. Origin of fire--rubbing sticks. Greek: Fox 192 (Hermes); Jewish: Neuman.--Kaffir: Kidd 253 No. 13; Marquesas: Handy 13.

A1414.1.1. A1414.1.1. Fire drill invented. India: Thompson-Balys; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 61; Africa (Bushongo): Torday 237; S. Am. Indian (Kaskiha): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 3.

A1414.2. A1414.2. Origin of fire--found in person‘s own body. Australian, New Guinea, Torres Str., Massim (British New Guinea): Dixon 115 n. 47; Marquesas: Handy 13; S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 146.

A1414.3. A1414.3. Origin of fire--children strike rocks together, accidentally produce fire. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 60.

A1414.4. A1414.4. Origin of fire--gift from god (supernatural person). India: Thompson-Balys.--Maori: Clark 42; Isabel Is.: Beckwith Myth 504; Hawaii: ibid. 499; S. Am. Indian (Sherente): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (1) 515, (Cashiba): Steward-Mйtraux ibid. (3) 595, (Chamacoco): Mйtraux ibid. (1) 368, (Warrau): Kirchoff ibid. (3) 880, (Caviсa, Tumupasa): Mйtraux ibid. 448, (Chiriguano): *Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 171, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 54; Africa: Bouvergnes 14f., (Bushongo): Torday 237, (Congo): Weeks 205f.

A1414.5. A1414.5. Origin of flint and tinder. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1414.6. A1414.6. Bird as guardian of primordial fire. S. Am. Indian (Apapocuvъ-Guaranн): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 171.

A1414.7. A1414.7. Repository of fire.

A1414.7.1. A1414.7.1. Tree as repository of fire. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 61; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 158.

A1414.7.2. A1414.7.2. Rock as repository of fire. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 61.

A1414.7.3. A1414.7.3. Cave as repository of fire. Marquesas: Handy 103.

A1415. A1415. Theft of fire. Mankind is without fire. A culture hero steals it from the owner.--**Frazer Fire; *Dh I 142ff.; *Hdwb. d. Mдrch. II 109b n. 14--15.--Greek: Fox 13, *Frazer Apollodorus I 51 n. 6; Hindu: Keith 36; Finnish: Holmberg Finno-Ugric 238.--Oceanic Dixon 47 n. 31 (Maori), 47 n. 34 (Polynesia--general), 48 n. 35, 36 (Melanesia), 49 (Maori, Chatham Is., Marquesas, Melanesia, Hawaii, Micronesia), 112 (Woodlark Is.), 114 (Motu and Massim of British New Guinea), 182ff. (Indonesia), 281 (Australia); Indonesian: Voorhoeve Overzicht 65; Marquesas: Handy 104; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 227; Tonga: Gifford 22; Eskimo (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 340; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 289 n. 63, Alexander N. Am. 256, 301f. n. 51; S. Am. Indian (Baikairi, Amazon): Alexander Lat. Am. 313; (Caingang): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 473, (Botocudo): Mйtraux ibid. (1) 550, (Tucuna): Nimuendajъ ibid. (3) 724, (Tenethara): Wagley-Galvao ibid. (3) 147, (Guarani): Mйtraux ibid. (3) 93, (Guarporй): Lйvi-Strauss ibid. (3) 379, (Tapirape): Wagley-Galvao ibid. (3) 178, (Chamacoco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 111, (Choco, Western Colombia): Mйtraux ibid. 112, (Apapocuvъ-Guarani): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 138.--African: Frobenius Atlantis XII 80, (Bushongo): Torday 237, cf. Congo: Weeks 206. Cf. Finnish: Kalevala rune 47.

A1415.0.1. A1415.0.1. Fire witheld from men as punishment. Greek: *Grote I 71.

A1415.0.2. A1415.0.2. Original fire property of one person (animal). Marquesas: Handy 12, 103; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 115, 121, 216; S. Am. Indian (Ashlushlay): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367, (Tapirape): Wagley-Galvao ibid. (3) 178, (Munderucъ): Horton ibid. (3) 294, (Warrau, Chiriguano): *Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 129.

A1415.1. A1415.1. Fire stolen in hollow reed. Greek: Fox 13, *Frazer Apollodorus I 51 n. 6; *Hdwb. d. Mдrch. II 109b nn. 9--13.--N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 290 n. 64; S. Am. Indian (Jivaro, Eastern Ecuador): Karsten Myths of the Jibaros (reviewed JAFL XXXII 446) (fire preserved in bark of tree), (Tenetehara): Wagley-Galvao BBAE CXLIII (3) 147.

A1415.1.1. A1415.1.1. Fire carried from heaven in fingernails. Jewish: Neuman.

A1415.2. A1415.2. Theft of fire by animals. *Dh III 92ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3020, Balys Legends Nos. 27f.; Eng.: Baughman; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 632.--Massim of British New Guinea: Dixon 115; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 370, (Ila, Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 345, (Fang): Nassau No. 3; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 289 n. 63 (practically every reference); S. Am. Indian (Guarani): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 93, (Mataco, Toba): Mйtraux ibid. (1) 367, (Eastern Brazil): Lowie ibid. (1) 434, (Chiriguano): Mйtraux ibid. (3) 484, RMLP XXXIII 172, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 107--109.

A1415.2.1. A1415.2.1. Theft of fire by bird. Persian: Carnoy 264 (storm god in form of bird); India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685, (Jivaro): Steward-Mйtraux ibid. (3) 627, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 6.

A1415.3. A1415.3. Theft of fire--trick exchange. Child of fire-owner is stolen and then given back in exchange for fire.--*Dh III 110ff.

A1415.4. A1415.4. Vain attempts to circumvent theft of fire. *Dh III 109ff.--Polynesian: Dixon 47; Massim (British New Guinea): ibid. 115 n. 48.

A1416. A1416. Country ridded of ogres and made peaceful. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1417. A1417. Theft of tablets of fate. From heaven by bird Zu.--Babylonian: Carnoy 264.

A1420. A1420. Acquisition of food supply for human race. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1420.1. A1420.1. Origin of food from body of slain food-goddess. (Cf. A2611.1). Japanese: Anesaki 232, Ikeda.

A1420.2. A1420.2. Gods teach how to seek and prepare food. Marquesas: Handy 114; Africa (Luba): Donohugh Africa V 180.

A1420.3. A1420.3. Creator of food items. Mono-Alu-Fauru: Wheeler 66.

A1420.4. A1420.4. Food originally obtained without effort. Jewish: Neuman; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 59.

A1420.5. A1420.5. After Fall first parents fed and clothed from one palm-tree. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1420.6. A1420.6. At beginning people start to eat the earth. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 56.

A1421. A1421. Hoarded game released. Animals are kept imprisoned by malevolent creature. Released by culture hero. Hindu: Keith 33f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Kodiak: Jochelson JE VI 143, 164, 187, 367; Tonga: Gifford 91; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 434f.; S. Am. Indian (Yunca, Peru): Alexander Lat. Am. 229 (fish); Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 515, (Greenland): Rink 442, Holm 75, (Cape York): Rasmussen III 51.

A1421.0.1. A1421.0.1. Hoarded rice made available once more to men by culture hero. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1421.1. A1421.1. Man given dominion over beasts. Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1421.1.1. A1421.1.1. Man rules all animals. God gives greatest strength to lion, but because of man’s wisdom lion is in his power. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3110, Legends No. 215.

A1422. A1422. Assignment of edible animals. Certain animals may be eaten by man.--Hebrew: Leviticus ch 11; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 78, 149, (Hottentot): Bleek 73 No. 34.

A1422.0.1. A1422.0.1. Animals sources of food because they were once unfaithful, disobedient wives of a visitor from god-country. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1422.0.2. A1422.0.2. What animals are to be eaten by man. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1422.1. A1422.1. Why men may eat hares. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1422.1.1. A1422.1.1. Why Santals eat entrails of hare. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1422.2. A1422.2. Why Birhors eat flesh of monkeys and baboons. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1422.3. A1422.3. Why the wild boar is hunted by man for food: once a faithless wife killed by her husband. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1423. A1423. Acquisition of vegetables and cereals. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Samoa: Beckwith Myth 439; Isabel Island: ibid. 504; Hawaii: ibid. 61, 63; Tonga: Gifford 194; Easter Island: Mйtraux Ethnology 364; African (Angola): Chatelain 249, (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 179 No. 35, (Ekoi): Talbot 240, (Ila, Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 348 No. 3; S. Am. Indian (Guarayu): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 147.

A1423.0.1. A1423.0.1. Hoarded plants released. Rarotonga, Cook Island: Beckwith Myth 236; Hawaii: ibid. 290, 432; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685.

A1423.1. A1423.1. Origin of yams (sweet potatoes, taro). Samoa, Maori, Tonga: Beckwith Myth 101; Kai of New Guinea: ibid. 104; Tonga: Gifford 163, 169; Easter Island: Mйtraux Ethnology 317.

A1423.2. A1423.2. Acquisition of rice. (Cf. A2685.)--India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 130f. No. 86.

A1423.3. A1423.3. Origin of coconut. Maniliki, Cook Island: Beckwith Myth 256; Tonga: Gifford 182.

A1423.4. A1423.4. Acquisition of manioc. Africa (Bushongo): Tardau 249.

A1425. A1425. Origin of seed. India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 484.

A1425.0.1. A1425.0.1. Hoarded seeds. S. Am. Indian (Morй): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 424.

A1425.1. A1425.1. All the kinds of seed in a bamboo that culture hero cuts down. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1426. A1426. Acquisition of food supply--miscellaneous.

A1426.1. A1426.1. Discovery of oil. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Bushongo): Torday 249.

A1426.2. A1426.2. Acquisition of ale. Irish myth: Cross.

A1426.2.1. A1426.2.1. Introduction of brewing. Irish myth: Cross.

A1426.2.2. A1426.2.2. Origin of rice-beer. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1427. A1427. Acquisition of spiritous liquors. India: Thompson-Balys; Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 636: S. Am. Indian (Guarayu): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 147.

A1427.0.1. A1427.0.1. Liquor discovered when birds get drunk. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1427.0.2. A1427.0.2. Liquor discovered by rain-god. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1427.0.3. A1427.0.3. Intoxicating drink first used at the wedding feast of the first couple. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1427.0.4. A1427.0.4. Creator gives liquor to his servant giant to drink. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1427.1. A1427.1. Acquisition of brandy. Devil teaches how to burn brandy. (Cf. A1456.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 7 No. 31, XXXIII 52 No. 31; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 87 No. 54; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3291; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1427.2. A1427.2. Origin of whiskey. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 340ff.

A1428. A1428. Acquisition of wine. Greek: Fox 47, 222; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.--Africa (Tshi): Ellis 337, (Fang): Einstein 44, Trilles 162.

A1429. A1429. Acquisition of food supply--miscellaneous.

A1429.1. A1429.1. Discovery of oil (edible). India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Bushongo): Torday 249.

A1429.2. A1429.2. Origin of yeast: wasp stole it from the old woman underneath the earth. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1429.3. A1429.3. Acquisition of water. (Cf. A1111.)--Irish Myth: Cross.

A1429.3.1. A1429.3.1. First wells dug. Irish myth: Cross.

A1429.3.2. A1429.3.2. Gods provide drinkable water. (Cf. A941.)--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 63f.

A1429.4. A1429.4. Acquisition of salt. India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Jivaro): Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 627.

A1430. A1430. Acquisition of other necessities.

A1431. A1431. Origin of coal. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 84 No. 29; Africa (Fang): Trilles 132.

A1432. A1432. Acquisition of metals.

A1432.1. A1432.1. Origin of iron. Finnish: Kalevale rune 9; India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Bushongo): Torday 235.

A1432.1.1. A1432.1.1. Iron at first was made for food, not for weapons. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1432.2. A1432.2. Acquisition of gold. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1432.2.1. A1432.2.1. Gold comes from gourd received from fishes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1432.3. A1432.3. Acquisition of brass. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1432.4. A1432.4. Acquisition of copper. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1433. A1433. Acquisition of money. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1433.0.1. A1433.0.1. First money received from kettle which two dead men try in vain to carry from hell to heaven. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 7 No. 32.

A1433.1. A1433.1. Origin of gold coins. Surinam: Penard JAFL XXX 248.

A1433.2. A1433.2. Origin of silver coins. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1433.2.1. A1433.2.1. Silver coins from pumpkin received from fishes. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1433.3. A1433.3. Origin of shell money. Mono-Alu: Wheeler 12, 57.

A1435. A1435. Acquisition of habitations. Irish myth: Cross; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1435.0.1. A1435.0.1. Origin of cave-digging. Irish myth: Cross.

A1435.1. A1435.1. Acquisition of guest-houses. Irish myth: Cross.

A1435.2. A1435.2. Origin of raths (duns, stone forts). Irish myth: Cross.

A1435.2.1. A1435.2.1. Raths marked out with brooch. Irish myth: Cross.

A1435.3. A1435.3. Origin of grass huts to replace caves as dwellings. Papua: Ker 135.

A1436. A1436. Acquisition of vehicles. Irish myth: Cross.

A1437. A1437. Acquisition of clothing. India: *Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 456.

A1438. A1438. Origin of medicine (healing). Greek: Fox 279ff.; Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 70f.; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 202, 205f.; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Ferguson 14; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 116f., 119; N. A. Indian (Joshua): Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 230; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 3, 69; (Manasi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 393.

A1438.1. A1438.1. Origin of medicine: shaman sent down by the Creator equipped with it. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1439. A1439. Acquisition of other necessities.

A1439.1. A1439.1. Acquisition of marble. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1439.2. A1439.2. Origin of dyes. India: Thompson-Balys; Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 317.

A1439.3. A1439.3. Origin of rubber S. Am. Indian. (Chiriguano): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 484.

A1439.4. A1439.4. Origin of cauldrons. Irish myth: Cross.

A1440. A1440. Acquisition of crafts. Irish: MacCulloch Celtic 137; Icel.: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1440.1. A1440.1. Assignment of crafts and professions: creator opens shop and from it distributes plough, pen, bottle, pair of scales, fishing-net and loom to various groups. India: Thompson-Balys..

A1440.2. A1440.2. Origin of distribution of work. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1440.3. A1440.3. Patriarchs because of long life made inventions. Tupper and Ogle Map 4.

A1441. A1441. Acquisition of agriculture. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Greek: *Grote I 163; Jewish: Neuman; Marquesas: Handy 128; Kai of New Guinea: Beckwith Myth 104; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 177.--S. Am. Indian (Guarayu): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 437, (Guaporй R.): Lйvi-Strauss ibid. (3) 379, (Tupinamba): Mйtraux ibid. (3) 132, (Cubeo): ibid. (3) 798, (Tapirape): Wagley-Galvao ibid. (3) 178, (Cashinawa): Mйtraux ibid. (3) 685.

A1441.1. A1441.1. Origin of plowing. Greek: Fox 171, Alphabet of Tales No. 654; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 69; S. Am. Indian (Caingang): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 473.

A1441.2. A1441.2. Origin of custom of yoking oxen. Irish myth: Cross.

A1441.3. A1441.3. Origin of water wheel and rice growing. Chinese: Graham.

A1441.4. A1441.4. Origin of sowing and planting. Greek myth: Grote I 41; Kauai: Beckwith Myth 367; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 115.

A1441.4.1. A1441.4.1. Origin of periodic sowing. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1441.5. A1441.5. Origin of onion-growing. Korean: Zong in-Sob 21 No. 10.

A1442. A1442. Origin of milling. (Cf. A1446.5.3.) Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1443. A1443. Origin of domestication of animals. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3108; Greek: Aeschylus Prometheus Bound, lines 462--465, Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa: Stanley 43, 196, (Bushongo): Torday 242f., (Fang): Tessman 18f.

A1443.1. A1443.1. First shepherder. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1445. A1445. Acquisition of building crafts.

A1445.1. A1445.1. Origin of boat-building. Greek: Aeschylus Prometheus Bound, line 468; Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Benga): Nassau No. 3, (Fang): Trilles 159; Marquesas: Handy 128; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 15; Samoa: ibid. 271.

A1445.2. A1445.2. Origin of carpentry. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Aeschylus Prometheus Bound line 447; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 70.

A1445.2.1. A1445.2.1. Why carpenters are found everywhere: flood scatters them on raft over world. Tonga: Gifford 201, Beckwith Myth 317.

A1445.2.2. A1445.2.2. Man learns housebuilding from wasp. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685.

A1446. A1446. Acquisition of tools. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1446.0.1. A1446.0.1. Culture hero steals tools for men. S. Am. Indian. (Tapirape): Wagley-Galvao BBAE CXLIII (3) 178.

A1446.1. A1446.1. Origin of the saw. Invented by devil.--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 85 No. 30b.

A1446.2. A1446.2. Origin of the axe. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Carib: Penard JAFL XXX 258.

A1446.3. A1446.3. Origin of the ox-goad. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1446.4. A1446.4. Origin of the adze. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1446.5. A1446.5. Acquisition of household implements. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1446.5.1. A1446.5.1. Origin of the broom. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1446.5.2. A1446.5.2. Origin of the pestle. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1446.5.3. A1446.5.3. Origin of the grindstone. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1446.5.4. A1446.5.4. Origin of the winnowing-fan. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1446.5.5. A1446.5.5. Origin of baskets. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1446.5.6. A1446.5.6. Origin of the oil-press. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1447. A1447. Origin of metal-working. Hebrew: Genesis 4:22; Greek: Fox 171; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1447.1. A1447.1. Origin of the bellows. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1447.2. A1447.2. Origin of blacksmith work. Irish myth: Cross.

A1447.3. A1447.3. Origin of goldsmith work. Irish myth: Cross.

A1447.4. A1447.4. Origin of smelting. Africa: Bouvergnes 16, (Babuka): Einstein 166, (Bushongo): Torday 235, 248.

A1448. A1448. Origin of mining. Irish myth: Cross.

A1451. A1451. Origin of pottery. Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; African (Basuto): Jacottet 50 No. 7; S. Am. Indian (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 359, (Yagua): Steward-Mйtraux ibid. (3) 736, (Jivaro): ibid. (3) 627, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 86.

A1452. A1452. Origin of charcoal making. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1453. A1453. Origin of cloth-making. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1453.1. A1453.1. Origin of spinning. Greek: Fox 171, *Grote I 163; S. Am. Indian (Chibcha): Kroeber BBAE CXLIII (2) 909.

A1453.2. A1453.2. Origin of weaving. Irish myth: Cross; Greek: Fox 171; Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 7 No. 27; India: *Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 113, (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685.

A1453.3. A1453.3. Origin of dyeing. Irish myth: Cross.

A1453.4. A1453.4. Origin of leaf-dress. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1453.5. A1453.5. Origin of bark-cloth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1453.6. A1453.6. Creator paints on clay models of men clothes that they are to wear. S. Am. Indian (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 315.

A1453.7. A1453.7. Origin of raffia cloth. Africa (Bushongo): Torday 249.

A1454. A1454. Origin of shoemaking. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 7 No. 28; Jewish: Neuman.

A1455. A1455. Origin of cooking. Greek: Grote I 163; India: *Thompson-Balys; Marquesas: Handy 104, 128; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 108f.; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 373 (water for cooking.)

A1455.1. A1455.1. Origin of the domestic hearth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1456. A1456. Origin of distilling. Learned from devil. (Cf. A1427.2.)--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 85 No. 31; cf. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 86, 87 No. 52, 53; India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 54.

A1457. A1457. Origin of fishing. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Cubao): BBAE CXLIII (3) 798.

A1457.1. A1457.1. Origin of the fish hook. Easter Island: Mйtraux Ethnology 317, 363; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 210.

A1457.2. A1457.2. Origin of custom of catching fish by day as well as by night. Irish myth: Cross.

A1457.3. A1457.3. Origin of the net for fishing. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 146; Maori: Clark 27f.; Tonga: Gifford 16.

A1457.4. A1457.4. Origin of fishing stations. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 19, 22f.

A1457.5. A1457.5. Origin of fish-traps. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 194f.

A1457.6. A1457.6. Origin of fish ponds. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 19.

A1458. A1458. Origin of hunting. India: Thompson-Balys; New Hebrides: Codrington 368; S. Am. Indian (Yagua): Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 736, (Toba): Mйtraux ibid. (1) 368, MAFLS XL 3. 84.

A1458.1. A1458.1. Origin of pitfall. Irish myth: Cross.

A1459. A1459. Acquisition of crafts--miscellaneous.

A1459.1. A1459.1. Acquisition of weapons. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1459.1.1. A1459.1.1. Origin of bows and arrows. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

A1459.1.2. A1459.1.2. Introduction of broad-headed spears into Leinster. Irish myth: Cross.

A1459.1.2.1. A1459.1.2.1. Origin of obsidian-tipped spears. Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 376.

A1459.1.3. A1459.1.3. Origin of sling-stones. Irish myth: Cross.

A1459.1.4. A1459.1.4. Invention of gai bulga. Irish myth: Cross.

A1459.1.5. A1459.1.5. Origin of horse-whips. Irish myth: Cross.

A1459.2. A1459.2. Acquisition of seamanship (sailing, etc.). Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 86.

A1459.3. A1459.3. Acquisition of sorcery. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 115.

A1460. A1460. Acquisition of arts.

A1460.1. A1460.1. Arts taught man by angel. Jewish: Neuman.

A1461. A1461. Acquisition of music. Wallaschek Sagen und Mдrchen ьber den Ursprung der Musik (Leipzig 1903).--Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1461.1. A1461.1. Origin of violin. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 84 No. 30a; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1461.2. A1461.2. Origin of lyre. Hermes makes it from a tortoise.--Greek: Fox 192, Frazer Apollodorus II 9 n. 2.--Finnish: Kalevala rune 40 (from bones of a pike); cf. rune 44.

A1461.2.1. A1461.2.1. Origin of harp. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1461.3. A1461.3. Origin of organ. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 7 No. 30; Irish myth: Cross.

A1461.4. A1461.4. Origin of the use of the rattle. Ojibwa: Skinner JAFL XXXII 290.

A1461.5. A1461.5. Origin of whistle. Irish myth: Cross.

A1461.6. A1461.6. Origin of shepherd‘s pipe. Greek: Fox 267f.

A1461.7. A1461.7. Origin of nose-flute. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 538.

A1462. A1462. Origin of dancing. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1464. A1464. Origin of literary arts. Irish myth: Cross.

A1464.1. A1464.1. Acquisition of poetry. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg.

A1464.1.1. A1464.1.1. First poetry composed in imitation of tones of hammer on anvil. Irish myth: Cross.

A1464.2. A1464.2. Origin of hymn. Irish myth: Cross.

A1464.2.1. A1464.2.1. Origin of particular song. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1464.3. A1464.3. Origin of satire. Irish myth: Cross.

A1465. A1465. Origin of decorative art.

A1465.1. A1465.1. Origin of tattooing. India: Thompson-Balys; Maori: Dixon 73, Clark 139.

A1465.2. A1465.2. Origin of embroidery. Irish myth: Cross.

A1465.3. A1465.3. Origin of ornaments. India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.

A1465.3.1. A1465.3.1. Origin of gadaba ornaments. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1465.3.2. A1465.3.2. Origin of designs on cloth. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 100.

A1465.3.3. A1465.3.3. Origin of metal ornaments. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1465.4. A1465.4. Origin of polishing stone. Maori: Clark 103.

A1465.5. A1465.5. Origin of wood carving. Maori: Clark 114.

A1465.6. A1465.6. Origin of masks. Africa (Bushongo): Torday 250; (Bakuba): Einstein 163f.

A1466. A1466. Origin of church bells.

A1466.1. A1466.1. First church bell built on model of bluebell. Finnish-Swedish: Wessman 72 No. 606.

A1468. A1468. Origin of games of skill (indoor).

A1468.1. A1468.1. Invention of chess game. Irish myth: Cross.

A1470. A1470. Beginning of social relationships.

A1471. A1471. Origin of commerce. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Benga): Nassau No. 3.

A1471.1. A1471.1. Origin of trade between two places. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1471.2. A1471.2. Origin of weights and measures. Jewish: Neuman.

A1472. A1472. Beginning of division of labor.

A1472.1. A1472.1. Division of labor: religious and lay activities. Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1473. A1473. Origin of slavery. Jewish: Neuman.

A1480. A1480. Acquisition of wisdom and learning.

A1481. A1481. Origin of human wisdom. It is kept hidden by monster and is later stolen. It escapes and spreads through the world. (Cf. A1111, A1421.)--Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 33 No. 2.

A1482. A1482. Origin of language. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1482.1. A1482.1. Hebrew the language of the inhabitants of heaven. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1484. A1484. Origin of reading and writing. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1484.1. A1484.1. Origin of ogam inscriptions. Irish myth: Cross.

A1484.2. A1484.2. Origin of alphabet. Jewish: Neuman.

A1485. A1485. How people learned about calculating time and the seasons. Chinese: Graham.

A1487. A1487. Origin of sciences. Jewish: Neuman.

A1487.1. A1487.1. Origin of astronomy. Jewish: Neuman.

A1487.1.1. A1487.1.1. Origin of astrology. Jewish: Neuman.

A1487.2. A1487.2. Origin of medical books. Jewish: *Neuman.

A1490. A1490. Acquisition of culture--miscellaneous.

A1491. A1491. Origin of art of walking on stilts. Marquesas: Handy 114.

A1495. A1495. Origin of outdoor games.

A1495.1. A1495.1. Origin of ball game. Mangaia (Cook Island): Beckwith myth: 336.


A1500--A1599. Origin of customs.

A1500. A1500. Origin of customs--general. Irish: Beal XXI 324--326; Jewish: Neuman.

A1501. A1501. Tribal customs established by diviner. (Man who sees future.)--India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1502. A1502. All customs for the year established. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1503. A1503. Creator gives men customs and songs before their emergence. S. Am. Indian (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (3) 315.

A1510. A1510. Origin of eating customs. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1511. A1511. Origin of time for meals. Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 141 No. 17; Jewish: Neuman.

A1511.1. A1511.1. Mealtimes from confused message from God. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 120 No. 77.

A1512. A1512. Origin of custom of not eating in the dark: devil eats from plates. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1514. A1514. Origin of compulsory drinking at feast. Jewish: Neuman.

A1514.1. A1514.1. Origin of drinking ceremonies. Tonga: Gifford 35, 47, 72, 74.

A1515. A1515. Origin of custom of eating certain animals.

A1515.1. A1515.1. Origin of custom of eating flesh of buffalo. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1516. A1516. Origin of cannibalism. Maori: Clark 15; Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 377.

A1517. A1517. Origin of eating tabus. Tonga: Gifford 80; New Guinea: Ker 13, 52; Africa: Bouveignes 15.

A1518. A1518. Why food is cooked. New Guinea: Ker 97.

A1520. A1520. Origin of hunting and fishing customs. Irish myth: Cross.

A1525. A1525. Origin of customs: game-division. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 243f.

A1526. A1526. Why Indians cache their meat. Chitimacha: Swanton JAFL XXX 467.

A1527. A1527. Custom of catching fish with nets. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 53.

A1528. A1528. Why one presents stranger with first fish caught. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 22.

A1530. A1530. Origin of social ceremonials.

A1533. A1533. Origin of peace ceremonies. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 213.

A1534. A1534. Origin of “guesting.” Irish myth: Cross.

A1435.1. A1435.1. Acquisition of guest-houses.

A1535. A1535. Origin of secular feasts. Jewish: Neuman.

A1535.1. A1535.1. Origin of the potlatch. A feast of the Indians of the Northwest Coast of America in which large amounts of property are given away to the guests. These feasts must be returned. Quileute: Farrand JAFL XXXII 258.

A1535.2. A1535.2. Origin of games and fairs. Irish myth: Cross.

A1535.3. A1535.3. Origin of games (fair) at Telltown (Tailtiu). Irish myth: Cross.

A1535.4. A1535.4. Origin of feast of Tara. Irish myth: Cross.

A1535.5. A1535.5. Festival of Beltane. Irish myth: Cross.

A1535.6. A1535.6. Origin of horse-racing. Irish myth: Cross.

A1537. A1537. Origin of social etiquette. Jewish: Neuman.

A1537.1. A1537.1. Origin of wishing long life to person who sneezes. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 731.

A1539. A1539. Origin of social ceremonials--miscellaneous.

A1539.1. A1539.1. Origin of seating arrangements in royal hall. Irish myth: Cross.

A1540. A1540. Origin of religious ceremonials. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 85 Nos. 36a, 43d.--India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 171f.

A1541. A1541. Origin of religious feasts and fasts. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1541.1. A1541.1. Origin of feast for the dead. (Cf. A1543.1.)--Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 238.

A1541.1.1. A1541.1.1. Origin of grave-digging Irish myth: Cross.

A1541.1.2. A1541.1.2. Communion feast to placate dead. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1541.2. A1541.2. Origin of feasts in honor of certain god (goddess). Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1541.2.1. A1541.2.1. Origin of feast for Zise. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1541.3. A1541.3. Origin of Hallowe’en. Irish myth: Cross.

A1541.3.1. A1541.3.1. Origin of Hallowe’en as a mystic night. Irish myth: Cross.

A1541.4. A1541.4. Origin of Sabbath. Jewish: Neuman.

A1541.4.0.1. A1541.4.0.1. Holy day established on seventh day. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 45.

A1541.4.1. A1541.4.1. Origin of Sabbath from a feast to Venus. Spanish Exempla: Keller.

A1541.4.2. A1541.4.2. Origin of dragon festival. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 238 No. 185.

A1541.5. A1541.5. Origin of passover. Jewish: Neuman.

A1541.6. A1541.6. Origin of Pentecost. Jewish: Neuman.

A1541.7. A1541.7. Origin of religious fasts. Jewish: Neuman.

A1542. A1542. Origin of religious dances. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 359.

A1542.1. A1542.1. Origin of particular manner of dancing. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1542.2. A1542.2. Origin of particular dance.

A1542.2.1. A1542.2.1. Origin of crocodile dance. Africa (Fang): Einstein 48.

A1543. A1543. Origin of religious songs (chants).

A1543.1. A1543.1. Origin of the death chant. (Cf. A1541.1.)--Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 239; Irish myth: Cross.

A1544. A1544. Origin of religious images (idols). Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 516; Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 261.

A1544.0.1. A1544.0.1. Why Jews do not worship idols. Jewish: Neuman.

A1545. A1545. Origin of sacrifices. Greek: *Grote I 25f., 28; Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 36, 59, 199.

A1545.1. A1545.1. Regulations for sacrifices. Hebrew: Leviticus ch. 1--7; Greek: *Grote I 25f., 28; Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 64, 70, 198, 397; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 238.

A1545.2. A1545.2. Animal substituted for human sacrifice. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1545.3. A1545.3. Origin of animal sacrifices. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1545.3.1. A1545.3.1. Origin of dog sacrifices. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1545.3.2. A1545.3.2. Origin of calf sacrifices. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1545.3.3. A1545.3.3. Origin of cock sacrifice. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 120 No. 78.

A1545.4. A1545.4. Custom of sacrifice begun at harvest and sowing times. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1545.5. A1545.5. Origin of human sacrifice. India: *Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 370.

A1545.5.1. A1545.5.1. Origin of the custom of wife self-sacrifice (suttee). India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1545.6. A1545.6. Why animal bones only are used in sacrifice. Greek: Grote I 59.

A1546. A1546. Origin of worship. (Cf. V0--V99.)--Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: *Neuman.

A1546.0.1. A1546.0.1. Origin of symbols of worship. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1546.0.2. A1546.0.2. Origin of prayers. Jewish: *Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 19ff., 69; Easter Is.: Mйtraux Ethnology 313.

A1546.0.3. A1546.0.3. Origin of calf-statues in temples. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 136.

A1546.1. A1546.1. Origin of worship of rivers. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1546.2. A1546.2. Origin of worship of particular god(s). India: Thompson-Balys.

A1546.3. A1546.3. Origin of Christian worship.

A1546.3.1. A1546.3.1. First convert to Christianity in Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.

A1546.3.2. A1546.3.2. First monk, first pilgrim. Irish myth: Cross.

A1546.4. A1546.4. Origin of Jewish worship. Jewish: Neuman.

A1546.5. A1546.5. Origin of worship from holy books. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1546.6. A1546.6. Origin of fire worship. Jewish: Neuman.

A1546.7. A1546.7. Origin of animal worship.

A1546.7.1. A1546.7.1. Origin of crocodile worship. Africa (Fang): Einstein 50.

A1547. A1547. Origin of funeral customs. Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1547.1. A1547.1. Origin of funeral sacrifices. (Cf. A1545.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A1547.2. A1547.2. Origin of lute-playing at funerals. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1547.3. A1547.3. Origin of lamentations for the dead. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1548. A1548. Origin of tithing. Jewish: Neuman.

A1549. A1549. Origin of religious ceremonials--miscellaneous.

A1549.1. A1549.1. Origin of commemorative religious meal (to memorialize death or actions of ancestor or holy person). India: Thompson-Balys.

A1549.2. A1549.2. Origin of sundry religious ceremonials--Jewish: Neuman.

A1549.3. A1549.3. Origin of religious games. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 40.

A1549.4. A1549.4. Origin of penance for sin. Jewish: Neuman.

A1550. A1550. Origin of customs of courtship and marriage. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1551. A1551. Why women do not woo. Esthonian: FFC XXV 142 No. 18; Jewish: Neuman; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 54.

A1552. A1552. Marriage between close relatives.

A1552.1. A1552.1. Why brothers and sisters do not marry. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1552.2. A1552.2. Origin of royal marriages with close relatives. Tonga: Gifford 187.

A1552.3. A1552.3. Brother-sister marriage of children of first parents. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 68.

A1553. A1553. Origin of exogamy and endogamy.

A1553.1. A1553.1. Origin of exogamy. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1554. A1554. Origin of love-songs. China: Eberhard FFC CXX 118.

A1555. A1555. Origin of marriage. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 7 No. 26, XXXIII 52 No. 26; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 84 No. 26; Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

A1555.1. A1555.1. Origin of wedding ceremony. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1555.1.1. A1555.1.1. Origin of custom of throwing fruits on bridal couple. Jewish: Neuman.

A1555.2. A1555.2. Origin of custom of purchasing wives. Irish Myth: Cross.

A1555.3. A1555.3. Why umbrellas are used to welcome bride to new home. Chinese: Graham.

A1556. A1556. Origin of sexual restrictions. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1556.1. A1556.1. Beginning of law against rape. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1556.2. A1556.2. Origin of celibacy. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 109.

A1556.3. A1556.3. Origin of adultery. It occurs in the primeval human family. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 69.

A1556.3.1. A1556.3.1. Origin of decrying female sinners. Irish myth: Cross.

A1556.4. A1556.4. Origin of jus primae noctis. Jewish: Neuman.

A1557. A1557. Why woman is master of her husband. (Cf. A1372.9.) Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 98.

A1558. A1558. Origin of divorce. Africa (Akan-Ashanti): Rattray 242 No. 62.

A1559. A1559. Origin of customs of courtship and marriage--miscellaneous.

A1559.1. A1559.1. Origin of the village dormitory. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

A1560. A1560. Origin of customs connected with birth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1562. A1562. Origin of medical treatment during pregnancy.

A1562.1. A1562.1. Origin of charms for pregnant women. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 181.

A1565. A1565. Origin of diet during confinement. Africa (Basuto): Jacottet 54.

A1566. A1566. Parents learn how to wean their children. S. A. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 120.

A1567. A1567. Origin of circumcision. Jewish: Neuman.

A1567.1. A1567.1. Why dust is strewn on wound at circumcision. Jewish: Neuman.

A1570. A1570. Origin of regulations within the family.

A1571. A1571. Origin of code of conduct between husband and wife.

A1571.1. A1571.1. Why husband and wife shall not exchange hats. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 117.

A1575. A1575. Origin of relation of mother and children.

A1575.1. A1575.1. Why a mother has prior claim on her children. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 101.

A1576. A1576. Origin of code of conduct for parents toward children of polygamous marriage. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1577. A1577. Origin of personal names. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; Liberian: Bundy JAFL XXXII 422.

A1577.1. A1577.1. Adam named from first letters of four stars. Irish myth: Cross.

A1578. A1578. Origin of family insignia.

A1578.1. A1578.1. Origin of family crests. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII *235--238.

A1579. A1579. Origin of regulation within the family--miscellaneous.

A1579.1. A1579.1. Why children are not left alone in the house to sleep. Marquesas: Handy 51.

A1580. A1580. Origin of laws. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1580.1. A1580.1. Origin of justice. Irish myth: Cross.

A1580.1.1. A1580.1.1. First judgment in Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.

A1580.2. A1580.2. Laws given directly by deity. Jewish: Neuman.

A1581. A1581. Origin of special penalties.

A1581.1. A1581.1. Origin of penalty for murder. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 401.

A1581.2. A1581.2. Origin of penalty for theft. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1582. A1582. Origin of government. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1583. A1583. Origin of kingdom. Irish myth: Cross.

A1585. A1585. Origin of laws: division of property in a family. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1586. A1586. First surety. Irish myth: Cross.

A1587. A1587. Origin of tabus. Mono-Alu: Wheeler 67; Papua: Kerr 90. C. Tabu.

A1587.1. A1587.1. Tabus instituted by God or creator. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1587.2. A1587.2. Tabus instituted by culture hero. S. A. Indian (Tupinamba): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 132.

A1589. A1589. Origin of laws--miscellaneous.

A1589.1. A1589.1. Why women are disqualified as witness in court. Jewish: Neuman.

A1590. A1590. Origin of other customs.

A1591. A1591. Origin of burial. Irish myth: Cross; Icel.: Boberg; Finnish: Aarne FFC VII 9 No. 41, XXXIII 53 No. 41.--India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 226; Maidu: Dixon BAM XVII 44 No. 1.

A1591.1. A1591.1. Burial learned from watching raven bury its dead. Dh I 249.

A1592. A1592. Origin of cremation. Icel.: Boberg; India: Thompson-Balys; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 239ff.

A1593. A1593. Why men no longer know time of death. Custom changed when men began to repair fences with stalks when they knew they were to die the next day.--Irish myth: Cross; *Babler Sudetendeutsche Zs. f. Vksk. VII (1934) 171ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3062, Legends Nos. 115--120.--Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 142 No. 19; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 84 No. 37.

A1594. A1594. Origin of physicians. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1594.1. A1594.1. Establishment of doctor‘s fees. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 279.

A1595. A1595. Origin of tattooing. Easter Island: Mйtraux Ethnology 316f., 367.

A1596. A1596. Origin of army. Irish myth: Cross.

A1596.1. A1596.1. Origin of custom of paying soldiers. Irish myth: Cross.

A1597. A1597. Origin of custom of wearing a beard. Irish myth: Cross.

A1597.1. A1597.1. First men without beards: Cain, Abel. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1597.2. A1597.2. Origin of custom of shaving. Irish myth: Cross.

A1598. A1598. Origin of customs of hospitality. Jewish: Neuman.

A1599. A1599. Origin of additional customs.

A1599.1. A1599.1. Origin of warning beacon. Irish myth: Cross.

A1599.2. A1599.2. Origin of erection of monuments to mark boundaries. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1599.3. A1599.3. Why women wear veils in India. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1599.4. A1599.4. Why the face must be wiped dry after washing. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3070; Legends No. 122.

A1599.5. A1599.5. Why in addressing anyone the second plural should be used. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3072.

A1599.6. A1599.6. Why earthworms are killed whenever earth is dug. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1599.7. A1599.7. Why dagger must be always cleaned on the inside of the robe. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1599.8. A1599.8. Inequalities of fortune among men, otherwise the work of the world will not go on. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1599.9. A1599.9. Origin of custom of committing suicide by strangling. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1599.10. A1599.10. Origin of witchcraft. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1599.11. A1599.11. Origin of quarrels. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1599.11.1. A1599.11.1. Origin of war. Africa (Togo): Einstein 8.

A1599.12. A1599.12. Origin of covenanted friendships. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1599.13. A1599.13. Why certain caste is kind to animals. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1599.14. A1599.14. Why a lamp must be lighted in a house at least every fortnight.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A1599.15. A1599.15. Origin of begging. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1599.16. A1599.16. Origin of allusive expression for the story of gods‘ incest and trickery. Marquesas: Handy 123.


A1600--A1699. Distribution and differentiation of peoples.

A1600. A1600. Distribution and differentiation of peoples--general. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1601. A1601. Number of nations of the world (70, 72, 140). Jewish: Neuman.

A1610. A1610. Origin of various tribes. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 328; Persian: Carnoy 298.--Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 52 No. 12**; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 85 No. 39; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 34 No. 7, 35 No. 9; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 85 No. 43a; India: Thompson Balys.

A1610.1. A1610.1. Unworthy origin ascribed to hostile tribes. *Dh II 184; Jewish: Neuman; S. Am. Indian (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 359.

A1610.1.1. A1610.1.1. Foreigners heads exchanged with those of devils in fight. Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 94ff.

A1610.2. A1610.2. Couples placed to establish tribes. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 54, 92, 94, 98.

A1610.3. A1610.3. Origin of races from mixed offspring of animal marriage. Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 85, 125, 200, (East Greenland): Rasmussen I 363, Holm 57.

A1610.4. A1610.4. Tribes from fruits of various trees. S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 108.

A1610.5. A1610.5. Different tribes result from choice of things Sun offers people. S. Am. Indian (Bacairi): Lйvi-Strauss BBAE CXLIII (3) 348.

A1610.6. A1610.6. Tribes from clay models made by creator. S. Am. Indian (Inca): Rowe BBAE CXLIII (2) 315.

A1611. A1611. Origin of particular tribes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1611.1. A1611.1. Origin of American Indian tribes.

A1611.1.1. A1611.1.1. Origin of the Ojibwa. Ojibwa: Jones JAFL XXIX 388, *Skinner JAFL XXXII 290.

A1611.1.2. A1611.1.2. Origin of Eskimo. Eskimo (East Greenland): Holm 57.

A1611.2. A1611.2. Origin of Gypsies. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 5 No. 12; Irish: Beal XXI 304, 325f.

A1611.3. A1611.3. Origin of various African tribes. Jewish: Neuman.

A1611.3.1. A1611.3.1. Origin of Bushmen. Hottentot: Bleek 83 No. 40.

A1611.4. A1611.4. Origin of various tribes of India. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1611.5. A1611.5. Origin of various European peoples.

A1611.5.1. A1611.5.1. Origin of Greeks. Jewish: Neuman.

A1611.5.2. A1611.5.2. Origin of Italians. Jewish: Neuman.

A1611.5.3. A1611.5.3. Origin of Germans. Jewish: Neuman.

A1611.5.4. A1611.5.4. Origin of Celts. Irish myth: Cross (A1611.8).

A1611.5.4.1. A1611.5.4.1. Origin of women in Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.

A1611.5.4.2. A1611.5.4.2. Origin of the Maic Milid (Milesians, Gaels). Irish myth: Cross.

A1611.5.4.3. A1611.5.4.3. Origin of the Tuatha Dй Danann regarded as an early tribe. Irish myth: Cross.

A1611.6. A1611.6. Origin of various Near Eastern peoples. Jewish: Neuman.

A1614. A1614. Origin of white and colored races. Africa (Fjort): Dennett 101 No. 27, (Ekoi): Talbot 387, (Loango): Pechuлl-Loesche 268, (Fang): Trilles 143, 152, 155, Einstein 178, (Cameroon): Rosenhuber 20 No. 3; American Negro (Georgia): Harris Remus 163 No. 33.

A1614.1. A1614.1. Negroes as curse on Ham for laughing at Noah’s nakedness. Dh I 290; *BP III 311; Jewish: Neuman.

A1614.1.1. A1614.1.1. Origin of luchrupain (leprechauns, dwarfs, pygmies) from curses of Ham. Irish myth: Cross.

A1614.1.2. A1614.1.2. Origin of “goat-heads” from curse of Ham. Irish myth: Cross.

A1614.2. A1614.2. Races dark-skinned from bathing after white men. All peoples bathe in the river, the white man first, then in turn, the Spaniard, the Indian, and the negro--each becoming darker because of the condition of the water.--N. A. Indian (Biloxi): Swanton BBAE XLVII 32; Carib: Alexander Lat. Am. 271; American Negro: Harris Remus 163; Africa (Loango): Pechuлl-Loesche 268, (Cameroon): Rosenhuber 57. Cf. Dh. I 247 (Danish).

A1614.3. A1614.3. Light and dark-skinned peoples made from light and dark coconuts. New Britain: Dixon 108.

A1614.4. A1614.4. Origin of tribes from choices made.

A1614.4.1. A1614.4.1. Origin of tribes from kinds of meat they choose. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1614.4.1.1. A1614.4.1.1. Origin of race colors from eating of ox. Those who eat livers are black; those who eat lungs and blood are red.--Herero: Werner African 150.

A1614.4.2. A1614.4.2. Origin of different peoples according to choice of chairs. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1614.4.3. A1614.4.3. Origin of different peoples according to choice of bows and arrows or else guns, horses and cattle. Indians choose the former, whites the latter.--S. Am. Indian (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 360.

A1614.5. A1614.5. Negroes made from left-over scraps at creation. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 632.

A1614.6. A1614.6. Origin of light and dark skin color. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1614.7. A1614.7. Indians and whites from different legs of first man. S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 108.

A1614.8. A1614.8. Black tribe because woman is put on fire. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 175.

A1614.9. A1614.9. Origin of white man. Eskimo (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 261, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 168.

A1616. A1616. Origin of particular languages. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 142 No. 25; Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 9 Nos. 45--47; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 85 Nos. 38, 40; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 35 No. 11; Icel.: Snorra Edda Prologue V; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 123; Jewish: Neuman.

A1616.1. A1616.1. Cold before theft of fire impedes speech: explanation of difficulty of certain languages. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 63.

A1616.2. A1616.2. Origin of Irish language. Irish myth: Cross.

A1617. A1617. Origin of place-name. India: Thompson-Balys. (No attempt is given here to collect references to place-name origins. Stories of this kind are world wide.)

A1618. A1618. Origin of inequalities among men. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1620. A1620. Distribution of tribes. Hebrew: Genesis ch. 10; Indo-Chinese: Scott 292.--Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 149, (Fjort): Dennett 108 No. 31; India: Thompson-Balys.--N. A. Indian: (general) *Thompson Tales 285 n. 54, (Hopi): Alexander N. Am. 205, (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 213; Cakchiquel: Alexander Lat. Am. 181; S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): ibid. 315.

A1621. A1621. Reasons for difference in population sizes in different areas. New Guinea: Ker. 138.

A1630. A1630. Wandering of tribes. Icel.: Snorra Edda Prologue IV-V, Hermann Saxo II 85ff.; Hebrew: Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Jewish: Neuman; Armenian: Ananikian 65.--N. A. Indian (Thompson, Gros Ventre, Sarcee, Blackfoot, Cheyenne): *Teit MAFLS XI 48ff., (Creek): Alexander N. Am. 63, (Sia): ibid. 203f.; S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503, (Mundurucъ): Horton ibid. (3) 281, (Brazil): Oberg. 108.

A1631. A1631. Emergence of tribe from lower world. Creek: Alexander N. Am. 62; Choctaw: ibid. 63; Mandan, Kiowa: ibid. 105; Arikara: ibid. 107; Navaho: ibid. 159; Pima: ibid. 177; Sia: ibid. 203; Hopi: ibid. 205; Warrau (Carib): Alexander Lat. Am. 273; Amazon tribes: ibid. 309.

A1631.1. A1631.1. Emergence of tribe from lower world stopped by fat woman or pregnant woman who becomes lodged in the hole of egress.--Warrau (Carib tribe): Alexander Lat. Am. 272 (references to Kiowa, Mandan, and Pueblo).

A1631.2. A1631.2. Tribe climbs down from sky to earth. S. Am. Indian (Tropical Forest): Lowie BBAE CLXIII (3) 55.

A1640. A1640. Origin of tribal subdivisions. India: Thompson-Balys; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 502.--Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 207; S. Am. Indian (Tropical Forest): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (3) 53.

A1641. A1641. Characteristics of tribal subdivisions. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 216; Laguna and Zuсi: Parsons JAFL XXXI 263.

A1650. A1650. Origin of different classes--social and professional. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 153.

A1650.1. A1650.1. The various children of Eve. Eve has so many children that she is ashamed when God pays her a visit. She hides some of them and they fail to receive the blessing that God gives those in sight. Thus arises the differences in classes and peoples.--*BP III 308ff. (Gr. No. 180); *Dh I 247, II 98f.--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 85 No. 41; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 87 No. 758.

A1650.2. A1650.2. Custom of differentiating social classes by color of dress introduced. Irish myth: Cross.

A1650.3. A1650.3. Origin of different trades. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

A1650.3.1. A1650.3.1. Why some men are good basket-makers. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1650.3.2. A1650.3.2. How God distributed professions: according to the bodily appearance of men. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3056, Balys Legends No. 107.

A1641. A1641. Origin of castes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1651.0.1. A1651.0.1. Attitude to untouchables. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1651.1. A1651.1. Origin of castes from instructions received in dream. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1651.2. A1651.2. Caste determined by what kind of tree one catches while crossing a river. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1653. A1653. Origin of royalty.

A1653.1. A1653.1. Origin of kings (from god(s)). Icel.: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 241 (Rigsthula), Snorra Edda Prologue.

A1653.2. A1653.2. Origin of a king’s family from a fairy prince. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1654. A1654. Origin of priesthood (shamanism, etc.)

A1654.1. A1654.1. Origin of priests. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1654.2. A1654.2. Origin of diviners. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1655. A1655. Origin of peasantry. Icel.: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 237 (Rigsthula); African (Senegambia): Bйrenger-Feraud II 185ff. No. 2.

A1655.1. A1655.1. Why peasant is always busy: he is eager to produce food for all living beings. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 108.

A1656. A1656. Origin of noblemen. Icel.: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 239 (Rigsthula).

A1656.1. A1656.1. Origin of Polish noblemen: from wheat dough that a bitch devours. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3050, Balys Legends Nos 97, 104ff.

A1657. A1657. Origin of slaves. Icel.: Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 235 (Rigsthula); Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A1657.1. A1657.1. Origin of subject tribes (aithech-thuatha). Irish myth: Cross.

A1657.2. A1657.2. Origin of the Fir Bolg (“Men of the Sacks”); so-called because as slaves they were forced to carry earth in sacks (builg). Irish myth: Cross.

A1658. A1658. Origin of professional warriors. Irish myth: Cross.

A1658.1. A1658.1. Origin of fiana (bands of professional warriors). Irish myth: Cross.

A1659. A1659. Origin of different classes--miscellaneous.

A1659.1. A1659.1. Origin of the Fomorians (giants). Irish myth: Cross.

A1659.1.1. A1659.1.1. Fomorians descended from Ham (or Cain). Irish myth: Cross.

A1660. A1660. Characteristics of various peoples--in personal appearance. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 153, Corpus Poeticum Boreale I 234 ff. Irish myth: Cross.

A1661. A1661. Hair and beard of various peoples. Irish myth: Cross.

A1661.1. A1661.1. How the white man got his beard. Cheyenne: Campbell JAFL XXIX 407.

A1661.2. A1661.2. Why the white man has short hair. Cheyenne: Campbell JAFL XXIX 408.

A1661.3. A1661.3. Why Canaanites have curly hair. Jewish: Neuman.

A1662. A1662. Peculiar smell of body.

A1662.1. A1662.1. Why Jews smell bad. They rubbed Christ‘s body with garlic. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *1867A.

A1663. A1663. Heads of various people.

A1663.1. A1663.1. Why Babylonians are round headed. Jewish: Neuman.

A1664. A1664. Beauty of various peoples. Jewish: Neuman.

A1665. A1665. Feet of various peoples.

A1665.1. A1665.1. Why Africans have bad feet. Jewish: Neuman.

A1666. A1666. Eyes of various peoples.

A1666.1. A1666.1. Why Canaanites have red eyes. Jewish: Neuman.

A1666.2. A1666.2. Why Palmyrenes have narrow eyes. Jewish: Neuman.

A1667. A1667. Intelligence of various people.

A1667.1. A1667.1. Why Europeans know more than natives. Marquesas: Handy 138.

A1670. A1670. Characteristics of various peoples--in industry and warfare.

A1671. A1671. Tribal characteristics--labor.

A1671.1. A1671.1. Why the negro works. S. Carolina Negro: Davis JAFL XXVII 244; N. Carolina Negro: Brown Collection I 633; Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 225.

A1673. A1673. Tribal characteristics--industry.

A1673.1. A1673.1. Why the Haidas surpass in certain industries. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 213.

A1674. A1674. Tribal characteristics--stealing.

A1674.1. A1674.1. Why it is not a sin for a Gypsy to steal: helpful at crucifixion. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *1638, Balys Legends No. 102.

A1674.2. A1674.2. Why Russians like thefts and robberies. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 100.

A1675. A1675. Tribal characteristics--warfare. Irish myth: Cross.

A1676. A1676. Tribal characteristics--bravery or cowardice.

A1676.1. A1676.1. Why the Chittagongs are not as brave as they used to be. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1680. A1680. Characteristics of various peoples--in habits. Irish myth: Cross.

A1681. A1681. Tribal characteristics--eating.

A1681.1. A1681.1. Why Indians chew spruce gum. Loucheux: Barbeau JAFL XXVIII 256.

A1681.2. A1681.2. Why Jews do not eat pork. Jaworskij Der Urquell II 196; Fb “svin” III 676b.--Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 142 No. 23; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 1867A; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 85 No. 42; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 85 No. 43c.

A1681.3. A1681.3. Why the Muria eat snakes. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1681.4. A1681.4. Why the Agaria eat rats. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1683. A1683. Tribal characteristics--dress.

A1683.1. A1683.1. Why Russians wear their shirts outside their breeches. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 142 No. 24.

A1683.1.1. A1683.1.1. Why Russians wear red shirts. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 99.

A1683.2. A1683.2. Why a certain tribe wear clothes like dogs (supposed descendants of a bitch mother). India: Thompson-Balys.

A1683.3. A1683.3. Origin of custom of wearing mantles. Irish myth: Cross.

A1683.4. A1683.4. Why certain peoples go nude.

A1683.4.1. A1683.4.1. Why Canaanites go nude. Jewish: Neuman.

A1683.5. A1683.5. Why certain peoples wear only loincloths. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 94.

A1687. A1687. Tribal characteristics--decoration.

A1687.1. A1687.1. Why Zuсi girls rub flour on their faces as they grind. Zuсi: Parsons JAFL XXIX 394.

A1689. A1689. Other origins and originators. Irish myth: Cross.

A1689.1. A1689.1. Why Bhuiya yoke the cow and the bullock together to the plough. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1689.2. A1689.2. Why Agaria are not afraid of fire. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1689.3. A1689.3. Why the Gond and Baiga are omnivorous. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1689.4. A1689.4. Why Saora wave axes and swords and shout while dancing. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1689.5. A1689.5. Why the Kamar offer liquor to gods and spirits. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1689.6. A1689.6. Why Jews read and write from right to left: because of the ugly name of the king of the Jews. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *1867C.

A1689.7. A1689.7. Origin of the Russian calendar. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 101.

A1689.8. A1689.8. Why Chapperbands coin false money for a living. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1689.9. A1689.9. Why Chenchu women are ugly. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1689.10. A1689.10. Why the Agaria are cultivators. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1689.11. A1689.11. Why one people is superior in power to another.

A1689.11.1. A1689.11.1. English more powerful than Hindus since latter were late at distribution of qualities. (Both defecating, but Hindu must wash, while Englishman uses paper.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A1689.12. A1689.12. Why Egyptians are fond of asses. Jewish: Neuman.

A1689.13. A1689.13. Why Jews keep aloof from other peoples. Jewish: Neuman.

A1690. A1690. Distribution and differentiation of people--miscellaneous.

A1691. A1691. Differentiation between “free” (saer) and “unfree” (daer). Irish myth: Cross.




A1700--A1799. Creation of animal life--general.

A1700. A1700. Creation of animals. (Cf. Chapter B, Animals.) Quichй: Alexander Lat. Am. 162; Ekoi: Talbot 149.

A1701. A1701. Creation of animals by God. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1702. A1702. Creation of animals by creator. (Cf. A0.)--Jewish: Neuman.

A1703. A1703. Culture hero creates useful animals. S. Am. Indian (Caingang): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 473.

A1704. A1704. All animals created in couples. Jewish: Neuman.

A1705. A1705. Animals created to serve man. Jewish: Neuman.

A1710. A1710. Creation of animals through transformation. (Cf. A1811.1, A1833.2, A1861.1, A1861.2, A1863, A1887).--India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham, Eberhard FFC CXX 79, 96, 122f. No. 82; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 98.

A1711. A1711. Animals from transformations after deluge or world calamity. S. Am. Indian (Amazon Tribes): Alexander Lat. Am. 311f., Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 367.

A1713. A1713. Creator sent for water: Meantime animals assume present forms. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 59.

A1714. A1714. Animals from various transformed objects. India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 22, 465; Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL 20 171, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 167, 169, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI, 588, (East Greenland): Rasmussen I, 82, 96, (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 261, (Labrador): Hawks GSCan XIV 155, (Cape York): Rasmussen III 79; S. Am. Indian (Caingang): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 473, (Araucanian): Cooper ibid. (2) 753, (Inca): Rowe ibid. 315, (Cashinawa): Mйtraux ibid. (3) 684.

A1714.1. A1714.1. Animals from transformed cloth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1714.2. A1714.2. Animals from bark thrown on ground. Borneo: Dixon 176.

A1714.3. A1714.3. Animals created from earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1714.3.1. A1714.3.1. Buffaloes emerge from earth, the first man holding the tail of last one. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1715. A1715. Animals from transformed man. (Cf. A2005, A2011.2.) Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3115, Balys Legends Nos. 216--219, 261f.; India: Thompson-Balys; Maori: Clark 15; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 422; Raratonga (Cook Island): ibid. 101; Tuomatu: Stimson MS (z-G 3/1100); S. Am. Indian (Tiatinagua): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 449, (Munderucъ): Horton ibid. 281, (Cashinawa): Mйtraux ibid. 685, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 31, 79, (Mataco): Mйtraux ibid. 64.

A1715.1. A1715.1. Animals from Pharaoh’s drowned army. From the army crossing the Red Sea came the various animals.--Dh I 318.

A1715.2. A1715.2. Animals from men transformed for discourtesy to God (Jesus). (Cf. A1831, A1862, A1871.)--*Dh. II 99ff. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1715.3. A1715.3. Seven whistlers are the souls of the Jews who crucified Christ. (Cf. F456.1.1.1.)--England, U.S.: *Baughman.

A1715.4. A1715.4. Animals from transformed men according to favorite food. One man asks for flesh, one for blood, etc. They are changed to mice, cats, and bugs. (Cf. A1811, A1853.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC XXV 150 No. 71.

A1715.5. A1715.5. Animals from transformed survivors of shipwreck. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1716. A1716. Animals from transformed ogre or giant. Maori: Clark 101.

A1716.1. A1716.1. Animals from different parts of body of slain giant. Giant person, cow, ox, etc.--Persian: Carnoy 288.--Borneo, Philippines: Dixon 177.

A1724. A1724. Animals from transformed parts of the body (animal or human). India: Thompson-Balys.

A1724.1. A1724.1. Animals from body of slain person. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1724.1.1. A1724.1.1. Animals from severed fingers of woman. (Cf. A2102.)--N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 272; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1724.2. A1724.2. Animals from transformed hair. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1724.3. A1724.3. All living things from Jesus‘ spattered blood. Laguna, Zuсi: Parsons JAFL XXXI 257.

A1725. A1725. Animals from parts of body of deity or saint.

A1725.1. A1725.1. Animals from spittle of deity (saint). (Cf. A2181, A2182.)--*DhII 107ff.

A1725.2. A1725.2. Animals from body dirt of deity (hero). India: Thompson-Balys.

A1727. A1727. Primordial animal mutilated to produce present form. Maori: Clark 50; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 135, 436, 500.

A1730. A1730. Creation of animals as punishment. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1731. A1731. Creation of animals as punishment for beating forbidden drum. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 89 No. 16.

A1732. A1732. Creation of animals to take revenge. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1733. A1733. Creation of animals as punishment for incest. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1734. A1734. Animals from frogs sent as one of Egypt‘s plagues. Jewish: Neuman.

A1750. A1750. Animals created through opposition of devil to god.

A1751. A1751. The devil’s animals and God‘s. In the contest between God and the devil, certain animals are made by each. Dh. I 164 (with lists of the animals). Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3081, Legends Nos. 124--130; German: Grimm No. 148.

A1751.1. A1751.1. Mouse created by Lucifer; cat by Michael to destroy mouse. (Cf. A1811. A1853.)--Irish myth: Cross.

A1755. A1755. Devil‘s unsuccessful creation produces certain animals. (Cf. A1811, A1833.1, A1862, A1893.)--Dh I 156.

A1756. A1756. Devil produces animals only in God’s name. He tries unsuccessfully without using God‘s name. Dh I 146ff. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3086; Legends Nos. 139--146, 152.

A1757. A1757. Dualism of animal creation. persian: Carnoy 291.

A1758. A1758. Animals created while god Mahadeo quarrels with his wife. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1770. A1770. Creation of animals from unusual primeval mating. S. Am. Indian (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 359.

A1771. A1771. Animals from mating of sun and moon. S. Am. Indian (Jivarу): Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 627.

A1772. A1772. Animals born from primeval mating of snake and person. S. Am. Indian (Tapirapй): Wagley-Galvao BBAE CXLIII (3) 253.

A1790. A1790. Creation of animals--other motifs.

A1791. A1791. Giant ox ancestor of all animals. Persian: Carnoy 289.

A1792. A1792. Animals vomited up by creator. Bushongo: Werner African 144.

A1793. A1793. Animals emerge from tree. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 287; S. Am. Indian (Warrau): Kirchhoff BBAE CXLIII (3) 880.

A1795. A1795. Animals drop from clouds. India: Thompson-Balys.


A1800--A1899. Creation of mammals.

Note: A1800--A1899 is based upon the following classification of mammals:


A1810--A1819. Felidae.


A1820--A1829. Mustelidae.


A1830--A1839. Canidae and other carnivora.


A1840--A1859. Rodentia.


A1860--A1869. Primata.


A1870--1889. Ungulata.


A1890--1899. Other mammals.

A1800. A1800. Creation of mammals. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.



A1810. A1810. Creation of felidae.

A1811. A1811. Creation of cat. Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 150 No. 71 (cf. A1715.4); Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 11 No. 55, XXXIII 53 No. 55, Dh I 166, 273 (cf. A1751.); ibid. I 157 (cf. A1755.)--Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3120, Legends No. 133, 195, 220f.; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1811.1. A1811.1. Cat from transformed eagle. Eagle mistakes stick of wood for fish and gets feet caught. Wind blows off feathers and makes hair. (Cf. A1710.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 11 No. 54.

A1811.2. A1811.2. Creation of cat: sneezed from lion’s nostrils. Devil as mouse gnaws hole in bottom of ark. Noah asks lion‘s help. Lion sneezes and cat comes from lion’s nostril and eats mouse. *Dh I 271ff.

A1811.3. A1811.3. Cat of divine origin; is really praying when he purrs. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1815. A1815. Creation of tiger. India: *Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Apapocuvu-Guaranн): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 138.

A1817. A1817. Creation of jaguar. S. Am. Indian (Mojo): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 424.

A1820. A1820. Creation of mustelidae.

A1821. A1821. Creation of otter.

A1821.1. A1821.1. Creation of sea otter. Eskimo (Kodiak): Golder JAFL XX 139.

A1824. A1824. Creation of marten. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 432.

A1830. A1830. Creation of canidae and other carnivora.

A1831. A1831. Creation of dog. Dh I 164 (Cf. A1751); ibid. II 101 (Cf. A1715.2).--Irish: Beal XXI 330; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 72; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 436, 500; Maori: Clark 50; Eskimo (Cape York): Rasmussen III 47; Ojibwa: Jones JAFL XXIX 376.

A1831.1. A1831.1. Dog created as watch-dog for Jesus. Jesus, left to watch the herd, creates the dog to drive off the wolf. *Dh II 118.

A1831.2. A1831.2. First lapdog in Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.

A1832. A1832. Creation of fox. India: Thompson-Balys; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

A1833. A1833. Creation of wolf. (Cf. A1751.) Dh I 147ff., I 164.--Quileute: Farrand JAFL XXXII 259.

A1833.1. A1833.1. Devil makes wolf; God gives him life. (Cf. A1755.)--Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 145 No. 39. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3086; Legends Nos. 139--146.

A1833.2. A1833.2. Wolf from man transformed by magician. (Cf. A1710.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 14 No. 76.

A1833.3. A1833.3. Wolf as God’s dog. German: Grimm No. 148.

A1834. A1834. Creation of coyote and other canidae.

A1834.1. A1834.1. Creation of coyote.

A1834.2. A1834.2. Creation of jackal. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1834.3. A1834.3. Creation of hyena. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1836. A1836. Creation of bear. Dh II 99 (Cf. A1715.2.)--Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 146 No. 41; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3112; Legends Nos. 175, 216ff.; India: Thompson-Balys; Ojibwa: Jones JAFL XXIX 370, Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 171, (West Hudson Bay): Boas ibid. 307, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 172.

A1837. A1837. Origin of seal. Eskimo (Central): Boas RBAE VI 637, 639.

A1838. A1838. Origin of walrus. Eskimo (Central): Boas RBAE VI 587.

A1840. A1840. Creation of rodentia.

A1853. A1853. Creation of mouse. Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 150 No. 71 (Cf. A1715.4); Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3120. Legends No. 220f.

A1853.1. A1853.1. Creation of mouse by devil in ark. (Cf. A1811.2.)--*Dh I 166, 273; *Fb “mus” II 632a.; Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 11 No. 55, XXXIII 53 No. 55.

A1853.1.1. A1853.1.1. Mice engendered after flood from rottenness: no mice on ark. Nouvelles Rйcrйations No. 66.

A1854. A1854. Creation of rat. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1854.1. A1854.1. Why we have rats: one escapes from slaughter of rats. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1856. A1856. Creation of hare (rabbit). Dh I 164; India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Central): Boas RBAE VI 639, (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 263.

A1857. A1857. Creation of mongoose. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1858. A1858. Creation of porcupine. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1860. A1860. Creation of primata. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1861. A1861. Creation of monkey. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 189f.; S. Am. Indian (Macovi): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 35.

A1861.1. A1861.1. Monkeys from children hidden by Eve when God visited her. (Cf. A1650.1, A1710.)--BP III 320f.; Dh I 247.

A1861.2. A1861.2. Creation of monkeys: old woman thrown into fire. In unsuccessful imitation of Christ, the smith throws an old woman into the fire. She becomes a monkey. (Cf. A1710.)--Dh II 168.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 13 No. 68; Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 146 No. 46; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 86 No. 68; German: Grimm No. 147.--Cf. Type 753.

A1861.3. A1861.3. Creation of monkey: lazy man. *Fb “abe” IV 2a.

A1862. A1862. Creation of ape. Dh I 156ff. (Cf. A1755); ibid. I 164 (Cf. A1751); ibid. II 100 (Cf. A1715.2.)--Indonesian: De Vries‘s list No. 74; Palestine: Schmidt-Kahle Volkserzдhlungen aus Palestina I No. 59; Jewish: Neuman; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 121f. 411 s.v. “Affen entstehen”; Africa (Cameroon): Rosenhuber 38.

A1863. A1863. Creation of baboon. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 349 No. 4; Zulu: Callaway 178 (transformed men, cf. A1710).

A1870. A1870. Creation of ungulata.

A1871. A1871. Creation of hog (pig). Dh II 102--Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 144 No. 34; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 88 No. 68; India: Thompson-Balys; Rarotonga (Cook Island): Beckwith Myth 101.

A1871.0.1. A1871.0.1. God’s urine used to make pig. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1871.1. A1871.1. Origin of wild boar. Jewish: Neuman.

A1871.2. A1871.2. Origin of peccary. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685.

A1872. A1872. Creation of hippopotamus. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 386.

A1873. A1873. Creation of camel. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1875. A1875. Origin of deer. India: Thompson-Balys (A1888).

A1875.0.1. A1875.0.1. First deer in Ireland--introduced by Tuatha Dй Danann. Irish myth: Cross (A1888.1).

A1875.1. A1875.1. Origin of reindeer. Kodiak: Jochelson JE VI 224; Eskimo (Central): Boas RBAE VI 215 588, (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 454; N. Am. Indian (Kathlamet): Boas RBAE XXVI 109.

A1876. A1876. Creation of moose (elk). Quileute: Farrand JAFL XXXII 258.

A1876.1. A1876.1. Creation of caribou. Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 167, 306, (Mackenzie Area): Jenness 80.

A1877. A1877. Creation of cow. Dh I 164 (Cf. A1751).--India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 120 No. 77; Masai: Werner African 149.

A1877.1. A1877.1. First cattle in Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.

A1878. A1878. Creation of bison (buffalo). Cheyenne: Alexander N. Am. 127; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1878.1. A1878.1. Origin of wild and domestic buffalo. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1881. A1881. Creation of horse. Dh. I 155, 164 (Cf. A1751); *Fb “hest” I 599; Howey Horse in Magic and Myth 213 ff.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 11 No. 58; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3092, Legends No. 135f., 153--160; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Philippine (Tinguian): Cole 189.

A1881.0.1. A1881.0.1. Horse lives from time of Adam on. Irish myth: Cross.

A1881.1. A1881.1. Creation of white horse. Man takes skin of horse and substitutes a white bedspread. Dh. III 86.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 12 No. 60.

A1882. A1882. Creation of ass. (cf. A1751.) Dh I 164.--Jewish: Neuman.

A1882.1. A1882.1. Creation of ass: proud horse. (Cf. A1730.) Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 86. No. 58a.

A1884. A1884. Creation of sheep. Dh I 154f., 164 (Cf. A1751).--India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 115.

A1884.0.1. A1884.0.1. First sheep in Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.

A1884.1. A1884.1. Creation of mountain sheep. Eskimo (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 454.

A1885. A1885. Creation of goat. Dh I 153f., 164 (Cf. A1751); Fb “gjed” IV 178a.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3090, Legends Nos. 149--152; German: Grimm No. 148; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1887. A1887. Creation of elephant. Benga: Nassau No. 3 (Cf. A1710); Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 363 No. 15; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1889. A1889. Creation of ungulata--miscellaneous.

A1889.1. A1889.1. Creation of tapir. S. Am. Indian (Munderucъ): Horton BBAE CXLIII (3) 281.

A1890. A1890. Creation of other mammals.

A1893. A1893. Creation of mole. Dh I 156ff. (Cf. A1755).--England, U.S.: *Baughman.

A1895. A1895. Creation of bat. Dh I 155f. (Cf. A1755), ibid. III 268 (Cf. A1710.)--Finnish. Aarne FFC VIII 16 No. 84 (Cf. A1751), ibid. 15 No. 81; Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 146 No. 45; Flemish: DeMeyer XXXVII 86 No. 81; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1896. A1896. Creation of anteater. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685.

A1897. A1897. Creation of armadillo. S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685.


A1900--A1999. Creation of birds.

Note: A1900--A1999 is based on the following classification of birds.


A1910--A1929. Passeriformes.


A1930--A1939. Falconiformes.


A1940--A1949. Charidriiformes.


A1950--A1959. Coraciiformes.


A1960--A1969. Ciconiiformes.


A1970--A1999. Miscellaneous birds.

A1900. A1900. Creation of birds. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 46; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 123 No. 83; 127; Maori: Clark 15; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 29, (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685.

A1901. A1901. Various birds from Pharaoh‘s drowned army. (Cf. A1715.1).--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 15 No. 82, Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 146 No. 48; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 45.

A1903. A1903. God makes birds, devil reptiles. (Cf. A1751).--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 19 No. 105, XXXIII 54 No. 105; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 148 No. 58; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 124--129.

A1904. A1904. The oldest bird. Irish Myth: Cross.

A1910. A1910. Creation of passeriformes.

A1911. A1911. Creation of lark. Dh I 164 (Cf. A1751).--Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3148; Legends Nos. 124ff., 258f.

A1912. A1912. Creation of thrush (nightingale).

A1912.1. A1912.1. Creation of thrush. Dh I 164 (Cf. A1751).

A1912.2. A1912.2. Creation of nightingale. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 147 No. 52; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 90 No. 78; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3150; Greek: Grote I 182 (Philomela).

A1912.3. A1912.3. Creation of robin. Naskapi: Speck JAFL XXVIII 74.

A1917. A1917. Creation of swallow. Dh III 414ff. (cf. A1710); ibid. I 164 (cf. A1751).--Greek: Grote I 182 (Procne); Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 15 No. 83, 16 No. 85 (cf. A1751); Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 147 No. 50; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 90 No. 79 (cf. A1710); Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 127; Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 37 No. *243.

A1918. A1918. Creation of titmouse. (cf. A1710.)--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 90 No. 80.

A1919. A1919. Creation of crow (raven). Dh I 164 (Cf. A1751).--India: Thompson-Balys.

A1921. A1921. Creation of jay. Dh I 164 (cf. A1751).--Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 54 No. 96** (cf. 1715.2), No. 95**.

A1922. A1922. Creation of magpie. Dh I 164 (cf. A1751).--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 16 No. 88.

A1924. A1924. Creation of blackbird. Irish myth: Cross.

A1926. A1926. Creation of finch. Dh I 164 (cf. A1751).

A1927. A1927. Creation of sparrow. Dh I 165 (cf. A1751).--Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 130; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1928. A1928. Creation of myna (bird). India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1930. A1930. Creation of faiconiformes.

A1931. A1931. Creation of vulture. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A1937. A1937. Creation of hawk. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 17 No. 95 (cf. A1710); India: Thompson-Balys.

A1938. A1938. Creation of kite. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1940. A1940. Creation of charidriiformes. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 18 No. 101 (waterbird).

A1941. A1941. Creation of plover (known as seven whistlers). (Cf. A1715.1.)--England, U.S.: Baughman.

A1942. A1942. Origin of snipe.

A1942.1. A1942.1. Snipe from man admitted neither to heaven nor to hell. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 18 No. 99. Cf. Type 330A and 330B.

A1944. A1944. Creation of sandpiper.

A1944.1. A1944.1. Creation of sandpiper: Pharaoh’s cook calls drowned army to dinner. Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 53 No. 82**.

A1945. A1945. Creation of gull.

A1945.1. A1945.1. Gull from transformed cat. A cat catches a strong fish with her claws. The fish carries the cat on its back to the sea, where the gull originates from the cat. (Cf. A1710.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 18 No. 102.

A1945.2. A1945.2. Gull a transformed ravished maiden. While he is sleeping, the maiden the hero has stolen is ravished by another man. The hero thereupon turns her into a gull. (Cf. A1710.)--Finnish: Kalevala Rune 38.

A1946. A1946. Creation of quail. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1947. A1947. Creation of pigeon. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1947.1. A1947.1. Creation of sea pigeon. Eskimo (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 263, (Labrador): Hawks GSCan XIV 161.

A1948. A1948. Creation of dove. Dh I 164 (cf. A1751).--S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 178.

A1950. A1950. Creation of coraciiformes.

A1951. A1951. Creation of the kingfisher. India: Thompson-Balys, Chinese: Graham.

A1952. A1952. Creation of hoopoe. Transformed shepherd. (Cf. A1710, A2261.1.)--*BP III 286 (Gr. No. 173); Dh III 394; Greek: Grote 182 (Tereus).

A1957. A1957. Creation of woodpecker.

A1957.1. A1957.1. Woodpecker from devil‘s herdsman transformed. The devil strikes his herdsman so that he turns into a bird who continually calls after his beloved cow. (Cf. A1710.)--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 90 No. 80.

A1958. A1958. Creation of owl. (Cf. A1710.)--Fb “ugle” III 964b.--Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 47; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1958.0.1. A1958.0.1. The owl is a baker’s daughter who objected to the size of the dough put into the oven for Jesus when he appeared in her house as a beggar. Type 751A (woodpecker). (Cf. A1710.) England, U.S.: Baughman.*

A1960. A1960. Creation of ciconiiformes.

A1965. A1965. Creation of bittern. Maori: Clark 101.

A1965.1. A1965.1. Bittern from Pilate transformed. (Cf. A1710.)--Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 148 No. 56.

A1965.2. A1965.2. Bittern from transformed shepherd. (Cf. A1710, A2261.1.)--*BP III 286 (Gr. No. 173); Dh III 394.

A1966. A1966. Creation of stork. (cf. A1715.)--Dh II 102; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1970. A1970. Creation of miscellaneous birds.

A1975. A1975. Creation of diver (bird). Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 45 n. 2 (cf. A1710).

A1981. A1981. Origin of swan.

A1981.0.1. A1981.0.1. Origin of swans from two fowls fed in Urd‘s well. Icel.: Snorra Edda Gylf. XVI, Boberg.

A1983. A1983. Creation of duck. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1988. A1988. Creation of chicken. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1992. A1992. Creation of crane. Irish myth: Cross; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1993. A1993. Creation of cuckoo. Dh II 99, 101 (Cf. A1715.2.)--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 90 No. 78; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 88 No. 94a; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3134ff., Legends Nos. 248--252; India: Thompson-Balys.

A1993.1. A1993.1. Cuckoo a transformed baker. *Fb “bager” IV 20b.

A1994. A1994. Creation of parrot. India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Yuracare): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 503, (Paressi): Mйtraux ibid. 359.

A1996. A1996. Creation of peacock. India: Thompson-Balys.

A1997. A1997. Creation of papiha. India: Thompson-Balys.


A2000--A2099. Creation of insects.

A2000. A2000. Creation of insects. Knortz Die Inzekten in Sage, Sitte und Literatur (Annaberg 1910). Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2001. A2001. Insects from body of slain monster. Usually the monster is burnt; sometimes the insects come from his head, sometimes from his body as it burns. (Cf. A1716.1.)--*Dh I 279, III 152ff., 164ff., 170ff. (dragon); *Fb “myre”, “myg”; Persian: Carnoy 288; Siberian: Holmberg Siberian 386; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 23, 128; Japanese: Ikeda; N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 354 n. 275.

A2001.1. A2001.1. Insects from brains, blood, and bones of slain helpful animal. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2002. A2002. Origin of insects from various experiences of saint. Dh I 192f.

A2002.1. A2002.1. The god Mahadeo turns wood chips into insects. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2003. A2003. Origin of insects: released from sack. God places them in a sack and gives it to hare to carry to stream. He must not look in the sack. When he does so the insects escape. The hare laughs and this is the cause of his split lip.--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 93 No. 104; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3131, Legends Nos. 232--244.

A2004. A2004. Insects from devil’s post-hole. Devil is given enough land to dig a post-hole. From this come all kinds of insects. To stop them a burning log is put in the hole. Insects therefore hate smoke. Dh I 173--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 21 No. 120, XXXIII 55 No. 120.

A2005. A2005. Origin of insects: God throws sand on lazy shepherds. (Cf. A1716.1).--Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 150 No. 70.

A2006. A2006. Origin of insects: monstrous births from brother-sister incest. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2010. A2010. Creation of hymenoptera.

A2011. A2011. Creation of ant. *Fb “myre” (cf. A2001); India: Thompson-Balys.

A2011.1. A2011.1. Creation of ant by devil. *Fb “myre”. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 23 (cf. A2001).

A2011.2. A2011.2. Creation of ant: avaricious man transformed. (Cf. A1715, A1730.)--Dh IV 272f.--Wienert FFC LVI 79 (ET 450), 134 (ST 395); Halm Aesop 294.

A2012. A2012. Creation of bee. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2012.0.1. A2012.0.1. Creation of honey-bees: transformed man. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2012.1. A2012.1. Creation of bee to provide wax for candles in church. (Cf. B259.4.)--*Dh II 129ff.

A2012.2. A2012.2. First bees in Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.

A2012.3. A2012.3. God sends stinging bees to punish men. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 187.

A2013. A2013. Creation of hornet. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2020. A2020. Creation of coleoptera.

A2021. A2021. Creation of beetle. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 39 No. 63.

A2021.1. A2021.1. Beetle‘s special sacredness. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2030. A2030. Creation of diptera.

A2031. A2031. Creation of fly. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2031.1. A2031.1. Creation of fly: punishment for laziness. (Cf. A1730.)--Dh II 111ff.

A2031.2. A2031.2. Flies on the ark. Noah tries to keep them out. Devil says that either the flies go in or he does. Noah chooses the lesser of two evils. Later the devil slips in nevertheless. Dh I 268.

A2032. A2032. Creation of flea. Cf. Type 276**.--Japanese: Ikeda.

A2032.1. A2032.1. Creation of flea: punishment for laziness. (Cf. A1730.)--Dh II 111ff.

A2032.2. A2032.2. Creation of flea: to give women work. (Cf. A2051.1.)--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 89 No. 125a; cf. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 93 No. 103.

A2032.3. A2032.3. Origin of flea: from squirrel. (Cf. A1710.).--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 93 No. 105.

A2032.4. A2032.4. Creation of flea: God plagues the devil with fleas. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 131ff.

A2033. A2033. Creation of gnat. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 93 No. 102.

A2033.0.1. A2033.0.1. Gnats created by devil to worry God. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 131f.

A2033.1. A2033.1. Origin of gnats in Lapland. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 39 No. 60.

A2034. A2034. Origin of mosquitoes. India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Hatt Asiatic Influences 89f.; Eskimo (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 264; S. Am. Indian (Tucuna): Nimuendajъ BBAE CXLIII (3) 294; N. Am. Indian (Kaska): Teit JAFL XXX 445.

A2034.1. A2034.1. Deity’s wife creates mosquitoes to drive her husband out of jungle. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2034.1.1. A2034.1.1. Mosquitoes created by goddess to make sleeping outside impossible to men. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 128.

A2034.1.2. A2034.1.2. Deity creates mosquitoes to irritate other gods. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 128.

A2034.2. A2034.2. Mosquitoes from bones of slain demon flung into the air. (Cf. A2001.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2034.3. A2034.3. Mosquitoes from ashes of bad woman. (Cf. A2001.)--Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 128.

A2040. A2040. Creation of lepidoptera.

A2041. A2041. Creation of butterfly. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2050. A2050. Creation of hemiptera.

A2051. A2051. Creation of louse. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 39 No. 61; Eskimo (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 263.

A2051.1. A2051.1. Louse created to give women work. (Cf. A2032.2.)--*Fb “lus”.

A2052. A2052. Creation of bugs. Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV No. 71.

A2053. A2053. Creation of maggots. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2060. A2060. Creation of orthoptera.

A2061. A2061. Creation of cockroach. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2061.1. A2061.1. Origin of cockroach in Finland. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 22 No. 125.

A2062. A2062. Origin of locust. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 90 No. 125b.--Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 76.

A2063. A2063. Creation of cricket. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2064. A2064. Creation of grasshopper. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2070. A2070. Creation of miscellaneous insects.

A2091. A2091. Origin of spider.1 (Cf. A1751.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 22 No. 122; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2091.1. A2091.1. Arachne transformed to spider: vies with goddess in spinning. Greek: Roscher Lexikon s.v. “Arachne”.

A2092. A2092. Origin of scorpion. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2092.1. A2092.1. Origin of leaf-scorpion. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2093. A2093. Origin of mantis. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2094. A2094. Creation of fireflies. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2095. A2095. Creation of lac insects. India: Thompson-Balys.


A2100--A2199. Creation of fish and other animals.



A2100. A2100. Creation of fish. India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth; 287, 422; Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z--G 3/1100); S. Am. Indian: (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 84.

A2110. A2110. Creation of particular fishes.

A2111. A2111. Creation of pike. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 39 No. 56.

A2112. A2112. Creation of mullet. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 63.

A2115. A2115. Origin of olachen. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 203f.

A2121. A2121. Creation of mackerel. Dh I 156.

A2122. A2122. Origin of bonito. Tonga: Buford 57.

A2125. A2125. Origin of salmon. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 206.

A2126. A2126. Origin of flounder.

A2126.0.1. A2126.0.1. Origin of flounder from Virgin Mary‘s half-eaten fish. (See A2305.1.2.)--*Dh II 1ff.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 21 No. 116, XXXIII 55 No. 116; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 91 No. 91; Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 149 No. 64; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3180, Legends No. 282.

A2126.1. A2126.1. Origin of sole. New Hebrides: Codrington 372.

A2127. A2127. Origin of catfish. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2131. A2131. Creation of eel. Finnish: Aarne FFC XXV 149 No. 62; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 287.

A2132. A2132. Creation of prawns. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2135. A2135. Origin of whale.1 Eskimo (Central): Boas RBAE VI 637; Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 452.

A2135.1. A2135.1. Origin of narwhal. Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 169, (Cape York): Rasmussen III 79.

A2135.2. A2135.2. Creation of leviathan. Jewish: Neuman.

A2137. A2137. Creation of sharks: from a savage tribe. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2140. A2140. Creation of reptiles. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2145. A2145. Creation of snake (serpent). Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 19 No. 106; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 54; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 149 No. 62; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Buin: Wheeler Mono-Alu 28; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 96; S. Am. Indian (Tembй): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 140; Africa (Congo): Weeks 213.

A2145.0.1. A2145.0.1. Origin of horned serpent. N. Am. Indian (Creek): Swanton BBAE LXXXVIII 32f.

A2145.1. A2145.1. Snake from blood of slain monster. Medusa. (Cf. A1724, A2001.)--Greek: Fox 34.

A2145.2. A2145.2. Snake preserved in ark: to stop hole with tail. Dh I 277.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 19 No. 107, XXXIII 54 No. 107; Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 149. No. 61; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 192ff.

A2145.3. A2145.3. Snake created to suck poison from earth. Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 149 No. 60; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2145.4. A2145.4. Snake from devil‘s slaver. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 148 No. 59.

A2145.5. A2145.5. Adder harmful to holy person transformed to blindworm. (Cf. A1710, A1730, A2231.7.)--Dh II 7.

A2146. A2146. Creation of crocodile. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2147. A2147. Creation of tortoise (turtle). India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 96; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 22, 465; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685.

A2148. A2148. Creation of lizard. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2148.1. A2148.1. Creation of chameleon. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2148.2. A2148.2. Origin of salamander. Jewish: Neuman.



A2160. A2160. Origin of amphibia.

A2161. A2161. Origin of toad. *Fb “lжrke” II 499b (Cf. A1755).--Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 124ff., 128f.; Jewish: Neuman.

A2162. A2162. Origin of frog. Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 55 No. 11; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 55 (Cf. A1710).--Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 127fl, 202; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Naskapi: Speck JAFL XXVIII 74.

A2170. A2170. Origin of miscellaneous animal forms. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2171. A2171. Origin of crustaceans.

A2171.1. A2171.1. Origin of crayfish.

A2171.1.1. A2171.1.1. Crayfish from devil’s fleas shaken off in water. (Cf. A1710.)--Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 151 No. 73.

A2171.2. A2171.2. Creation of crab. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2171.3. A2171.3. Origin of lobster. Tahiti: Henry 339.

A2171.4. A2171.4. Origin of shrimp. Tahiti: Henry 339.

A2181. A2181. Origin of snail.

A2182. A2182. Origin of worm.

A2182.1. A2182.1. Origin of silkworm. *Dh II 107ff. (cf. A1725.1).--Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 79.

A2182.2. A2182.2. Origin of leech. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2182.3. A2182.3. Origin of earth-worm. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2182.4. A2182.4. Origin of cutworm. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 135.

A2182.5. A2182.5. Origin of multipede. Jewish: Neuman.




A2200--A2299. Various causes of animal characteristics.

A2200. A2200. Cause of animal characteristics. See “Register” to Dдhnhardt (III 537ff.); also articles scattered through RTP, e. g., V 244, VI, 314, 473, VII 479, VIII 557, IX 165, 491, 646, X 26, 176, 301, 363, XII 667, XIII 344, XIV 379, XV 425, XVI 445, XVII 150, 344, 578.--Jewish: Neuman; Australian: Dixon 290; Miwok: Powers CNAE III 359; Karok: ibid. 36; Alsea: Frachtenberg BBAE LXVII 47ff.; Southern Ute: Lowie JAFL XXXVII 14 No. 6.

A2201. A2201. All qualities of animals appear with their creation. Jewish: Neuman.

A2210. A2210. Animal characteristics: change in ancient animal. (Cf. A2311.)--Dh III 7ff.

A2211. A2211. Animal characteristics: accidental action of ancient animal.

A2211.1. A2211.1. Lynx views country from mountainside: cause of his squint. (Cf. A2330.2.)--Ojibwa: Jones-Michelson PAES VII (II) 131 No. 10.

A2211.2. A2211.2. Rabbit laughs: cause of hare-lip. (Cf. A2216.3, A2234.4, A2342.1.)--*Type 47A; *BP III 75 n. 1.--Finnish: Aarne FFC XXV 144 No. 35; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 89 No. 71; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2211.3. A2211.3. Wolf falls out of nest: cause of straight back. (Cf. A2356.2.2.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 53 No. 76**.

A2211.4. A2211.4. Why some whales die on land: first whale did so. Tuamotu Stimson MS (z--G 13/320).

A2211.5. A2211.5. Shrew blows nose into snout. Sent after fire, he finds but a little which he tries to revive by hard blowing.--Fang: Nassau 234 No. 3.

A2211.6. A2211.6. Spider carries large stone on head and drops it: hence spiders under stones. (Cf. A2433.5.3.)--Gold coast: Barker and Sinclair 84 No. 13.

A2211.7. A2211.7. Birds cling to sky in flood: cause of tail colors. (Cf. A2412.2.)--N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 287 n. 57a.

A2211.8. A2211.8. Lizard dips head in palm-oil: cause of red head. (Cf. 2320.3.)--Ibo (Nigeria): Basden 278.

A2211.9. A2211.9. Lizard swallows fish bone: hence head bobs up and down. (Cf. A2474.1.)--Ibo (Nigeria): Basden 278.

A2211.10. A2211.10. Tortoise left out in rain: hard shell develops. (Cf. A2312.1.)----Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 115 No. 20.

A2211.11. A2211.11. How rattlesnake became harmful: earthworm feeds him chili pepper. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 68.

A2211.12. A2211.12. Buffalo helps tiger quench fire: white mark left on buffalo‘s neck where tiger held on while being ducked in water. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2211.13. A2211.13. Stag defeated by snail vomits his gall-bladder. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2211.14. A2211.14. Rat defecates on octopus’s head: origin of tubercles on head. Tonga: Gifford 206.

A2211.15. A2211.15. Goddess scatters pubic hairs on fish: why he has so many bones. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (t--G 2/44).

A2212. A2212. Animal characteristics from great fear. *Dh III 243ff.

A2212.1. A2212.1. Frightened rabbit puts head in charred tree: hence black ears. (Cf. A2325.2.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VII 13 No. 71.

A2212.2. A2212.2. Frightened animals scatter: cause of present habitat of each. (Cf. A2433.1.)--Kaffir: Theal 172, 176.

A2213. A2213. Animal characteristics from squeezing or stretching ancient animal. (See A2231.9).

A2213.1. A2213.1. Ancient animal squeezed: hence small size. (Cf. A2302.)--Dh III 2--7 (hazel-grouse, squirrel, eagle, wolf, snake‘s head.)

A2213.2. A2213.2. Animal pressed: hence facial or bodily marks. (Cf. A2412.4.)--Dh III 54, (cf. I 201f., 248, II 195); India: Thompson-Balys.

A2213.2.1. A2213.2.1. Wildcat’s (Lynx‘s) face mashed in. (Cf. A2230.1.)--Dh III 5, 6.--N. Am. Indian: *Thompson Tales 300 n. 99; Australian: Dixon 290 (wombat).

A2213.2.2. A2213.2.2. Tortoise pressed into earth: hence humpy back. (Cf. A2356.2.9.) Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 380.

A2213.2.3. A2213.2.3. Baboon pressed on hot, flat rock: hence bald place on his back. (Cf. A2317.10.)--Africa (Hottentot): Bleek 39 No. 19; Indonesian: De Vries’s list No. 74.

A2213.2.4. A2213.2.4. Why lobster is shallow: insulted cattle step on it. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 13, No. 2.

A2213.3. A2213.3. Animals‘ size increased by stretching. (Cf. A2312.1, A2301.)--Dh III 2--5 (fish, bat, flying squirrel, monkey).

A2213.4. A2213.4. Animal characteristics changed by stretching.

A2213.4.1. A2213.4.1. Coyote’s muzzle pulled out long. (Cf. A2335.4.4.)--Dh III

A2213.4.2. A2213.4.2. Fox‘s tail pulled out long. (Cf. A2378.3.4.)--Dh III 3.

A2213.4.3. A2213.4.3. Mouse’s nose pulled out long. Salinan: Mason U. Cal. XIV 64.

A2213.5. A2213.5. Animal characteristics from being struck.

A2213.5.1. A2213.5.1. Mole struck on head in attempt to steal fire: hence his flat head. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 109.

A2213.5.2. A2213.5.2. Fish struck by coconut: hence flat tail. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (t-G 3/600).

A2214. A2214. Animal characteristics from dropping ancient animal from air.

A2214.1. A2214.1. Swallow thrown on his tail: cause of split tail. (Cf. A2378.5.1.)--Dh II 126, III 419.--Aarne FFC VII 16 No. 85; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 87 No. 85.

A2214.2. A2214.2. Ant thrown from heaven: hence narrow waist. God decides dispute between ant and spider in spider‘s favor. (Cf. A2355.1.2.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VII 22 No. 124, XXXIII 55 No. 124; Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 149 No. 66; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 89 No. 124; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3200, Legends Nos 291--94; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2214.3. A2214.3. Unicorn thrown from ark and drowned: hence no longer exists. Dh I 287f.

A2214.4. A2214.4. Crab thrown to ground: breaks into small pieces. Hence crabs are small. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2214.5. A2214.5. Tortoise hurled on rock: half falls on land, half in water. Therefore amphibious. African (Nigeria): Herskovits JAFL XLIV 448ff.

A2214.5.1. A2214.5.1. Tortoise dropped by eagle: hence cracks in his shell. (Cf. A2312.1.1.)--Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 373 No. 23.

A2214.6. A2214.6. Bat falls from high perch due to extreme heat of sun’s rays, breaks bones, etc. Hence peculiar feet and nose. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2215. A2215. Animal characteristics from throwing members at ancient animal.

A2215.1. A2215.1. Stick (leaf) thrown at animal‘s rump: hence tails. (Cf. A2378.3.3.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 14 No. 77 (wolf).--Banks Is.: Dixon 144 (rat).

A2215.2. A2215.2. Hare runs away at creation; almost loses tail. When, as the most timid of all beasts, he runs away, God throws a tail at him from a pile of tails. (Cf. A2378.4.1.)--Dh III 185.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 13 No. 72; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 86 No. 72.

A2215.3. A2215.3. Bowl placed on turtle’s back: hence his shell. (Cf. A2312.1.)--British New Guinea: Dixon 145.

A2215.4. A2215.4. Red fruit thrown at rail‘s (bird’s) head: hence red lump on head. (Cf. A2321.8.)--Banks Is: Dixon 144.

A2215.5. A2215.5. Fox struck with churn-dash: hence white tail. (Cf. A2378.8.1.)--Cf. Type 3.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 15 No. 79; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 146 No. 43.

A2215.6. A2215.6. God throws diver‘s feet after him; hence his feet reach backward. (Cf. A2371.2.9.) Dh III 46.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 18 No. 103.

A2216. A2216. Animal characteristics: members bitten or cut off. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z--G 13/441).

A2216.1. A2216.1. Bear fishes through ice with tail: hence lacks tail. (Cf. A2378.2.4.)--*Type 2; Dh III 49.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 14 No. 78; Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 146 No. 42; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 86 No. 78; Japanese: Ikeda.

A2216.2. A2216.2. Devil pulls off goats’ tails: hence lack tails. (Cf. A2378.2.2.)--*BP III 200 (Gr. No. 148).

A2216.3. A2216.3. Moon splits hare‘s lip with hatchet: hence hare-lip. (Cf. A2211.2, A751.5.1, A2342.1.)--Hottentot: Bleek 72 No. 33.

A2216.4. A2216.4. Bush-rat bites off tortoise’s tail: hence tortoise‘s short tail. (Cf. A2378.4.4.)--Ibo (Nigeria): Thomas 70.

A2216.5. A2216.5. Hawk’s tail cut in two by sword as he is being transformed. Cause of his forked tail. (Cf. A2378.5.2.)--Dh III 54.

A2216.6. A2216.6. God as falcon has tail cut off: hence falcon‘s short tail. Icel.: Boberg.

A2216.7. A2216.7. Formerly animals have ears like elephant’s: hare bites them off. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2217. A2217. Appearance of animal from marking or painting.

A2217.1. A2217.1. Birds painted their present colors. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3158; N. Am. Indian: *Boas RBAE XXXI 664, (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 208 No. 1 (10), (Cherokee): Alexander N. Am. 66 (robin redbreast).

A2217.2. A2217.2. Chipmunk‘s back scratched: hence his stripes. As he is trying to escape, bear catches him with his claws and marks him permanently. (Cf. A2413.2.)--Seneca: Curtin-Hewitt RBAE XXXII 111 No. 13, 422 No. 78, Curtin Seneca 437, 505.

A2217.3. A2217.3. Marks on certain fish from fingerprints. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z--G 13/317, t--G 3/600).

A2217.3.1. A2217.3.1. Marks on certain fish from St. Peter’s fingerprints. (Cf. A901, A2217.2, A2412.4).--Dh II 180 ff., III 55.--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 89 No. 119b; Irish: Beal XXI 305; England: Baughman.

A2217.3.2. A2217.3.2. Marks on certain fish from devil‘s fingerprints. England: *Baughman.

A2218. A2218. Animal characteristics from burning or singeing. (Cf. A2378.8.4, A2411.1.2.5, A2411.1.3.2, A2411.1.4.1, A2411.1.6.5, A2411.2.1.1, A2411.2.1.4, A2411.2.1.9, A2411.2.1.7, A2411.2.1.11, A2411.2.5.2, A2411.2.5.1, A2411.2.1.15, A2411.2.6.8, A2411.4.2, A2411.4.3, A2411.5.3.)--Dh III 71ff; Chinese: Graham.

A2218.1. A2218.1. Raven caught in smoke-hole: hence is black. (Cf. A2411.2.1.5.)--Dh III 72, 77ff.--N. A. Indian: *Boas RBAE XXXI 652, (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 203 No. 1 (3).

A2218.1.1. A2218.1.1. Animal scorches self while putting out fire in land of fire, woe and darkness. Wales: Baughman.

A2218.2. A2218.2. Jackal carries sun in bag on back; burns his back black. (Cf. A721.1, A2356.3.2.)--Hottentot: Bleek 67 No. 29.

A2218.3. A2218.3. Animal who steals fire scorched: cause of his color. (Cf. A1415.)--Dh III 93ff.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2218.4. A2218.4. Coyote burnt when hay is set afire: hence yellow patch behind his ears. Salinan: Mason U. Cal. XIV 88, cf. 107.

A2218.5. A2218.5. Robin steals fire, has breast scorched. England: Baughman.

A2218.6. A2218.6. Raven singes feet on hot stones: why its wings clap when it flies. (Cf. A2442.2.1.)--Dh III 72.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 17 No. 91.

A2218.7. A2218.7. Rabbit burns self under chin when he steals an ember. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 109.

A2218.8. A2218.8. Eel burned by torch: hence red eyes. Marquesas: Handy 80.

A2219. A2219. Other accidents to ancient animal.

A2219.1. A2219.1. Animal has color spilled on him: cause of his color. (Cf. A2391.1, A2411.1.1.1, A2411.1.2.4, A2411.1.3.1, A2411.2.1.1, A2411.1.4.2, A2411.1.6.3, A2411.2.1.4, A2411.2.1.6, A2411.2.4.1, A2411.2.6.1, A2411.2.6.5, A2411.2.6.6, A2411.2.6.11, A2411.4.1.)--Dh III 64ff.--India: Thompson-Balys; Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 366 No. 17; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 685.

A2219.2. A2219.2. Cow swallows book; cause of maniplies in stomach. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

A2219.3. A2219.3. Only one serpent had sting: fed poison to the rest. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2220. A2220. Animal characteristics as reward.

A2220.1. A2220.1. Hedgehog’s skin reward for good deed. (Cf. A2311.4.)--Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 146 No. 44.

A2221. A2221. Animal characteristics reward for pious act. (Cf. A2231.).

A2221.1. A2221.1. Animals blessed for honoring infant Jesus. (Cf. A2231.4, A2356.2.7, A2381.1.)--Dh II 15f., 195ff.; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 86 No. 58c (cross on back of ass).--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 13 No. 67 (hog has good flesh); French: Sйbillot France III 256.

A2221.2. A2221.2. Animals blessed for good services at crucifixion. (Cf. A2231.2.)

A2221.2.1. A2221.2.1. Flies on Christ‘s body rewarded. They look like nails and prevent more nails being driven. They may eat at the king’s table. (Cf. A2545.1.) Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 150 No. 68 (cf. No. 69).

A2221.2.2. A2221.2.2. Blood from cross on robin redbreast: He helps Jesus; rewarded with red breast. (Cf. A2353.2.)--Fb “rodkjжlk”.--Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 54 No. 92**; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 90 No. 82; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 87 No. 92**; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3130, Legends Nos. 229ff.; England: Baughman.

A2221.2.3. A2221.2.3. Blood of scourged Christ on certain spiders. (Cf. A2411.3.2.)--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 89 No. 122a.

A2221.2.4. A2221.2.4. Swallows lift Christ‘s crown of thorns from his brow: why their nests are not destroyed. (Cf. A2431.3.5.)--Fb “svale” III 660b; Sйbillot RTP III 156.

A2221.2.4.1. A2221.2.4.1. Swallows put on mourning at crucifixion: have never taken it off. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 37 No. *243.

A2221.2.4.2. A2221.2.4.2. Crossbill, attempting to draw thorn from the crown of thorns, twists bill in the attempt. England: Baughman.

A2221.3. A2221.3. Markings on animals as recollections of Christ’s life and sufferings. (cf. A2412.)--Dh II 227ff.

A2221.4. A2221.4. Ant collects incense and myrrh for Christ: grows thin in middle. (Cf. A2451.1, A2453.1.)--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 93 No. 98.

A2221.5. A2221.5. Animal blessed for helping holy fugitive. (Cf. A2231.7.1.)--Dh II 53ff.--Irish: Beal XXI 306; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 93 No. 100.

A2221.5.1. A2221.5.1. Ox helps patriarch who in joy kisses him on the lips: hence no hair on ox’s lips. Jewish: bin Gorion Born Judas III 118, 304, *Neuman.

A2221.6. A2221.6. Animal blessed for obedience to deity.

A2221.6.1. A2221.6.1. Bird coloring as reward for obedience to deity. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2221.7. A2221.7. Dove returns to ark in obedience to Noah: receives sheen of raven. Irish myth: Cross.

A2221.8. A2221.8. Squirrel‘s markings and immunity from falling as reward by deity. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2221.9. A2221.9. Why sheep walk with bowed heads: they have remained so after having bowed to God. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2221.10. A2221.10. Sheep helpful to the Lord: get wool. Irish: Beal V 271.

A2221.11. A2221.11. Deity rewards animal for bringing him water: cause of present characteristics. Maori: Clark 54.

A2222. A2222. Animal characteristics reward for hospitality.

A2222.1. A2222.1. Thrush‘s hospitality to peacock rewarded by being given motley coat of feathers. (Cf. A2411.2.1.1.)--Type 235.--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 90 No. 81.

A2223. A2223. Animal characteristics reward for helpfulness.

A2223.1. A2223.1. Cat helps man build house: may occupy chimney corner. (Cf. A2233.2, A2433.3.1.)--Dh III 203f.

A2223.2. A2223.2. Bird carries deity (his daughter) home from land of skulls: given brilliant plumage. (Cf. A2313.4, A2321.6, A2421.5.)--African (Ekoi): Talbot 276.

A2223.3. A2223.3. Mouse gathers rice for man: may eat a little of his rice daily. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2223.4. A2223.4. Pike helps Christ cross stream: made king of fishes. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 286.

A2223.5. A2223.5. Dog guards master’s life and wealth: may eat before other animals. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2223.6. A2223.6. Tortoise given hard shell when it ferries rice-goddess across stream. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2223.7. A2223.7. Ravens show Adam how to bury dead: are born with white feathers. Jewish: Neuman.

A2223.8. A2223.8. Chameleon saves hero’s life: may change color. Fang: Einstein 96.

A2229. A2229. Animal characteristics as reward--miscellaneous.

A2229.1. A2229.1. Dog rescues cow‘s teats from fire: origin of his black muzzle. (Cf. A2335.4.3.)--*Dh III 72ff., 500--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 10 No. 48, XXXIII 53 No. 48; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 143 No. 27.

A2229.2. A2229.2. Dog lets devil into church to steal: rewarded with dog-skin. (Cf. A2311.1.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 10 No. 50.

A2229.3. A2229.3. Owl will not betray curate: therefore may live in steeple. (Cf. A2433.4.1.)--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 88 No. 98b.

A2229.4. A2229.4. Fly steals fire from spider: may eat everywhere. Spider brings fire from hell. Fly steals it from him on the way. (Cf. A2545.1.)--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 93 No. 101.

A2229.5. A2229.5. Cuckoo delivers other birds from their cruel king: they agree to hatch out cuckoo’s young. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3137; Legends Nos. 253ff.

A2229.6. A2229.6. Bird has red spot on its tail as reward for having moved woman‘s organ to its present position. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2230. A2230. Animal characteristics as punishment.

A2231. A2231. Animal characteristics: punishment for impiety. (Cf. A2221, A2311.8, A2422.2, A2302.2, A2355.1.2, A2542.1.)--Dh II 252f. (fish).--Spanish Exempla: Keller; Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 17 No. 97, XXXIII 54 No. 97 (hazelcock).

A2231.1. A2231.1. Animal characteristics: punishment for discourteous answer to God (saint). (Cf. A2411.2.6.)--Jewish: Neuman; Maori: Clark 53.

A2231.1.1. A2231.1.1. Discourteous answer: why cow (horse) is always eating. When God (Peter) wants to use the cow (horse) the excuse is made that she (he) is eating. Curse: “May you always be eating!” (Cf. A2472.1, A2478.)--Dh II 93; *Fb “hest” IV 211b.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 11 No. 59 (horse); ibid. 12 No. 62 (cow); Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 143 No. 32 (horse); Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3094, Legends Nos. 163--175.

A2231.1.2. A2231.1.2. Discourteous answer: flounder’s crooked mouth. When God asks him where he is going, instead of answering he turns to go toward God. His mouth becomes crooked. (Cf. A2341.1.)--Dh III 24f.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 21 No. 117; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 91 No. 92; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 89 No. 117; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3178, Legends Nos. 273--281.

A2231.1.3. A2231.1.3. Discourteous answer: why crab has eyes behind. (Cf. A2332.4.1.)--Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 151 No. 74; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3178, Legends Nos. 273--281.

A2231.1.4. A2231.1.4. Discourteous answer: tortoise‘s shell. Zeus celebrates a wedding and invites the animals. Tortoise is late. Why? “I like my house.” “May you bear your house always.” (Cf. A2312.1.)--Dh IV 275f.--Wienert FFC LVI 76 (ET 424), 139 (ST 443); Halm Aesop No. 154.

A2231.2. A2231.2. Animal characteristics: punishment for hostility at crucifixion. (Cf. A2221.2.)--Dh II 202ff.--Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 251f., 264.

A2231.2.1. A2231.2.1. Crane will not weep at crucifixion: must suffer thirst in August and break bills. Is the only bird who will not weep. (Cf. A2234.1, A2435.4.2.)--Kцhler-Bolte I 3.

A2231.2.2. A2231.2.2. Swallows torment Christ on cross: lose voice. (Cf. A2422.9.)--Fb “svale” III 660b.

A2231.3. A2231.3. Animal characteristics: punishment for working on holy day.

A2231.3.1. A2231.3.1. Cuckoo builds nest on Annunciation Day: has no nest. (Cf. A2431.2.1.)--Dh II 6.

A2231.3.2. A2231.3.2. Bees work on Sabbath: may not get honey from red clover. (Cf. A2435.5.1.)--*Dh III 306ff.--North Carolina: Brown Collection I 634.

A2231.4. A2231.4. Frog fails to honor infant Jesus: loses tail. (Cf. A2221.1, A2378.2.3.--Dh II 17.

A2231.5. A2231.5. Spider vies with Virgin Mary in spinning: cursed. Dh II 253.

A2231.6. A2231.6. Spider steals thread from Christ: has thread in back of body. (Cf. A2356.2.8.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 22 No. 123; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 149 No. 65.

A2231.7. A2231.7. Animal harmful to holy person cursed.

A2231.7.1. A2231.7.1. Animal cursed for betraying holy fugitive. (Cf. A2221.5.)--Dh II 51ff.; Child V 491 s.v. “partridge”; Ireland: Baughman.

A2231.7.1.1. A2231.7.1.1. Beetle cursed for betraying Holy Family on way to Egypt; beetle now has its eyes always on the ground. Ireland, Scotland: *Baughman.

A2231.7.2. A2231.7.2. Animal cursed for refusing to carry holy fugitive across stream. (Cf. A2371.2.1.)--Dh II 88ff.--Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 286.

A2231.7.3. A2231.7.3. Tortoise cursed for going under water while ferrying rice-goddess: people will be able to kill it with iron-made spears. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2231.8. A2231.8. Toad refuses to weep over its dead children: dries up when dead. Cursed by Virgin Mary. (Cf. A2234.4, A2468.2.)--Dh II 247f.

A2231.9. A2231.9. Fish in deluge deride God: are flattened with blow. They mock God for his powerlessness over them. (Cf. A2213, A2305.1, A2354.1.)--Dh I 290.

A2231.10. A2231.10. Crab beats deity‘s forbidden drum: eyes lift out of body. (Cf. A2332.4.2.)--Fjort: Dennett 123.

A2231.11. A2231.11. Beetle demands return of gold from God: must hum. In his overweening pride he hits fence and ever afterward has hummed. (Cf. A2426.3.1.)--Dh. III 376.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 22 No. 121.

A2231.12. A2231.12. Buffaloes fail to come at god’s leavetaking: now are killed by tigers. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2231.13. A2231.13. Loris refuse to look at sun who comes out when they are dancing: hence never looks at sun. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2232. A2232. Animal characteristics: punishment for immoderate request. Dissatisfied animal finds that when his request is granted he is worse off than before.--*Dh III 176ff.

A2232.1. A2232.1. Camel asks for horns: punishment, short ears. (Cf. A2325.4.)--Dh IV 265f.; *Kцhler-Bolte I 579; *Crane Vitry 148f. No. 37; Jewish: Neuman; *Chauvin II 110 No. 76, 118 No. 102 (ass), Sйbillot RTP II 492; Wienert FFC LVI 78 (ET 437); 109 (ST 215, 389); Halm Aesop No. 184.

A2232.2. A2232.2. Bees pray for sting: punishment, first sting suicidal. (Cf. A2346.1.)--Dh IV 266; Wienert FFC LVI 77 (ET 434), 110 (ST 216); Halm Aesop No. 287.

A2232.3. A2232.3. Beetle makes immoderate request; ant moderate: inverse awards. Creator hears wishes of animals. Beetle wants strong, noble appearance. Ant is modest. Beetle punished by being made to creep on ground. Ant is given own castle. (Cf. A2441.3.1.) Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 92 No. 97.

A2232.4. A2232.4. Griffin disdains to go on ark; drowned: hence extinct. Dh I 288.

A2232.5. A2232.5. Animals ask for goddess‘s perfume: punishment, bad odor. (Cf. A2416.1.)--Tshi: Ellis 338.

A2232.6. A2232.6. Birds who aspire to blackbird’s coat punished. (Cf. A2412.2.2.)--Ila (Rhodesia); Smith and Dale 351 No. 6.

A2232.7. A2232.7. Peacock given ugly feet so as to prevent too great arrogance. (cf. A2375.2.2.)--Dh I 196.

A2232.8. A2232.8. Dog‘s embassy to Zeus chased forth; dogs seek ambassador: why dogs sniff each other under leg. (Cf. A2471.1.)--*Dh IV 137ff.

A2232.9. A2232.9. Ants ask God to give them wings: wind blows them away. Cyprus: Hadjioannou 64.

A2232.10. A2232.10. Raven attempts to imitate dove: punished with awkward gait. Jewish: Neuman.

A2232.11. A2232.11. Donkeys ask immediate reward from God: eat their own excrements. Jewish: Neuman.

A2233. A2233. Animal characteristics: punishment for laziness. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS 79.

A2233.1. A2233.1. Animals refuse to help dig well (make road) and are punished. *Type 55; *Dh III 312ff., 323.

A2233.1.1. A2233.1.1. Animals refuse to help dig well: may not drink from river or spring. (Cf. A2435.1.1.)--Type 55; Dh III 312ff.--Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 148 No. 54; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 90 No. 83; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3096, Legends Nos. 176--182.

A2233.1.2. A2233.1.2. Snake refuses to help make road: dies on road. (Cf. A2441.4.1.)--Type 55.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 19 No. 108.

A2233.1.3. A2233.1.3. Shrew refuses to help make road: dies on road. (Cf. A2468.1.)--Dh III 323f.; cf. Type 55.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 15 No. 80; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3098, Legends Nos. 183--191.

A2233.1.4. A2233.1.4. Sloth refuses to help make road: may not look upon sun. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2233.2. A2233.2. Dog will not help build house: must remain out of doors. (Cf. A2223.1, A2433.3.2.)--Dh III 203f.

A2233.2.1. A2233.2.1. Too cold for hare (dog) to build house in winter, not necessary in summer: must go without house. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 72*, Legends No. 214; Finnish: Aarne Index No. 72*; Russian: Andrejev No. 72**.

A2233.3. A2233.3. Owl as watchman goes to sleep: does not see by day. He is placed as watchman of wren who is imprisoned in a mousehole. (Cf. A2332.6.6.)--Type 221; *Dh IV 172ff.

A2233.4. A2233.4. Grasshopper builds no house for winter; ant strikes him blind: therefore born blind. (Cf. A2332.6.3.)--Dh III 21.

A2233.4.1. A2233.4.1. Bird neglects to build nest: goes without. (Cf. A2431.2.)--Dh. III 202ff.

A2234. A2234. Animal characteristics: punishment for disobedience. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2234.1. A2234.1. Raven does not return to Noah: must suffer thirst and break bill. (Cf. A2231.2.1, A2411.2.1.5, A2435.4.3.)--Variant: he is cursed to be black or to eat carrion. *Kцhler-Bolte I 3; Dh I 284; Irish myth: Cross.

A2234.1.1. A2234.1.1. Raven does not return to ark in obedience to Noah: black color is resulting punishment. Irish myth: Cross; Jewish: Neuman.

A2234.2. A2234.2. Animals eat deity’s forbidden fruit: punished. (Cf. A2371.3.1.)--African (Ekoi): Talbot 377.

A2234.3. A2234.3. Lemur looks where forbidden: has big eyes. (Cf. A2332.3.1.)--Fang: Nassau 235 No. 3.

A2234.4. A2234.4. Hare weeps for mother when forbidden: moon hits him and cleaves lip. (Cf. A2211.2, A2231.8, A2342.1.)--Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 59.

A2235. A2235. Animal characteristics caused by animal‘s lateness at distribution of qualities. (Cf. A2378.2.5.)--Dh III 182ff.--India: Thompson-Balys; Mpongwe: Nassau No. 11 (hog lacks horns); Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 145 No. 28 (leopard cannot catch game that passes him on right side); Congo: Weeks 213 No. 9 (water snake lacks poison): Zulu: Callaway 355 (hydrax lacks tail); Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 368 No. 19 (zebra lacks horns); Marshall Islands: Davenport 222.

A2236. A2236. Animal characteristics: punishment for planning man’s downfall. Jewish: Neuman.

A2236.1. A2236.1. What creature has sweetest blood: gnat‘s tongue torn out. Assembly to decide who has the sweetest blood so that it may be the food for the serpent. Gnat discovers that man has the sweetest blood. Rather than let him tell this secret, swallow tears out his tongue. Gnat can only buzz. (Cf. A2344.2, A2426.3.2.)--Dh I 281, 332ff.; Circassian: Nicolaides and Carnoy RTP I 80; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 192.

A2236.2. A2236.2. Animal characteristics: punishment for carrying devil into paradise.

A2236.2.1. A2236.2.1. Snake carries devil into paradise: loses feet. (Cf. A2371.3.1.)--Dh I 207--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2236.2.2. A2236.2.2. Peacock has snake carry devil into paradise: cursed with ugly voice and feet. (Cf. A2375.2.2, A2423.1.2.)--Dh I 206.

A2236.3. A2236.3. Animal punished for not warning of devil’s temptation in Eden. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2236.4. A2236.4. Magpie tells man he is to die next day: no tongue and long tail. God pulls out his tongue and makes his tail long for doing this forbidden thing. (Cf. A2344.2.6, A2378.3.1.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 16 No. 89.

A2236.5. A2236.5. Animal punished for not heralding dawn. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2236.6. A2236.6. Nit tries to bore through man‘s head: must remain at edge of hair. (Cf. A2433.5.1.)--Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 151 No. 72; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 94 No. 106.

A2236.7. A2236.7. Jay carries sulphur to devil in hell: must be quiet at noon. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 633.

A2236.8. A2236.8. Cat commanded to pray so as not to slay man: why cat purrs. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3121. Legends Nos. 222ff.

A2237. A2237. Animal characteristics punishment for meddling.

A2237.1. A2237.1. Animal reveals mistress’s adultery: punished by master. (Cf. A2411.2.1.5, A2422.1.1.).--Greek: Fox 280 (raven becomes black).--Zuсi: Handy JAFL XXXI 464 No. 17 (dog loses power of speech).

A2238. A2238. Animal characteristics: punishment for greed.

A2238.1. A2238.1. Rabbit (frog) eats seed-grain from fields: nose closed during sowing season. (Cf. A2335.2.4.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 21 No. 119; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 290.

A2238.2. A2238.2. Ring-dove eats man‘s grain: man may kill him. Similarly francolin and guinea fowl. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 351 No. 6.

A2238.3. A2238.3. Fish eat other fish: guilty must swim deep. (Cf. A2444.1.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 19 No. 104.

A2238.4. A2238.4. Diver eats nests of small birds: must not nest away from water. (Cf. A2431.3.2.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 19 No. 104.

A2239. A2239. Animal characteristics from miscellaneous punishments.

A2239.1. A2239.1. Hare punished for perjury: eyes deep in head. (Cf. A2332.4.1.).--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 13 No. 70.

A2239.2. A2239.2. Fly punished for failing to answer question: is speechless, buzzes and associates with foul things. (Cf. A2426.3.3, A2433.5.2.) Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 384.

A2239.3. A2239.3. Ass betrays deity’s secret: hence his ugly bray. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2239.3.1. A2239.3.1. Owl reveals deity’s secret: power of speech removed. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2239.4. A2239.4. Woodpecker punished for stinginess. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 633.

A2239.5. A2239.5. Animals punished for assaulting women. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2239.6. A2239.6. Ass has cross on shoulders from being struck by Balaam. (Cf. A2356.2.7.)--England: Baughman.

A2239.7. A2239.7. Crocodile is punished for trying to attack man he is carrying: has only half tongue. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2239.8. A2239.8. Animal punished for hardheadedness (frog toothless, mole sightless). Jewish: Neuman.

A2239.9. A2239.9. Why mouse is crushed whenever she crosses a road: elephant‘s curse. Africa (Sandeh): Casati I 221.

A2239.10. A2239.10. Why elephant hurts himself when running through the grass: mouse’s curse. Africa (Sandeh): Casati I 221.

A2240. A2240. Animal characteristics: obtaining another‘s qualities. Jewish: Neuman.

A2241. A2241. Animal characteristics: borrowing and not returning. Animal borrows a member (or quality) from another and refuses to return it. (Cf. A2242, A2313.3, A2345.1, A2351.3, A2375.2.1, A2421.4, A2435.4.1.)--*Dh III 130 ff.--Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 268ff.; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2241.1. A2241.1. Stag’s horns borrowed from dog. (Cf. A2326.1.1.)--Dh. III 131.

A2241.2. A2241.2. Owl‘s wings borrowed from rat (or other animal). Dh III 131.

A2241.3. A2241.3. Partridge’s voice borrowed from tortoise. Dh III 132.

A2241.4. A2241.4. Cuckoo borrows food from other birds. (Cf. A2435.4.1.)--Dh III 133.

A2241.5. A2241.5. Nightingale borrows blindworm‘s eye. Each has one eye. Nightingale borrow’s blindworm‘s and will not return it. (Cf. A2332.6.1.)--*Type 234; *Dh III 136ff.; *Kцhler-Bolte I 72.--Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 55 No. 110** (frog in place of nightingale).--Japanese: Ikeda; English: Shakespeare Romeo and Juliet III v. 31.

A2241.6. A2241.6. Jay borrows cuckoo’s skin. (Cf. A2313.1.)--*Type 235.

A2241.7. A2241.7. Squirrel borrows coney‘s tail. When coney’s tail is not returned, he goes in shame to live among rocks. (Cf. A2378.1.5, A2433.3.5.)--Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 357 No. 10.

A2241.8. A2241.8. Boy borrows python‘s hands and feet: hence python lacks them. (Cf. A2371.3.1.)--Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 374.

A2241.9. A2241.9. Hornbill borrows tomtit’s bill. (Cf. A2343.1.4.)--Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 374 No. 24.

A2241.10. A2241.10. Beaver borrows muskrat‘s tail and never gives it back. Menomini: Skinner and Satterlee PaAM XIII 405.

A2241.11. A2241.11. Monkey borrows tail from deer and refuses to return it. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2242. A2242. Animal characteristics: obtaining for feast and not returning. (Cf. A2378.1.5, A2378.2.6.)--*Dh III 133ff.

A2243. A2243. Animal characteristics: lending and refusing to receive back. Indonesian: De Vries’s list No. 117.

A2243.1. A2243.1. Spider hands box to ant and refuses to take it back: hence ants carry huge loads. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 66 No. 9.

A2245. A2245. Animal characteristics: stolen from another animal. (Cf. A2313.3, A2375.2.2.)--Dh III 127f.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2245.1. A2245.1. Thrush steals woodcock‘s song. (Cf. A2423.1.1, A2423.2.1.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 18 No. 98.

A2247. A2247. Animal characteristics: exchange of qualities. (Cf. A2313.2, A2326.1.2. A2326.1.4, A2326.2.1, A2332.6.5, A2345.4, A2378.1.3, A2378.1.4, A2421.2, A2421.3, A2431.3.3, A2431.3.4, A2435.3.1, A2435.3.2.)--Dh III 123--126.--Eskimo (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 307, (Labrador): Hawks GSCan XIV 159.

A2247.1. A2247.1. Buffalo and cow exchange hides: hence bad fitting hides. (Cf. A2311.6.)--Indonesian: *De Vries’s list No. 97.

A2247.2. A2247.2. Snake and turtle exchange head for fangs. Explains snake‘s fangs and snake-like head of turtle. (Cf. A2320.2, A 2345.5.)--Australian: Dixon 291.

A2247.3. A2247.3. Rhinoceros exchanges his red hide for hippopotamus’s black. (Cf. A2411.1.6.2., A2411.1.6.7.)--Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 372 No. 22.

A2247.4. A2247.4. Dove and magpie exchange eggs--dove‘s seven for magpie’s two: why dove has two eggs. (Cf. A2486.3.)--*Type 240.

A2247.5. A2247.5. Toad trades his tail for mole‘s eyes. Spanish: Boggs: FFC XC 38 No. 287.

A2247.6. A2247.6. Beaver and muskrat exchange tails. Malecite: Speck JAFL XXX 481f.

A2250. A2250. Animal characteristics: result of contest. *Dh III 141ff.--Arawak and Carib: Alexander Latin American 274; India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

A2250.1. A2250.1. Cock and ptarmigan in contest: winner to live in town. (Cf. A2433.1.1, A2433.4.2, A2433.4.3.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 54 No. 83*; Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 147 No. 49.

A2250.1.1. A2250.1.1. Man and tiger in contest: winner to live in town. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2250.2. A2250.2. Lizard wins contest with toad: why snakes and lizards change their skins. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2251. A2251. Animal characteristics from contest in carrying.

A2251.1. A2251.1. Ant carries load as heavy as himself. Defeats bear, raven (or other bird). Various explanations. (Cf. A2435.3.3, A2486.1.)--*Type 280; *Dh III 144.

A2252. A2252. Animal characteristics determined by race. *Dh III 142ff.

A2252.1. A2252.1. Race of animals to see where each shall live. (Cf. A2433.1.1.)--*Dh III 145.

A2252.2. A2252.2. Race of ox and horse: ox must labor. Horse wins and ox must serve as draft animal. (Cf. A2515.1.)--*Dh III 144.

A2252.3. A2252.3. Race of culture hero with ostrich: ostrich loses beautiful feathers. (Cf. A2402.2.)--Dh III 145.

A2252.4. A2252.4. Flounder complains in race: crooked mouth. In race between fish he cries out in jealousy because herring is winning. He is punished with crooked mouth. (Cf. A2341.1.)--*Dh IV 192--197; *BP III 284 (Gr. No. 172).

A2253. A2253. Animal characteristics from jumping contest.

A2253.1. A2253.1. Dog burned in jumping contest over fire: enmity between dog and hare. Dh III 324.

A2254. A2254. Bird characteristics from flying contests. German: Grimm No. 171.

A2255. A2255. Animal characteristics result of lawsuit.

A2255.1. A2255.1. Wool on his forehead awarded sheep in lawsuit. He is given the privilege of keeping it when the rest of his body is shorn. (Cf. A2322.5.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 12 No. 64.

A2255.2. A2255.2. Lizard loses lawsuit: must bob his head. Lizard and ant accused of theft of king‘s crow. Ant pours boiling water down lizard’s throat. When case is tried, lizard cannot talk but only bobs head up and down. Adjudged guilty and condemned to bob his head eternally. (Cf. A2474.1.)--Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 48 No. 5.

A2256. A2256. Animal characteristics from contest in watching.

A2256.1. A2256.1. Hare and man contest in watching for leaf to fall off tree. First one to succeed may eat other. Hare loses. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2257. A2257. Animal characteristics from duel.

A2257.1. A2257.1. Why tiger does not attack wild boar until latter is old: result of duel. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2258. A2258. Animal characteristics: as a result of quarrel. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2260. A2260. Animal characteristics from transformation.

A2261. A2261. Animal characteristics from transformation of animal.

A2261.1. A2261.1. Shepherd transformed to bird still calls sheep: explanation of bird cries. Usually told of hoopoe and bittern. (Cf. A1952, A1965.2, A2275.3, A2425, A2426.2.3, A2426.2.4.)--*Dh III 392--396; BP III 285 (Gr. No. 173).--Japanese: Ikeda; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 123 No. 83, 127.

A2261.2. A2261.2. Spider transformed for greediness: now occupies dark corners. (Cf. A2433.5.3.)--Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 69 No. 10.

A2261.3. A2261.3. Catfish transformed from woman still carries women‘s tatoo marks. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2261.3.1. A2261.3.1. Catfish transformed from children still carry marks of children’s knife holder. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2261.4. A2261.4. Woodpecker transformed from stingy woman: therefore stingy. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 633.

A2261.5. A2261.5. Weeping man turned into owl; still bewails sorrows. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2261.6. A2261.6. Snipe messenger for warriors because he was a messenger when a man. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (z--G 13/10).

A2262. A2262. Animal characteristics from transformation of implement (or other object). (Cf. A2335.3.1, A2378.3.3, A2378.4.1.)--*Dh III 14ff.

A2262.1. A2262.1. Horse originally had eyes on feet: put out and became eyelike marks. (Cf. A2371.2.7.)--Dh III 45.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 12 No. 61.

A2262.2. A2262.2. Pegs driven into backs of baboons become tails. (Cf. A2378.9.2, A2378.1.1.)--Bushman (South of Zambesi): Theal 56.

A2262.3. A2262.3. Serpent steals from God‘s coat a stick for his back. (Cf. A2356.1.1.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 19 No. 109.

A2270. A2270. Animal characteristics from miscellaneous causes.

A2271. A2271. Animal characteristics learned from another animal.

A2271.1. A2271.1. Thrush teaches dove to build nest. (Cf. A2431.3.1.)--*Type 236; Dh III 191ff.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 17 No. 93; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 88 No. 93.

A2271.2. A2271.2. Sparrow taught to sing by lark but not sufficiently: where sparrow got voice. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 266.

A2272. A2272. Animal characteristics: imitation of other animal or object.

A2272.1. A2272.1. Animal cries: imitation of sounds. (Cf. A2425.)--*BP II 283, III 365.

A2272.1.1. A2272.1.1. Nightingale hears boy call oxen: learns her song. (Cf. A2426.2.1.)--Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 147 No. 53.

A2272.1.2. A2272.1.2. Cricket hears water hiss on hot iron: learns his song. (Cf. A2426.3.4.)--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 93 No. 99.

A2272.1.3. A2272.1.3. Garden warbler hears smith beat iron: learns his song. (Cf. A2426.2.2.)--Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 148 No. 55.

A2272.2. A2272.2. Lizard’s tail imitated from snake‘s. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 20 No. 110, XXXIII 55 No. 110.

A2275. A2275. Animal habit a reminiscence of former experience.

A2275.1. A2275.1. Animal cries a lament for person lost when animal was transformed. (Cf. A2260, A2425.)--Dh III 387.--Benga: Nassau 163 No. 21; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2275.2. A2275.2. Animal cries a lament over animal’s transformation. (Cf. A2425, A2426.2.5.)--*Dh III 376ff.

A2275.3. A2275.3. Animal cries reminiscent of former life as man. (Cf. A2261.1, A2426.2.3, A2426.2.4.)--Dh III 394ff., 398ff.; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2275.4. A2275.4. Animal cries recall ancient adventure. The ancient animal cries out in difficulty. The present animal has the same cry. (Cf. A2426.1.1, A2426.4.1.)--India: Thompson-Balys; Ibo (Nigeria): Basden 139; Angola: Chatelain 217 No. 38.

A2275.4.1. A2275.4.1. Green pigeon cheated out of its chick: is always mourning. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2275.5. A2275.5. Animal‘s seeking attitude from ancient loss. The ancient animal loses something. Its descendants are forever seeking for the lost object. This explains the characteristic bearing of certain animals. (Cf. A2471.)

A2275.5.1. A2275.5.1. Hog loses pancake in mud: still seeks it. (Cf. A2471.2, A2477.1, Z24.1.)--*Dh III 280ff.; (Cf. Type 2025.)

A2275.5.2. A2275.5.2. Hawk (vulture) loses grandmother: still hovers and seeks her. (Cf. A2471.3.)--Ibo (Nigeria): Basden 274, (Cameroon): Mansfield 233.

A2275.5.3. A2275.5.3. Bat, diver, and thornbush shipwrecked. Bat brought money, bush put on clothes, and diver brought leather. All shipwrecked. Diver is looking for his leather. Bush looks for his clothers and holds fast to all passers-by. Bat is abroad only at night to escape creditors. (Cf. A2471.4, A2491.1.)--*Dh IV 273f; *BP I 137. (Gr. No. 18).--Wienert FFC LVI 35; Halm Aesop No. 306.

A2275.5.4. A2275.5.4. Dolphins seek King Solomon’s ring. He loses his magic ring in the sea. They are sent by God to get it. This is why they go up and down in the sea. (Cf. A2444.2.)--Dh I 331; Jewish: Neuman.

A2275.5.5. A2275.5.5. Dog loses his patent right; seeks it: why dogs look at one another under the tail. (Cf. A2471.1.) Dh IV 129.--U.S.: Baughman.

A2275.6. A2275.6. Son accidentally kills father, who returns to life as cuckoo and tells people when to sow grain. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2281. A2281. Enmity between animals from original quarrel. (Cf. A2494.1.1, A2494.1.3, A2494.2.3.)--Dh III 331.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 11 Nos 56, 57; Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 143 No. 31; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 88 No. 62; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 86 No. 56; Jewish: Neuman; Japanese: Ikeda; Korean: Zong in-Sob 36 No. 20; Benga: Nassau 99 No. 6.

A2281.1. A2281.1. Cat loses dog’s certificate: enmity between cats and dogs. Dog is given a certificate of nobility. Through cat‘s carelessness it is lost. (Cf. A2275.5, A2494.1.2.) *Type 200.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 11 No. 53; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 143 No. 30; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 88 No. 61; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 85 No. 53.

A2281.1.1. A2281.1.1. Cat garbles message from man to tiger: enmity between man and tiger. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2281.1.2. A2281.1.2. Quarrel of dog and cat about which was higher caste. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2281.2. A2281.2. Squirrel steals dog’s needle: enmity between them. (Cf. A2494.4.1.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 11 No. 52.

A2281.3. A2281.3. Why cat and dog fight: dog ate up cat‘s part in master’s reward. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2282. A2282. Present habitat of animals result of ancient quarrel. (Cf. A2433.3.3, A2433.3.4, A2433.3.21, A2433.6.1.)--Benga: Nassau 202 No. 32; Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 372, 381.

A2283. A2283. Two animals learn songs together--one successfully, the other unsuccessfully. (Cf. A2425.)--*Dh III 365ff.

A2284. A2284. Origin of animal characteristics: animal persuaded into self-injury.

A2284.1. A2284.1. Animal persuaded to amputate limb: therefore lacks it. (Cf. A2371.2.10, A2377.1.)--Australian: Dixon 146 (kangaroo‘s forepaws), 288 (emu’s wings).

A2284.2. A2284.2. Bustard persuaded to kill all but two children: has but two eggs. (Cf. A2486.2.)--Australian: Dixon 289.

A2284.3. A2284.3. Worm, thinking that world is coming to end, blinds self so as not to see calamity. (Cf. A2332.6.4.)--Dh III 21.

A2284.4. A2284.4. Elephant tricked into eating own testicles. Has them inside. (Cf. A2365.1.1.)--Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 361 No. 14.

A2284.5. A2284.5. Coyote persuaded to break leg: therefore has thin right leg. (Cf. A2371.2.6.)--Dh III 46.

A2284.6. A2284.6. Jackal persuades hyena to jump and break foot. Latter has short left hind foot. (Cf. A2375.2.5.)--Hottentot: Bleek 14 No. 14.

A2286. A2286. Animal characteristics established by deity. Yunca (Peru): Alexander Lat. Am. Myth 229.

A2286.0.1. A2286.0.1. God makes serpent ugly. (Cf. A2402.1, A2494.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 19 No. 109.

A2286.1. A2286.1. Creation interrupted since God must go to a fire.

A2286.1.0.1. A2286.1.0.1. Animal characteristics because creator had not enough time to finish what he began. S. Am. Indian (Caingang): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 474.

A2286.1.1. A2286.1.1. Creation of hog incomplete since God has to go to a fire: cause of hog‘s round snout. (Cf. A2335.4.2.)--Dh III 24, 493.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 12 No. 65.

A2286.2. A2286.2. Animal characteristics result of contest between God and devil.

A2286.2.1. A2286.2.1. Devil’s animals devour God‘s. God makes white fish, devil a pike to eat it up; God a worm, devil a frog to eat it, etc. (Cf. A1751.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 20 No. 115; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 149 No. 63.

A2286.2.2. A2286.2.2. Devil gives horse four eyes; God reduces them to two. Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 144 No. 33.

A2286.2.3. A2286.2.3. Devil’s cows one-horned; God makes them two-horned. (Cf. A2326.3.1.)--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 88 No 63.

A2286.2.4. A2286.2.4. God changes color (tails) of devil‘s cows. Devil makes all animals of same color (or all tailless). When God makes them of different colors (or with tails) devil no longer recognizes them. (Cf. A2378.1.)--Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 146 No. 47; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3083, Legends Nos. 134--137.

A2287. A2287. Jesus causes animal characteristics. (Cf. A2221, A2231.)

A2287.1. A2287.1. Jesus drives evil spirits into hogs: hence short snouts. (Cf. A2335.4.1.)--Dh II 81.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 12 No. 66.

A2287.1.1. A2287.1.1. Jesus drives evil spirits into hogs: hence “toes” on back of foreleg. (Cf. A2371.2.2.)--Dh II 82.

A2291. A2291. Animal characteristics obtained during deluge. Jewish: Neuman; Achawoi: Alexander Lat. Am. 270.

A2292. A2292. Animal characteristics: change for convenience. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2294. A2294. Wild animals lose their ferocity through fear of Behemoth. Jewish: Neuman.


A2300--A2399. Causes of animal characteristics: body.

A2300. A2300. Origin of animal characteristics: body.

A2300.1. A2300.1. Shape of bee‘s body. Dh I 129.

A2301. A2301. Animal’s body made larger. (See A2213.3.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2301.1. A2301.1. Mouse‘s body made larger. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 231.

A2301.2. A2301.2. Spider’s body made larger. Sinkyone: Kroeber JAFL XXXII 347.

A2301.3. A2301.3. Coyote‘s body made larger. (See A2213.3.)--Dh III 3.

A2301.4. A2301.4. Bat’s body made larger. (See A2213.3.)--Dh III 4.

A2301.5. A2301.5. Flying-squirrel‘s body made larger. (See A2213.3.)--Dh III 4.

A2302. A2302. Animal’s body made smaller. (See A2213.1.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2302.1. A2302.1. Mouse‘s body made smaller. Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 260 No. 55; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 231.

A2302.2. A2302.2. Hazel-cock’s body made smaller. (See A2231, A2213.1.) Dh III 2.--Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 51.

A2302.3. A2302.3. Squirrel‘s body made smaller. (See A2213.1.)--Dh III 2.

A2302.4. A2302.4. Eagle’s body made smaller. (See A2213.1.)--Dh III 6.

A2302.5. A2302.5. Wolf‘s body made smaller. (See A2213.1.)--Dh III 7.

A2302.6. A2302.6. Lice made smaller. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2305. A2305. Origin of animal’s flat body.

A2305.1. A2305.1. Origin of fish‘s flat body. (See A2231.9.)--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 89 No. 119a.

A2305.1.1. A2305.1.1. Origin of steel-head salmon’s flat body. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 242.

A2305.1.2. A2305.1.2. Origin of flounder‘s flat body. (See A2126.)--*Dh I 248, 290, II 1ff., 269, III 35.

A2305.1.3. A2305.1.3. Why lobster is flat. (Cf. A2213.2.4.).--Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 13 No. 2.

A2305.2. A2305.2. Why bedbug is flat. Korean: Zong in-Sob 36 No. 20.

A2306. A2306. Why animal is slippery.

A2306.1. A2306.1. Why eel is slippery. Marshall Is.: Davenport 226.

A2310. A2310. Origin of animal characteristics: body covering.

A2311. A2311. Origin of animal’s skin. Dh III 7ff.

A2311.1. A2311.1. Origin of dog‘s skin. (See A2210, A2229.2.)--Dh I 98ff., III 7.

A2311.2. A2311.2. Origin of cat’s skin. (See A2210.)--Dh I 157, III 7.

A2311.3. A2311.3. Origin of wolf‘s skin. (See A2210.)--Dh I 151f., III 7.

A2311.4. A2311.4. Origin of hedgehog’s skin. (See A2210, A2220.1.)--Dh III 7.--Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3127, Legends No. 228.

A2311.5. A2311.5. Origin of porcupine‘s skin. (See A2210.)--Dh III 7ff.

A2311.6. A2311.6. Origin of cow’s and buffalo‘s hides. (See A2247.1.)--Indonesian: De Vries’s list No. 97.

A2311.7. A2311.7. Why crocodile has rough skin. (Cf. A2315.2.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2311.8. A2311.8. Why frog has rough skin. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2311.9. A2311.9. Why snakes and lizards change skins. (See A2250.2.)

A2312. A2312. Origin of animal shell. Tahiti: Henry 339.

A2312.1. A2312.1. Origin of tortoise‘s shell. (See A2215.3, A2231.1.4, A2213.3, A2211.10.)--Dh III 9.--India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda; Yoruba: Ellis 273 No. 6.

A2312.1.1. A2312.1.1. Origin of cracks in tortoise’s shell. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 373 No. 23.

A2312.2. A2312.2. Origin of snail‘s shell. Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Fang): Trilles Proverbes 176.

A2312.3. A2312.3. Origin of dents in crab’s shell. Tuamotu: Stimson MS (3--G 13/420).

A2313. A2313. Origin of bird‘s feathers.

A2313.1. A2313.1. Origin of cuckoo’s feathers. (See A2241.6.)--Dh. III 140.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 17 No. 94 (cf. A2411.2.6.10).

A2313.2. A2313.2. Origin of magpie‘s feathers. Exchanges with dove. See A2247.

A2313.3. A2313.3. Origin of peacock’s feathers. (See A2241, A2245.)--Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3142, Legends No. 256f.

A2313.4. A2313.4. Origin of nkundak‘s feathers. (See A2223.2.)

A2313.5. A2313.5. Why young ravens have white feathers. Jewish: Neuman.

A2315. A2315. Origin of fish’s scales.

A2315.1. A2315.1. Origin of shell-fish‘s black scales. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 39 No. 59.

A2315.2. A2315.2. Origin of alligator’s scales. (Cf. A2311.7.)--Dh III 10.--Am. Negro: (Georgia): Harris Nights 26.

A2317. A2317. Why certain animals are bare of covering. Dh III 10ff.

A2317.1. A2317.1. Why swine‘s belly is bare. Dh III 10.

A2317.2. A2317.2. Why fly is bald. Dh III 11.

A2317.3. A2317.3. Why buzzard is bald. Dh III 11.--Ojibwa: Skinner JAFL XXXII 282.

A2317.4. A2317.4. Why crow’s head is bald. Dh III 13.

A2317.5. A2317.5. Why raven is bald. Dh III 13.--Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 221.

A2317.6. A2317.6. Why magpie is bald. Dh III 14.

A2317.7. A2317.7. Why vulture is bald. Dh. III 14.--Menomini: Skinner und Satterlee PaAm XIII 78; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 161.

A2317.8. A2317.8. Why bat is bald. Dh I 95.

A2317.9. A2317.9. Why bird‘s feet are bare. Dh II 261.

A2317.10. A2317.10. Why baboon has bare place on back. (See A2213.2.3.)

A2317.11. A2317.11. Why john-crow has bald head. Jamaica: Beckwith MAFLS 259 No. 47.

A2317.12. A2317.12. Why opossum has bare tail. Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Remus 129 No. 27; Cherokee: Alexander N. Am. 65.

A2317.12.1. A2317.12.1. Why kangaroo-rat’s tail is not bushy. Salinan: Mason UCal XIV 83.

A2317.12.2. A2317.12.2. Why jackal has bare tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2317.12.3. A2317.12.3. Why rat‘s tail is round and without any hair. (Cf. A2378.9.5.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2320. A2320. Origin of animal characteristics: head.

A2320.1. A2320.1. How snake got small head. (See A2213.1.)--Jewish: Neuman.

A2320.1.1. A2320.1.1. Why weaver bird’s head is small. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2320.2. A2320.2. How turtle got snake-like head. (See A2247.2.)

A2320.3. A2320.3. How lizard got red head. (See A2211.8.)--Jewish: Neuman.

A2320.3.1. A2320.3.1. Origin of mudhen‘s red head. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 230.

A2320.4. A2320.4. Why crab has no head. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2320.5. A2320.5. Why bird’s head is so large. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2320.6. A2320.6. Why crocodile has marks of water pot on head. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2320.7. A2320.7. Why palm-rat has swollen head. Africa (Congo): Weeks Jungle 455.

A2321. A2321. Origin of bird crests. Dh III 18f.--Tahltan- Teit JAFL XXXII 208f.

A2321.1. A2321.1. Origin of goose‘s crest. Dh III 18.

A2321.2. A2321.2. Origin of hoopoe’s crest. Dh III 18.

A2321.3. A2321.3. Origin of woodpecker‘s crest. Dh III 18.

A2321.4. A2321.4. Origin of crested-lark’s crest. Dh III 19.

A2321.5. A2321.5. Origin of kingfisher‘s crest. Dh III 19.

A2321.6. A2321.6. Origin of nkundak’s crest. (See A2223.2.)

A2321.7. A2321.7. Origin of buzzard‘s crest. Cherokee: Alexander N. Am. 65.

A2321.8. A2321.8. Origin of red lump on rail’s head. (See A2215.4.)

A2321.9. A2321.9. Origin of willow-grouse‘s crest. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 209.

A2321.10. A2321.10. Origin of cock’s red crest. Lithuanian: Balys Index 3160; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2321.10.1. A2321.10.1. Why the cock‘s comb becomes white when he is angry. Jewish: Neuman.

A2321.11. A2321.11. Origin of woodpecker’s crest. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2322. A2322. Origin of hair and mane. Dh III 34f.

A2322.1. A2322.1. How buffalo got hair under chin. Dh III 34.

A2322.3. A2322.3. How zebra got its mane. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 368 No. 19.

A2322.4. A2322.4. How goat got his beard. Dh I 2, 181.

A2322.4.1. A2322.4.1. How goat got his mane. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2322.5. A2322.5. Why sheep may keep wool which grows on his forehead. (See A2255.1.)

A2322.6. A2322.6. Why the gorilla and chimpanzee have hair all over the body. Punishment for not guarding possessions at creation. Bulu: Krug 111f.

A2325. A2325. Origin of animals‘ ears.

A2325.1. A2325.1. Why rabbit has long ears. Chuh: Kunst JAFL XXVIII 354.

A2325.2. A2325.2. Why hare’s ears are black. (See A2212.1.)

A2325.3. A2325.3. Why ass has long ears. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 86 No. 58b.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3125, Legends No. 226.

A2325.4. A2325.4. Why camel has short ears. (See A2232.1.)

A2325.5. A2325.5. Why zebra has long ears. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 368 No. 19.

A2325.6. A2325.6. Why cat has jagged ears. Irish myth: Cross.

A2325.7. A2325.7. Why camel has no ears. (Cf. A2232.1.)--Jewish: Neuman.

A2325.8. A2325.8. Why serpent has no ears. Jewish: Neuman.

A2326. A2326. Origin and nature of animal‘s horns. Dh III 30ff.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2326.1. A2326.1. How animals got horns. Africa (Fang): Tessman 16f.

A2326.1.1. A2326.1.1. How stag got antlers. From camel. See A2241.1.

A2326.1.1.1. A2326.1.1.1. Why deer has antlers: as reward for not cheating. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2326.1.2. A2326.1.2. How caribou got antlers. Exchanged his teeth for walrus’s horns. (See A2247.) Eskimo (Labrador): Hawks GSCan XIV 159.

A2326.1.3. A2326.1.3. How sheep got horns. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3126; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 215.

A2326.1.4. A2326.1.4. How ox got horns. Exchanged for horse‘s teeth. (See A2247.)

A2326.1.5. A2326.1.5. How goats got horns. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 215.

A2326.1.6. A2326.1.6. How horned-viper got horns. Dh III 34.

A2326.2. A2326.2. Why some animals have no horns.

A2326.2.1. A2326.2.1. Why cats have no horns. See A2247; Dh III 125; Sйbillot RTP II 491.

A2326.2.2. A2326.2.2. Why dog has no horns: they were stolen by deer (goat). India: Thompson-Balys.

A2326.2.3. A2326.2.3. Originally cock had horns. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 13.

A2326.3. A2326.3. Nature of animal’s horns.

A2326.3.1. A2326.3.1. Why cows have two horns. (See A2286.2.3.)

A2326.3.2. A2326.3.2. How stag got long antlers. Dh III 30.

A2326.3.3. A2326.3.3. Why antelope‘s antlers reach backward. Dh III 30.

A2326.3.4. A2326.3.4. Why buffalo’s horns are bent. Dh III 30.

A2326.3.5. A2326.3.5. Why mountain-sheep‘s horns are close together. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 430.

A2330. A2330. Origin of animal characteristics: face.

A2330.1. A2330.1. How wildcat got his mashed face. (See A2213.2.1.)

A2330.2. A2330.2. How lynx got his squint. (See A2211.1.)

A2330.3. A2330.3. Why monkey’s face is black. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2330.4. A2330.4. Origin of marks on tiger‘s face. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2330.5. A2330.5. Why flea’s face is red. Korean: Zong in-Sob 36 No. 20.

A2330.6. A2330.6. Why pheasant‘s cheeks are red. Korean: Zong in-Sob 32 No. 15.

A2330.7. A2330.7. Why dove’s head is marked as it is. Korean: Zong in-Sob 32 No. 15.

A2330.8. A2330.8. Why rail (bird) has red forehead. New Hebrides: Codrington 361.

A2332. A2332. Origin and nature of animals‘ eyes.

A2332.1. A2332.1. Origin of animals’ eyes.

A2332.1.1. A2332.1.1. How mouse got his eyes. Dh III 19.

A2332.1.2. A2332.1.2. How fly got his eyes. Dh III 19.

A2332.1.3. A2332.1.3. How herring got his eyes. Dh III 44.

A2332.1.4. A2332.1.4. How fox got his eyes. Stole from birch tree. (See A2245.)--Dh III 129.

A2332.1.5. A2332.1.5. Where owl got his eyes. Eskimo (Alaska): Jenness 32.

A2332.2. A2332.2. Number of animal‘s eyes.

A2332.2.1. A2332.2.1. Why horse has only two eyes. (See A2286.2.2.)

A2332.3. A2332.3. Size of animals’ eyes.

A2332.3.1. A2332.3.1. Why lemur has big eyes. (See A2234.3.)

A2332.3.2. A2332.3.2. Why zabi‘s eyes are narrow: because he laughs so hard. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2332.3.3. A2332.3.3. Why caribou has small eyes. Eskimo (Labrador): Hawks GSCan XIV 161.

A2332.4. A2332.4. Shape and position of animal’s eyes. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 281.

A2332.4.1. A2332.4.1. Why hare has deep-set eyes. (See A2239.1.)

A2332.4.2. A2332.4.2. Why crab lifts eye out of body or has eye behind. (See A2231.10, A2231.1.3.)

A2332.4.3. A2332.4.3. Why frog‘s eyes bulge out. Africa (Congo): Weeks Jungle 459.

A2332.5. A2332.5. Color of animal’s eyes. Dh III 60f.

A2332.5.1. A2332.5.1. Why coyote has yellowish eyes. Zuсi: Handy JAFL XXXI 461.

A2332.5.2. A2332.5.2. Why cuckoo has red eyes. Sйbillot RTP III 262.

A2332.5.3. A2332.5.3. Why water-hen has red eyes. Plains Cree: Skinner JAFL XXIX 349.

A2332.5.4. A2332.5.4. Why toad has red eyes. Dh III 60.--Jewish: Neuman.

A2332.5.5. A2332.5.5. Why turkey has red eyes. Dh III 61.

A2332.5.6. A2332.5.6. Why wooddove has green eyes. Dh III 61.

A2332.5.7. A2332.5.7. Why wild duck has red eyes. Dances for trickster. *Dh III 61.

A2332.5.8. A2332.5.8. Why herring‘s eyes are red. Fb “sild”.

A2332.6. A2332.6. “Blindness” in animals. Animals really or supposedly blind. Dh III 19ff.

A2332.6.1. A2332.6.1. Why blindworm has no eyes. (See A2241.5.)

A2332.6.2. A2332.6.2. Why giant lizard is blind. Chose poison instead of eyes. Dh III 21.--Jewish: Neuman.

A2332.6.3. A2332.6.3. Why grasshopper is born blind. (See A2233.4.)

A2332.6.4. A2332.6.4. Why worm is blind. (See A2284.3.)--Japanese: Ikeda.

A2332.6.5. A2332.6.5. Why mole is blind.--(See A2239.8, A2247, A2378.1.4.)--Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 38 No. 287; Jewish: Neuman.

A2332.6.6. A2332.6.6. Why owl is blind by day. (See A2233.3.)--Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3140.

A2332.6.7. A2332.6.7. Why elephant sees half-blindly. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2332.6.8. A2332.6.8. Why leech is blind. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2332.6.9. A2332.6.9. Why bee is blind. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2335. A2335. Origin and nature of animal’s nasal organ (nose, snout, proboscis, etc.).

A2335.1. A2335.1. Origin of animal‘s nose.

A2335.2. A2335.2. Nature of animal’s nose. (See A2213.4.3.)

A2335.2.1. A2335.2.1. Why deer has white mark on nose. From white ashes. Dh III 79.

A2335.2.2. A2335.2.2. Why lynx has short, blunt nose. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 455.

A2335.2.3. A2335.2.3. Why raven has nose marked as if it had been broken off. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 225.

A2335.2.4. A2335.2.4. Why hare’s nose is closed during sowing season. (See A2238.1.)

A2335.2.5. A2335.2.5. Why steer has no hair on his nose. (See A2221.5.1.)

A2335.3. A2335.3. Origin and nature of animal’s proboscis.

A2335.3.1. A2335.3.1. Origin of anteater‘s proboscis. Transformed digging-stick. (See A2262.)

A2335.3.2. A2335.3.2. Why tapir has long nose. S. Am. Indian (Yagua): Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 736.

A2335.4. A2335.4. Origin and nature of animal’s snout (muzzle).

A2335.4.1. A2335.4.1. Why hog has short snout. (See A2287.1.)--Africa (Fang): Trilles 179.

A2335.4.2. A2335.4.2. Why hog has round snout. Creation of hog incomplete since God had to go to fire. (See A2286.1.1.)

A2335.4.3. A2335.4.3. Why dog has black muzzle. (See A2229.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.

A2335.4.4. A2335.4.4. Why coyote has long muzzle. (See A2213.4.1.)

A2335.4.5. A2335.4.5. Why the wolf‘s muzzle is black. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3087, Legends No. 147.

A2335.4.6. A2335.4.6. Why rat has long snout. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 231.

A2341. A2341. Origin and nature of animal’s mouth. Dh III 22--27.

A2341.1. A2341.1. Why flounder‘s mouth is crooked. (See A2252.4, A2231.1.2.)--Irish: Beal XXI 327.

A2341.2. A2341.2. Why animal’s mouth is large.

A2341.2.1. A2341.2.1. Why opossum‘s mouth is large. Choctaw: Alexander N. Am. 64.

A2341.2.2. A2341.2.2. Why zebra’s mouth is large. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 368 No. 19.

A2341.3. A2341.3. Why animal‘s mouth is closed.

A2341.3.1. A2341.3.1. Why serpent’s mouth is closed. Jewish: Neuman.

A2342. A2342. Origin and nature of animal‘s lips.

A2342.1. A2342.1. Why hare’s lip is split. (See A2234.4, A2216.3, A2211.2.)--Dh III 22f.; BP III 75 n. 1; Fb “hare” IV 201a; Types 47, 70.--Micmac: Speck JAFL XXVIII 65; Chitimacha: Swanton JAFL XXX 476.

A2342.2. A2342.2. Why ox has no hair on his lips. (See A2221.5.1.)

A2343. A2343. Origin and nature of bird’s beak. Dh III 26.

A2343.1. A2343.1. Origin of bird‘s long beak.

A2343.1.1. A2343.1.1. Where kingfisher got his long beak. Dh III 27; Korean: Zong in-Sob 35 No. 19.

A2343.1.2. A2343.1.2. Where snipe got his long beak. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 219.

A2343.1.3. A2343.1.3. Why loon has big beak. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 209.

A2343.1.4. A2343.1.4. Where hornbill got his big beak. (See A2241.9.)--Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 234.

A2343.2. A2343.2. Why bird’s beak is colored.

A2343.2.1. A2343.2.1. Why parrot‘s beak is black. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2343.2.2. A2343.2.2. Why toucan’s beak is black. S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 178.

A2343.3. A2343.3. Origin of other features of birds‘ beak.

A2343.3.1. A2343.3.1. Why starling’s beak is split. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2343.3.2. A2343.3.2. Why woodpecker has sharp beak. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2344. A2344. Origin and nature of animal‘s tongue. Dh III 27ff.

A2344.1. A2344.1. Why animal has short tongue.

A2344.1.1. A2344.1.1. Why crocodile has short tongue. Dh III 28.--Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2344.1.1.1. A2344.1.1.1. Why crocodile has half a tongue. (Cf. A2239.7.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2344.1.1.2. A2344.1.1.2. Why crocodile has no tongue. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2344.1.2. A2344.1.2. Why alligator has short tongue. Dh III 28.

A2344.2. A2344.2. Why animal has no tongue.

A2344.2.1. A2344.2.1. Why gnat has no tongue. (See A2236.1.)

A2344.2.2. A2344.2.2. Why eel has no tongue. Dh III 27.

A2344.2.3. A2344.2.3. Why swallow has no tongue. Dh III 29.

A2344.2.4. A2344.2.4. Why titmouse has no tongue. Dh III 28.

A2344.2.5. A2344.2.5. Why cormorant has no tongue. (Cf. A2422.8.)--Dh III 28.--N. A. Indian: *Boas RBAE XXXI 678.

A2344.2.6. A2344.2.6. Why magpie has no tongue. (See A2236.4.)

A2344.3. A2344.3. Cause of color of animal‘s tongue.

A2344.3.1. A2344.3.1. Why sheep’s tongue is black. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 430.

A2345. A2345. Origin and nature of animal‘s teeth.

A2345.1. A2345.1. Where horse got his upper teeth. Borrowed them from buffalo. (See A2241.)

A2345.2. A2345.2. Where coyote got his long teeth. Dh III 33f.

A2345.3. A2345.3. Where reindeer got his small teeth. Dh. III 34.

A2345.4. A2345.4. Where walrus got his tusks. Traded antlers with caribou for tusks. (See A2247.)

A2345.5. A2345.5. Where snake got his fangs. (See A2247.2.)--Jewish: Neuman.

A2345.6. A2345.6. How elephant got its tusks. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2345.7. A2345.7. Why animal lacks teeth.

A2345.7.1. A2345.7.1. Why cow has no upper teeth. Chinese: Graham.

A2345.7.2. A2345.7.2. Why frog has no teeth. (Cf. A2239.8.)--Jewish: Neuman.

A2345.7.3. A2345.7.3. Why caribou has no teeth. Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 168, 306, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 587, (Alaska): Jenness 80, (West Hudson Bay): Boas BAM XV 536, 554, (Labrador): Hawks GSCan XIV 160, (Bering Strait): Nelson RBAE XVIII 449, 460.

A2345.8. A2345.8. Why hen has no teeth. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 233.

A2345.9. A2345.9. Why gorilla and chimpanzee have large teeth in mouth: punishment for neglecting possessions. Bulu: Krug 111f.

A2346. A2346. Origin and nature of insect’s sting.

A2346.1. A2346.1. Why bees die after they sting. (See A2232.2.)--Breton: Sйbillot Incidents s.v. “abeilles”; Lithuanian: Balys Index 3204, Legends Nos. 296--300.

A2346.2. A2346.2. Why bee‘s sting is no longer fatal to man. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2350. A2350. Origin of animal characteristics: trunk.

A2351. A2351. Origin and nature of animal’s neck.

A2351.1. A2351.1. Why camel‘s neck bends upwards. Dh III 35.

A2351.2. A2351.2. Why eagle-owl’s head turns on its neck. Type 230.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 18 No. 100.

A2351.3. A2351.3. Where Jahrvogel (rhytidoceros) got its necklace. Borrowed form dove. (See A2241.)--Dh III 133.

A2351.4. A2351.4. Origin of animal‘s long neck.

A2351.4.1. A2351.4.1. Origin of stork’s long neck. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2351.4.2. A2351.4.2. Why magpie has long neck. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2351.4.3. A2351.4.3. Origin of antelope‘s long neck. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield

A2351.5. A2351.5. Why tortoise’s neck is outstretched toward the sky: is looking for his wife, the star. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2351.6. A2351.6. Where horse got arched neck: arches neck to kick tiger from rear; remains so. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2351.7. A2351.7. Why munia wears his crop on the back of his neck. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2353. A2353. Origin and nature of animal‘s breast.

A2353.1. A2353.1. Why apia (bird) is flat-chested. Told wife that he was going away to dine. Was too late for his meal.--Ibo (Nigeria): Basden 278.

A2353.2. A2353.2. Why robin has red breast. (See A2221.2.2.)--Breton: Sйbillot RTP III 157.

A2353.3. A2353.3. Elephant loses its breasts. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2353.4. A2353.4. Why bears do not have breasts for nursing. Jewish: Neuman.

A2354. A2354. Origin and nature of animal’s belly.

A2354.1. A2354.1. Why flounder is flat-bellied. (See A2231.9.)

A2355. A2355. Origin and nature of animal‘s waist.

A2355.1. A2355.1. Why animal has small waist. Dh III 36ff.

A2355.1.1. A2355.1.1. Why spider has small waist. Dh III 36ff.

A2355.1.2. A2355.1.2. Why ant has small waist. (See A2214.2.)--India: *Thompson-Balys; Korea: Zong in-Sob No. 16, 35 No. 19.

A2356. A2356. Origin and nature of animal’s back. Dh III 42ff.

A2356.1. A2356.1. Origin of animal‘s back.

A2356.1.1. A2356.1.1. Origin of snake’s back. From a stick. (See A2262.3.)

A2356.2. A2356.2. Origin of shape of animal‘s back.

A2356.2.1. A2356.2.1. Why frog has hunchback. Dh III 42ff.--Jewish: Neuman.

A2356.2.2. A2356.2.2. Why wolf has straight back. (See A2211.3.)--Dh III 43.

A2356.2.3. A2356.2.3. Why cat has arched back. Dh I 166, III 44.

A2356.2.4. A2356.2.4. Why certain fish have bowed backs. Dh III 44.

A2356.2.5. A2356.2.5. Why water-hen has broad back. Plains Cree: Skinner JAFL XXIX 349.

A2356.2.6. A2356.2.6. Why bear has hump on back. Ojibwa: Jones JAFL XXIX 368.

A2356.2.7. A2356.2.7. Why ass has cross on back (shoulders). (See A2221.1, A2239.6.)--England: Baughman.

A2356.2.8. A2356.2.8. Why spider has thread in back of body. (See A2231.6.)

A2356.2.9. A2356.2.9. Why tortoise has humpy back. (See A2213.2.2.)--Jewish: Neuman.

A2356.2.10. A2356.2.10. Why helldiver has flat stern. Culture hero kicked him. Menomini: Skinner and Satterlee PaAM XIII 269.

A2356.2.11. A2356.2.11. Why alligator has rough back. Am. Negro: (Georgia) Harris Nights 141 No. 26.

A2356.2.12. A2356.2.12. Why cow’s body has hollow on one side. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2356.2.13. A2356.2.13. Why camel has humped back. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2356.3. A2356.3. Origin of color of animal‘s back.

A2356.3.1. A2356.3.1. Why eagle’s back is brown. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 48.

A2356.3.2. A2356.3.2. Why jackal has black back. (See A2218.2.)

A2356.3.3. A2356.3.3. Why wolverine has peculiar marks on back. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 458.

A2356.3.4. A2356.3.4. Why spider has markings on back. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 241.

A2362. A2362. Origin and nature of animal‘s buttocks.

A2362.1. A2362.1. Why monkey’s buttocks are red. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2363. A2363. Origin and nature of animal‘s teats.

A2363.1. A2363.1. Why cow has so few teats. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 12 No. 63, (Cf. No. 48).

A2364. A2364. Origin and nature of animal’s loins.

A2364.1. A2364.1. Why wolverine has red hair on loins. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 248.

A2365. A2365. Origin and nature of animal‘s genitals. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2365.1. A2365.1. Nature of animal’s testicles.

A2365.1.1. A2365.1.1. Why elephant has testicles inside. Persuaded to eat them. (See A2284.4.)

A2365.2. A2365.2. Nature of animal‘s penis.

A2365.2.0.1. A2365.2.0.1. Why goat’s and cat‘s members are as they are. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2365.2.1. A2365.2.1. Why animal’s penis is large (long).

A2365.2.1.1. A2365.2.1.1. Why horse‘s penis is long. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2365.2.1.2. A2365.2.1.2. Why elephant’s penis is large. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2365.2.1.3. A2365.2.1.3. Why donkey‘s penis is large. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2367. A2367. Animal characteristics: inside of body.

A2367.1. A2367.1. Animal characteristics: bones.

A2367.1.1. A2367.1.1. Why sucker has small bones in body. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 242.

A2367.2. A2367.2. Animal characteristics: internal markings.

A2367.2.1. A2367.2.1. Why grizzly bears have three stripes on inside of stomach. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 208.

A2367.3. A2367.3. Animal characteristics: blood.

A2367.3.1. A2367.3.1. Origin of serpent’s blood and venom. Jewish: Neuman.

A2370. A2370. Animal characteristics: extremities.

A2371. A2371. Origin and nature of animal‘s legs. Dh III 45.

A2371.1. A2371.1. Origin of animal’s legs.

A2371.2. A2371.2. Shape of animal‘s legs.

A2371.2.1. A2371.2.1. Why sheep has thin legs. (See A2231.7.2.)--Dh II 91.

A2371.2.2. A2371.2.2. Why hog has “toes” on back of foreleg. Mark of devil’s teeth. (See A2287.1.1.)

A2371.2.3. A2371.2.3. Why ravens have crooked legs and walk lame. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 226.

A2371.2.4. A2371.2.4. Why bears have short, crooked legs. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 217.

A2371.2.5. A2371.2.5. Why there is meat in front of the caribou‘s lower legs. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 217.

A2371.2.6. A2371.2.6. Why coyote’s right leg is thin. (See A2284.5.)

A2371.2.7. A2371.2.7. Why horse has eye-like marks on forelegs. (See A2262.1.)--Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 162.

A2371.2.8. A2371.2.8. Why he-goat has shaggy legs. Braved the wolf, who tore his legs. Dh III 46.

A2371.2.9. A2371.2.9. Why diver (loon) holds legs backward. (See A2215.6.)

A2371.2.10. A2371.2.10. Why kangaroo has short front legs. (See A2284.1.)

A2371.2.11. A2371.2.11. Why hare has short pair of legs. Dh III 23.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 13 No. 73.

A2371.2.12. A2371.2.12. Why daddy-long-legs has long legs. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2371.3. A2371.3. Why animal lacks legs.

A2371.3.1. A2371.3.1. Why snake has no legs. (See A2234.2, A2236.2.1, A2241.8.)--Dh I 116, 207, 216, 219f.--Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2371.4. A2371.4. Origin of color of animal’s legs.

A2371.4.1. A2371.4.1. Why curlew has red legs. Australian: Dixon 292.

A2371.4.2. A2371.4.2. Why fox‘s legs are black. Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Friends 10.

A2375. A2375. Origin and nature of animal’s feet. Dh III 45ff.

A2375.1. A2375.1. Where animal got feet.

A2375.2. A2375.2. Nature of animal’s feet.

A2375.2.1. A2375.2.1. Why partridge has pretty feet. Exchanged with peacock. (Also told of jay and flamingo.) (See A2241.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2375.2.2. A2375.2.2. Why peacock has ugly feet. (See A2232.7, A2236.2.2, A2375.2.1.)

A2375.2.3. A2375.2.3. Why dog has hairy paws. Stole from rabbit. (See A2245.)

A2375.2.4. A2375.2.4. Why rabbits have soft pads on feet. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 222.

A2375.2.5. A2375.2.5. Why hyena has short left hind foot. Deceived into jumping by jackal. (See A2284.6.)

A2375.2.6. A2375.2.6. Why mole has hand like man. Dh I 156.

A2375.2.7. A2375.2.7. Why mole’s “hands” are turned backward. Sinkyone: Kroeber JAFL XXXII 349.

A2375.2.8. A2375.2.8. Explanation of duck‘s feet. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 73; S. Am. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 178.

A2375.2.9. A2375.2.9. Why toad has no thumbs. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2375.2.10. A2375.2.10. Why the guinea fowl has red feet. Cheated and could not stand the ordeal of hot oil poured on his feet. Cameroon: Mansfield 226.

A2376. A2376. Animal characteristics: claws and hoofs.

A2376.1. A2376.1. Why cow has cloven hoof. Dh. III 47.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2376.1.1. A2376.1.1. Why ass does not have cloven hoof. Jewish: Neuman.

A2376.2. A2376.2. Dog’s claws as grains under paws. In the great famine, God leaves the dog grain under his paws. From this grows new seed. Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 143 No. 29.

A2376.3. A2376.3. Why porcupine has only four claws. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 226, 246.

A2376.4. A2376.4. How crab got its claws. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2376.5. A2376.5. Why crab has legs like teeth of a comb. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2377. A2377. Animal characteristics: wings.

A2377.1. A2377.1. Why emu has no wings. (See A2284.1.)

A2378. A2378. Origin and nature of animal‘s tail. Dh III 47ff.

A2378.1. A2378.1. Why animals have tail. (See A2286.2.4.)

A2378.1.1. A2378.1.1. Where baboon got tail. (See A2262.2.)

A2378.1.2. A2378.1.2. Where rat got tail. (See A2241.7.)

A2378.1.3. A2378.1.3. Where lizard got tail. From the snake. (Cf. A2247.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 20 No. 110, XXXIII 55 No. 110; Jewish: Neuman.

A2378.1.4. A2378.1.4. Where mole got tail. Traded eyes for it. (See A2247, A2332.6.5.)--Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 38 No. 287.

A2378.1.5. A2378.1.5. Where squirrel got tail. (See A2241.7, A2242.)

A2378.1.6. A2378.1.6. Where beaver got tail. (See A2241.10.)

A2378.1.7. A2378.1.7. How dog got its tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2378.1.8. A2378.1.8. How monkey got its tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2378.1.9. A2378.1.9. How peacock got its tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2378.2. A2378.2. Why animals lack tail.

A2378.2.1. A2378.2.1. Why quail has no tail. Tricks crab into pulling out tail instead of killing her. Says that gripping her neck would not hurt but that pulling tail will be fatal. Dh III 54.--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 87 No. 90a; Jewish: Neuman, India: Thompson-Balys.

A2378.2.2. A2378.2.2. How goats lost tails. (See A2216.2.)

A2378.2.3. A2378.2.3. How frogs lost tails. (See A2231.4, A2236.3.)--Jewish: Neuman.

A2378.2.4. A2378.2.4. How bear lost tail. (See A2216.1.)

A2378.2.5. A2378.2.5. Why hydrax has no tail. (See A2235.)

A2378.2.6. A2378.2.6. How frog lost tail. (See A2242, lent to squirrel.)--Dh III 54.

A2378.2.7. A2378.2.7. How toad lost tail. Dh III 54.--Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 38 No. 287.

A2378.2.8. A2378.2.8. Why flies lack tail. Africa (Duala): Ebding 142ff.

A2378.3. A2378.3. Why animal has long tail.

A2378.3.1. A2378.3.1. How magpie got long tail. (See A2236.4.)

A2378.3.2. A2378.3.2. How muskrat got long, thin tail. Dh III 51.

A2378.3.3. A2378.3.3. How wolf got long tail. (See A2215.1; Cf. A2262.)

A2378.3.4. A2378.3.4. Why fox has long tail. (See A2213.4.2.)

A2378.4. A2378.4. Why animal has short tail.

A2378.4.1. A2378.4.1. Why hare has short tail. (See A2215.2, A2262.)--Dh III 47ff.--Japanese: Ikeda; Virginia (negro): Smiley JAFL XXXII 361; Antigua: Johnson JAFL XXXIV 67.

A2378.4.2. A2378.4.2. Why bear has short tail. (Cf. A2378.2.4.)--Loucheux: Barbeau JAFL XXVIII 256.

A2378.4.3. A2378.4.3. Why marmot has short tail. Dh III 51.

A2378.4.4. A2378.4.4. Why tortoise has short tail. (See A2216.4.)--Dh III 52ff.--Jewish: Neuman.

A2378.4.5. A2378.4.5. Why jackal‘s tail is short. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2378.4.6. A2378.4.6. Why monkey has short tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2378.4.7. A2378.4.7. Why crow has short tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2378.5. A2378.5. Why animal has forked tail.

A2378.5.1. A2378.5.1. Why swallow has forked tail. (See A2214.1.) Dh III 54.--Cf. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 87 No. 85; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3100, Legends Nos. 28, 192, 262.

A2378.5.2. A2378.5.2. Why hawk has forked tail. (See A2216.5.)

A2378.6. A2378.6. Why animal has bushy tail.

A2378.6.1. A2378.6.1. Why fox has bushy tail. Virginia (negro): Smiley JAFL XXXII 361.

A2378.7. A2378.7. Why animal has flat tail.

A2378.7.1. A2378.7.1. Why beaver has flat tail. (See A2247.6, A2241.10, A2378.1.6.) Dh III 51.

A2378.7.2. A2378.7.2. Why magpie’s tail is like a chisel. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 262.

A2378.8. A2378.8. Origin of color of animal‘s tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2378.8.1. A2378.8.1. Why end of fox‘s tail is white. (See A2215.5.)

A2378.8.1.1. A2378.8.1.1. Why end of fox’s tail is black. Central American: Krickeberg Mдrchen der Azteken und Inkaperuaner 282.

A2378.8.2. A2378.8.2. Why tail of West African grey parrot is red. Ibo (Nigeria): Basden 276.

A2378.8.3. A2378.8.3. Why tip of weasel‘s tail is black. Plains Ojibwa: Skinner JAFL XXXII 290.

A2378.8.4. A2378.8.4. Why tip of ermine’s tail is black. (See A2218.) Dh III 74.

A2378.8.5. A2378.8.5. Why minivet has red tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2378.8.6. A2378.8.6. Why swallow has black feathers in tail and only two feathers. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2378.8.7. A2378.8.7. Why bird has two beautiful feathers in his tail. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2378.9. A2378.9. Nature of animal‘s tail--miscellaneous.

A2378.9.1. A2378.9.1. Why king-salmon is thick around root of tail. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 242.

A2378.9.1.1. A2378.9.1.1. Why salmon has tapering tail. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 146, Boberg.

A2378.9.2. A2378.9.2. Why baboons have crooked tails. (See A2262.2.)

A2378.9.3. A2378.9.3. Why hares have cotton tail. Deity rubs cotton on hare. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2378.9.4. A2378.9.4. Why deer’s tail tastes like liver. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2378.9.5. A2378.9.5. Why rat‘s tail looks like a folded leaf. (Cf. A2317.12.3)--New Hebrides: Codrington 360.

A2380. A2380. Animal characteristics: other bodily features.

A2381. A2381. Flesh of animal.

A2381.1. A2381.1. Why hog has good flesh. (See A2221.1.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2382. A2382. Why animal is a hybrid.

A2382.1. A2382.1. Magpie is a hybrid of dove and raven; was not baptized by water of the flood in Noah’s time. (Cf. A2291.)--England: Baughman.

A2385. A2385. Excrements of animals.

A2385.1. A2385.1. Why dung of ass is triangular. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 86 No. 58d.

A2385.2. A2385.2. Why red dog‘s excrement contains animal hair. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2385.3. A2385.3. Honey as excrement of bees. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2385.4. A2385.4. Why cat hides its excreta. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2386. A2386. Gall-bladder of animal.

A2391. A2391. Nature of bird’s eggs.

A2391.1. A2391.1. Why canary‘s eggs are yellow. (See A2219.1.)--Dh III 65.


A2400--A2499. Causes of animal characteristics: appearance and habits.

A2400. A2400. Animal characteristics: general appearance.

A2401. A2401. Cause of animal’s beauty.

A2402. A2402. Cause of animal‘s ugliness.

A2402.1. A2402.1. Cause of serpent’s ugliness. (See A2286.0.1.)

A2402.2. A2402.2. How ostrich lost beautiful feathers. (See A2252.3.)

A2410. A2410. Animal characteristics: color and smell.

A2411. A2411. Origin of color of animal.

A2411.1. A2411.1. Origin of color of mammals.

A2411.1.1. A2411.1.1. Origin of color of felidae.

A2411.1.1.1. A2411.1.1.1. Color of leopard. (See A2219.1.)--Dh III 69.

A2411.1.1.2. A2411.1.1.2. Color of jaguar. Dh III 62.

A2411.1.2. A2411.1.2. Origin of color of mustelidae.

A2411.1.2.1. A2411.1.2.1. Why weasel is white with dark tip to tail. Plains Cree: Skinner JAFL XXIX 350.

A2411. A2411. Why weasel is part black. Chinese: Graham.

A2411.1.2.2. A2411.1.2.2. Color of ermine. Loucheux: Barbeau JAFL XXVIII 257.

A2411.1.2.3. A2411.1.2.3. Color of otter. Dh III 64.

A2411.1.2.4. A2411.1.2.4. Color of skunk. (See A2219.1.)--Dh III 71.

A2411.1.2.5. A2411.1.2.5. Color of mink. Singed by sun. (See A2218).--Dh III 84.

A2411.1.3. A2411.1.3. Color of canidae and other carnivora.

A2411.1.3.1. A2411.1.3.1. Color of fox. (See A2219.1.)--Dh III 64, 66.

A2411.1.3.2. A2411.1.3.2. Color of coyote. (See A2218.)--Dh III 79.

A2411.1.4. A2411.1.4. Origin of color of rodentia.

A2411.1.4.1. A2411.1.4.1. Color of squirrel. (See A2218.)--Dh III 76f.; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2411.1.4.2. A2411.1.4.2. Color of beaver. (See A2219.1.)--Dh III 71.

A2411.1.4.3. A2411.1.4.3. Color of rat. Dh III 91.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2411.1.4.4. A2411.1.4.4. Color of hare.

A2411. A2411. Why hare is grey in summer. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges (A2411.1.22).

A2411.1.5. A2411.1.5. Origin of color of primata.

A2411.1.5.1. A2411.1.5.1. Color of monkey. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2411. A2411. Why ape has red back. China: Eberhard FFC CXX 177 No. 119, 411 s.v. “Affenmutter”.

A2411.1.5.2. A2411.1.5.2. Color of baboon.

A2411. A2411. Why baboon‘s face and hands are black. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2411.1.6. A2411.1.6. Origin of color of ungulata.

A2411.1.6.1. A2411.1.6.1. Color of horse. Dh III 86.

A2411.1.6.2. A2411.1.6.2. Color of hippopotamus. (See A2247.3.)

A2411.1.6.3. A2411.1.6.3. Red color of bush-buck. From blood. (Cf. A2219.1.)--Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 366 No. 17.

A2411.1.6.4. A2411.1.6.4. Color of cow. Dh I 188--191, III 86.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2411.1.6.5. A2411.1.6.5. Color of deer. (See A2218.)--Dh III 79, 88.

A2411.1.6.6. A2411.1.6.6. Color of elk. Dh III 88.

A2411.1.6.7. A2411.1.6.7. Color of rhinoceros. (See A2247.3.)

A2411.1.7. A2411.1.7. Origin of color of other mammals.

A2411.1.7.1. A2411.1.7.1. Origin of color of hyena. (365 colors): Jewish: Neuman.

A2411.2. A2411.2. Origin of color of bird. Lithuanian: Balys Index Nos. 3158, 3165, Legends No. 261f.; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 127; Japanese: Ikeda; N. A. Indian (Canadian Dakota): Wallis JAFL XXXVI 66; (Southern Ute): Lowie JAFL XXXVII 32 No. 18, 69 No. 38, (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 208f.; S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 39f.

A2411.2.1. A2411.2.1. Origin of color of passeriformes.

A2411.2.1.1. A2411.2.1.1. Color of thrush. (See A2222.1, A2218).--Dh III 76.

A2411.2.1.2. A2411.2.1.2. Color of water-ousel. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 49.

A2411.2.1.3. A2411.2.1.3. Color of wag-tail. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 262.

A2411.2.1.4. A2411.2.1.4. Color of swallow. (See A2218, A2219.1, A2221.2.4.1.)--Dh III 64, 75, (Cf. III 58).--Japanese: Ikeda.

A2411.2.1.5. A2411.2.1.5. Color of raven. (See A2237.1, A2234.1, A2231.1, A2218.1).--Dh III 59, 63, 65, 143.--Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 15 n. i; Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 16 No. 90, XXXIII 54 No. 90; Jewish: Neuman; India: *Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Labrador): Hawks GSCan XIV 160, (Alaska): Jenness 71, (East Greenland): Rasmussen I 146, (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 220, (Smith Sound): Kroeber JAFL XII 174, (Central Eskimo): Boas RBAE VI 641; N. A. Indian (Tahltan): Teit JAFL XXXII 203, (Upper Thompson): Teit JAFL XXIX 329.

A2411.2.1.6. A2411.2.1.6. Color of crow. (See A2219.1)--Dh III 59, 65f.--Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 262; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 87 No. 90a; Breton: Sйbillot Incidents s.v. “corbeaux”.--Japanese: Ikeda; Thompson River: Teit JAFL XXIX 329; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 58.

A2411.2.1.7. A2411.2.1.7. Color of rook. (See A2218)--Dh III 75.

A2411.2.1.8. A2411.2.1.8. Color of jay. Dh III 86.

A2411.2.1.9. A2411.2.1.9. Color of blackbird. (See A2218)--Dh III 71.

A2411.2.1.10. A2411.2.1.10. Color of magpie. Dh III 63.

A2411.2.1.11. A2411.2.1.11. Color of sparrow. (See A2218)--Dh III 75.--Japanese: Ikeda.

A2411.2.1.12. A2411.2.1.12. Color of goldfinch. Dh. III 185.--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 88 No. 94c.

A2411.2.1.13. A2411.2.1.13. Color of red-bird. Dh III 63.

A2411.2.1.14. A2411.2.1.14. Color of canary. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 88 No. 94b.

A2411.2.1.15. A2411.2.1.15. Color of trumpet-bird (psophia crepitans). (See A2218)--Dh III 82.

A2411.2.1.16. A2411.2.1.16. Color of starling. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2411.2.1.17. A2411.2.1.17. Color of martin. Eskimo (East Greenland): Rasmussen I 146.

A2411.2.2. A2411.2.2. Origin of color of falconiformes.

A2411.2.3. A2411.2.3. Origin of color of charidriiformes.

A2411.2.3.1. A2411.2.3.1. Color of woodcock. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 49.

A2411.2.4. A2411.2.4. Origin of color of caraciiformes.

A2411.2.4.1. A2411.2.4.1. Color of woodpecker. See A2219.1; Dh III 70, 89.

A2411.2.4.2. A2411.2.4.2. Color of owl. Eskimo (Cumberland Sound): Boas BAM XV 220.

A2411.2.5. A2411.2.5. Origin of color of ciconiiformes.

A2411.2.5.1. A2411.2.5.1. Color of cormorant. (See A2218.)--Dh III 77.

A2411.2.5.2. A2411.2.5.2. Color of heron. (See A2218.)--Dh III 82.

A2411.2.5.3. A2411.2.5.3. Color of stork. Dh III 59.

A2411. A2411. Why stork has black back. Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 233, 236, 238f., 243ff.

A2411.2.5.4. A2411.2.5.4. Color of gull. Eskimo (Alaska): Jenness 71.

A2411.2.6. A2411.2.6. Origin of color of other birds.

A2411.2.6.1. A2411.2.6.1. Color of loon. (See A2219.1.)--Dh III 69--71.

A2411.2.6.2. A2411.2.6.2. Color of swan. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 49.

A2411.2.6.3. A2411.2.6.3. Color of goose. Dh III 89.

A2411.2.6.4. A2411.2.6.4. Color of duck. Eskimo (Alaska): Jenness 71.

A2411.2.6.5. A2411.2.6.5. Color of turkey. (See A2219.1.)--Dh III 70.

A2411.2.6.6. A2411.2.6.6. Color of guinea-fowl. (See A2219.1.)--Dh III 67.--Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Nights 193 No. 33; Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 226.

A2411.2.6.7. A2411.2.6.7. Color of peacock. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2411.2.6.8. A2411.2.6.8. Color of partridge. (See A2218, A2219.1.)--Dh III 62, 75.--Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 261; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2411.2.6.9. A2411.2.6.9. Color of pheasant. Dh III 62.

A2411.2.6.10. A2411.2.6.10. Color of cuckoo. Type 235; Dh III 140.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 17 No. 94; Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 49.

A2411.2.6.11. A2411.2.6.11. Color of parrot. (See A2219.1.)--Dh III 70.--India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 234.

A2411.3. A2411.3. Origin of color of insect. Japanese: Ikeda.

A2411.3.1. A2411.3.1. Origin of color of bee. Dh I 129.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2411.3.2. A2411.3.2. Color of spider. (See A2221.2.3.)

A2411.4. A2411.4. Origin of color of fish.

A2411.4.1. A2411.4.1. Color of halibut. (See A2219.1.)--Dh III 67.--Tsimshian: Boas RBAE XXVII 58ff.

A2411.4.2. A2411.4.2. Color of perch. (See A2218.)--Dh III 75.

A2411.4.3. A2411.4.3. Color of burbot. (See A2218.)--Dh III 75.

A2411.5. A2411.5. Color of reptiles and other animal forms.

A2411.5.1. A2411.5.1. Color of turtle. Dh III 63.

A2411.5.2. A2411.5.2. Color of frog. Dh III 63, 89.

A2411.5.3. A2411.5.3. Color of snail. (See A2218.)--Dh III 85.

A2411.5.4. A2411.5.4. Color of mussel. Dh III 90.

A2411.5.5. A2411.5.5. Why earthworm is red at one end. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2411.5.6. A2411.5.6. Color of chameleon.

A2411.5.6.1. A2411.5.6.1. Why chameleon can change his color. (Cf. A2223.8.)--Africa (Fang): Einstein 96, (Togo): Einstein 10f.

A2411.5.7. A2411.5.7. Color of shrimp. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 234.

A2412. A2412. Origin of animal markings. (See A2211.12, A2221.3, A2221.7.)--Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 61, 75.

A2412.0.1. A2412.0.1. Creator sends two deities to tatoo all creatures: origin of animal markings. Marshall Is.: Davenport 222.

A2412.1. A2412.1. Markings of mammals.

A2412.1.1. A2412.1.1. White markings on deer. Liberian: Bundy JAFL XXXII 417.

A2412.1.2. A2412.1.2. Spots on leopard. Liberian: Bundy JAFL XXXII 411f.

A2412.1.3. A2412.1.3. Why coyote has yellow patch behind his ears. (See A2218.4.)

A2412.1.4. A2412.1.4. Why kangaroo-rat has white band around his body. (See A2218.4.)

A2412.1.5. A2412.1.5. Why elephant has white marks on its body. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2412.1.6. A2412.1.6. Why peccary has spots. S. Am. Indian (Yagua): Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 736.

A2412.2. A2412.2. Markings on birds. (See A2211.7.)

A2412.2.1. A2412.2.1. Markings on tail-feathers of ruffed grouse. Ojibwa: Jones JAFL XXIX 370.

A2412.2.2. A2412.2.2. Markings of francolin. (See A2232.6.)

A2412.3. A2412.3. Markings on insects. Japanese: Ikeda.

A2412.3.1. A2412.3.1. Why louse has mark on his back. Korean: Zong in-Sob 36 No. 20.

A2412.3.2. A2412.3.2. Origin of butterflies‘ marks. Korean: Zong in-Sob 39 No. 23.

A2412.4. A2412.4. Markings on fish. (See A2217.3, A2213.2.)--Eskimo (Labrador): Hawks GSCan XIV 155.

A2412.4.1. A2412.4.1. Markings on sun-fish. (See A2217.3.)

A2412.4.2. A2412.4.2. Markings on king-salmon. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 242 (red marks below ears).

A2412.4.2.1. A2412.4.2.1. Why salmon has purple belly. Irish myth: Cross.

A2412.4.3. A2412.4.3. Markings on cod-fish. From devil‘s fingers.--Fb “torsk” III 830a.

A2412.4.4. A2412.4.4. Cross on crab’s back. Saintyves Saints Successeurs 245f.

A2412.4.5. A2412.4.5. Markings on flying fish. New Guinea: Kerr 25.

A2412.5. A2412.5. Markings on other animals.

A2412.5.1. A2412.5.1. Markings on tortoise‘s back. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2412.5.2. A2412.5.2. Why toads have warts on their backs. (Cf. A2356.2.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2412.5.2.1. A2412.5.2.1. Why frog is spotty all over. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2413. A2413. Origin of animal’s stripes.

A2413.1. A2413.1. Stripes of zebra. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 369 No. 19.

A2413.2. A2413.2. Stripes of chipmunk. (See A2217.2.)--Dh III 57.

A2413.3. A2413.3. Stripes of squirrel. Dh III 56.--India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

A2413.4. A2413.4. Stripes of tiger. Dh III 58.--India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Graham.

A2413.5. A2413.5. Stripes of alligator. Dh III 58.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2413.6. A2413.6. Stripes of cony. Dh III 58.

A2413.7. A2413.7. Stripes on trout. Eskimo (Labrador): Hawks GSCan XIV 155.

A2416. A2416. Origin and nature of animal‘s smell. *Dh III 233f.

A2416.1. A2416.1. Bad smell of goat. (See A2232.5.)--Dh III 233; Fb “gjedebuk” IV 178b.--Ibo (Nigeria): Thomas 125; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 226, (Cameroon): Mansfield 227.

A2416.2. A2416.2. Burnt smell of mink. Dh III 234.

A2416.3. A2416.3. Bad smell of skunk. Dh III 233.--Central America: Krickeberg Mдrchen der Azteken und Inkaperuaner 254.

A2416.4. A2416.4. Burnt smell of wolverine. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 248.

A2416.5. A2416.5. Why ram smells bad. Sйbillot RTP II 492.

A2416.6. A2416.6. Why bugs smell bad. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 39 No. 62.

A2416.7. A2416.7. Why herrings have bad odor. Italian Novella: Rotunda.

A2420. A2420. Animal characteristics: voice and hearing.

A2421. A2421. How animal got voice. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3168, Legends Nos. 263--270; Japanese: Ikeda.

A2421.1. A2421.1. How night-swallow got voice. Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 147 No. 51.

A2421.2. A2421.2. How woodcock got voice. Traded with turkey. (See A2247).--Dh III 123.

A2421.3. A2421.3. Where crow got voice. Traded with thunder-bird. (See A2247).--Dh III 126.

A2421.4. A2421.4. How partridge got voice. Borrowed from tortoise. (See A2241).--Dh III 132.

A2421.4.1. A2421.4.1. How quail got voice. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 267.

A2421.5. A2421.5. How nkundak got voice. (See A2223.2.)

A2421.6. A2421.6. Why cocks crow. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 35 No. *205; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2421.7. A2421.7. Voice of peewit. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 264f.

A2421.8. A2421.8. Why cat purrs. (Cf. A2236.8.)

A2422. A2422. How animal lost voice (or power of speech). Dh III 231ff.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2422.1. A2422.1. Why dog lost his power of speech. Bulu: Krug.

A2422.1.1. A2422.1.1. Why dogs do not speak. Dh III 232. (See A2237.1.)--Benga: Nassau 163 No. 22; Zuсi: Handy JAFL XXXI 467; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 243; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2422.2. A2422.2. Why sheep do not speak. Curse of Virgin Mary. (See A2231).--Sйbillot RTP II 492.

A2422.3. A2422.3. Why white crow is dumb. Hottentot: Bleek 45 No. 22.

A2422.4. A2422.4. Why tortoise has no voice. (See A2421.4.)--Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 378.

A2422.5. A2422.5. Why fly has no voice. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 384.

A2422.6. A2422.6. Why raven cannot talk. Dh III 232.

A2422.7. A2422.7. Why frogs cannot speak. Dh III 232.

A2422.8. A2422.8. Why cormorant cannot speak. (See A2344.2.5.)--Dh III 232f.

A2422.9. A2422.9. Why swallows lost voice. (See A2231.2.2.)

A2422.10. A2422.10. Why cock does not speak. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2423. A2423. General quality of animal’s voice.

A2423.1. A2423.1. Animal‘s ugly voice.

A2423.1.1. A2423.1.1. Woodcock’s ugly voice. Exchanged with thrush. (See A2245.1.)

A2423.1.2. A2423.1.2. Peacock‘s ugly voice. (See A2236.2.2.)

A2423.1.3. A2423.1.3. Loon’s ugly voice. Lappish: Qvigstad FFC LX 38 No. 53.

A2423.1.4. A2423.1.4. Why ass brays. (Cf. A2239.3.)

A2423.1.5. A2423.1.5. Why hornbill speaks through his nose. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 234.

A2423.1.6. A2423.1.6. Origin of snail‘s monotonous voice. Africa: Milligan Jungle 95.

A2423.2. A2423.2. Animal’s pleasing voice.

A2423.2.1. A2423.2.1. Thrush‘s beautiful voice. Exchanged with woodcock. (See A2423.1.1, A2245.1.)

A2423.2.2. A2423.2.2. Cuckoo’s sweet voice. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2425. A2425. Origin of animal cries. (See A2261.1, A2272.1, A2275.1, A2275.2.)--*Millier (A.) Petits Contes du Nivernais (Nevers, 1894); Dh III 355ff.; BP II 535; Wienert FFC LVI 40; Chauvin VIII 49 No. 17; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2425.1. A2425.1. How dog began to bark. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2425.2. A2425.2. Origin of birds’ morning-songs (from singing angels). Jewish: Neuman.

A2426. A2426. Nature and meaning of animal cries. *Dh III 355 ff.--Finnish: *Aarne FFC IX.

A2426.1. A2426.1. Cries of mammals.

A2426.1.1. A2426.1.1. Cry of bush-cat. (See A2275.4.)--U.S.: Baughman.

A2426.1.2. A2426.1.2. Cry of squirrel. Finnish: Aarne FFC IX 3 No. 3.--Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 220.

A2426.1.2.1. A2426.1.2.1. Squirrel‘s call: asks whether viper (who ate up his children) is his friend. Bulu: Krug 106.

A2426.1.3. A2426.1.3. Why hog grunts. Finnish: Aarne FFC IX 4 No. 13.--Jamaica Negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 259 No. 51; Angola: Chatelain 215.

A2426.1.4. A2426.1.4. The hedgehog’s cry. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *278.

A2426.1.5. A2426.1.5. Why dog barks after thief. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2426.1.6. A2426.1.6. Why bats cry as they fly. New Guinea: Kerr 7.

A2426.2. A2426.2. Cries of birds.

A2426.2.1. A2426.2.1. Nightingale‘s song. (See A2272.1.1.)--Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3151, Balys Legends No. 260; Japanese: Ikeda.

A2426.2.2. A2426.2.2. Garden warbler’s song. (See A2272.1.3.)

A2426.2.3. A2426.2.3. Bittern‘s song. (See A2261.1, A2275.3.)

A2426.2.4. A2426.2.4. Hoopoe’s song. (See A2261.1, A2275.3.)

A2426.2.5. A2426.2.5. Cuckoo‘s song. (See A2275.2.)--Japanese: Ikeda.

A2426.2.6. A2426.2.6. Cawing of crow. Dh III 126, 257, 357, 369, 371, 372.--Finnish: Aarne FFC IX 7 No. 39; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 223; Australian: Dixon 292.

A2426.2.7. A2426.2.7. Croaking of raven. Dh III 364, 373, 392.--Finnish: Aarne FFC IX 9 No. 46.--Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 223; Eskimo (Ungava): Turner RBAE XI 261.

A2426.2.8. A2426.2.8. Why dove coos. *Dh III 554 s.v. “Taube”.--Finnish: Aarne FFC IX 12 No. 57; Angola: Chatelain 153 No. 16; Jamaica negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 259 No. 50; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2426.2.9. A2426.2.9. Why goose quacks. Finnish: Aarne FFC IX 6 No. 31.

A2426.2.10. A2426.2.10. Why duck quacks. Fb “and”.

A2426.2.11. A2426.2.11. What parrot says. Benga: Nassau 199 No. 29; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2426.2.12. A2426.2.12. Meaning of swallow’s song. Fb “svale”.

A2426.2.13. A2426.2.13. Cackling of guinea hen. North Carolina: Brown Collection I 634.

A2426.2.15. A2426.2.15. Why certain species of eagle cries like a baby: spirit of tortured baby became an eagle. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2426.2.16. A2426.2.16. Origin of cry of brain-fever bird. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2426.2.17. A2426.2.17. Origin of owl‘s cries. (Cf. A2427.3.)--S. Am. Indian (Matoco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 48.

A2426.2.18. A2426.2.18. Origin and meaning of cock‘s cry “cock-a-doodle-do”. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 13.

A2426.2.18.1. A2426.2.18.1. Why cock crows on roof with neck stretched out. Korean: Zong in-Sob 25 No. 11.

A2426.3. A2426.3. Sounds of insects.

A2426.3.1. A2426.3.1. Beetle’s hum. (See A2231.11.)

A2426.3.2. A2426.3.2. Gnat‘s buzz. (See A2236.1.)

A2426.3.3. A2426.3.3. Fly’s buzz. (See A2239.2.)

A2426.3.4. A2426.3.4. Cricket‘s chirp. (See A2272.1.2.)

A2426.3.5. A2426.3.5. Mosquito’s buzz. Mpongwe: Nassau 62 No. 12.

A2426.3.6. A2426.3.6. Speech of fireflies. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2426.4. A2426.4. Other animal cries.

A2426.4.1. A2426.4.1. Frog‘s croak. (See A2275.4.)--Jewish: Neuman; Japanese: Ikeda; Angola: Chatelain 217 No. 38; Liberia: Bundy JAFL XXXII 420.

A2426.4.1.1. A2426.4.1.1. Frogs formerly were ducks stolen from Eden by Cain. God changed them to frogs; and so frogs sound like ducks in the spring. (Cf. A2162.)--U. S.: Baughman.

A2426.4.1.2. A2426.4.1.2. Why frog croaks in wet weather. Korean: Zong in-Sob 35 No. 18.

A2426.4.2. A2426.4.2. Toad’s croak. Jamaica Negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 259.

A2427. A2427. Why animal howls (cries out) at night.

A2427.1. A2427.1. Why jackal cries in the night. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2427.2. A2427.2. Why dog howls at night.

A2427.2.1. A2427.2.1. Why dogs howl when man is dying. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2427.3. A2427.3. Why owl hoots at night. (Cf. A2426.2.17.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2428. A2428. Animal‘s hearing.

A2428.1. A2428.1. How animal lost hearing. Dh III 231.

A2430. A2430. Animal characteristics: dwelling and food.

A2431. A2431. Birds’ nests. (Cf. A2486.)

A2431.1. A2431.1. How bird learned to build nest. *Dh III 202.

A2431.2. A2431.2. Why bird has no nest. (See A2233.4.1.)

A2431.2.1. A2431.2.1. Why cuckoo has no nest. (See A2231.3.1.)--Dh III 177, 195, 200; India: Thompson-Balys; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 198f., 250, 270.

A2431.2.1.1. A2431.2.1.1. Crow hatches cuckoo‘s egg. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2431.2.2. A2431.2.2. Why heron has no nest. Congo: Weeks 220 No. 15.

A2431.3. A2431.3. Nature of birds’ nests.

A2431.3.1. A2431.3.1. Dove‘s nest. (See A2271.1.)--Dh III 124, 191--201.

A2431.3.2. A2431.3.2. Diver’s nest. (See A2238.4.)--Dh III 202.

A2431.3.3. A2431.3.3. Ring-dove‘s nest. Exchanged with gull. (See A2247.)--Dh III 124.

A2431.3.4. A2431.3.4. Gull’s nest. Exchanged with ringdove. (See A2247.)--Dh III 124.

A2431.3.5. A2431.3.5. Swallow‘s nest. (See A2221.2.4.)--Dh III 5, 200, 415ff.; Sйbillot RTP III 156; Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 16 No. 87.

A2431.3.5.1. A2431.3.5.1. Why swallow does not like green trees for her nest. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3145, Legends No. 272.

A2431.3.6. A2431.3.6. Crow’s nest.

A2431.3.6.1. A2431.3.6.1. Why crow cannot enter sparrow‘s nest. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2431.3.6.2. A2431.3.6.2. Why crow’s nest is not tightly built. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2431.3.6.3. A2431.3.6.3. Why crow must build nests far from people‘s houses. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2431.3.7. A2431.3.7. Sparrow’s nest.

A2431.3.7.1. A2431.3.7.1. Why sparrow may build nest near people‘s houses; reward for hospitality. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2431.3.8. A2431.3.8. Turkey’s nest.

A2431.3.8.1. A2431.3.8.1. Why brush turkey nests on the ground. New Guinea: Kerr 107.

A2432. A2432. Dwelling of other animal than bird.

A2432.1. A2432.1. Why ant lives in ant-hill. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 92 No. 97.

A2432.2. A2432.2. Why wasp has nest. Dh III 189.

A2432.3. A2432.3. Beaver‘s dwelling. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 246.

A2432.4. A2432.4. Porcupine’s dwelling. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 246.

A2432.5. A2432.5. Muskrat‘s dwelling. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 243.

A2432.6. A2432.6. Bear’s den. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 444.

A2432.7. A2432.7. Wart-hog‘s burrow. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 364 No. 16.

A2432.8. A2432.8. Bee’s hive. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2432.9. A2432.9. Why fly lives on dung heap. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 229.

A2432.10. A2432.10. Why the elephant lives without a hut. Wakweli: Bender 82f.

A2433. A2433. Animal‘s characteristic haunt. *Dh III 204ff.

A2433.1. A2433.1. Establishment of animal haunt. (See A2212.2.)

A2433.1.1. A2433.1.1. Animal haunt established by contest (race). (See A2250.1, A2252.1.)

A2433.1.2. A2433.1.2. Animals change their type of dwelling-place. Dh III 215ff.

A2433.1.3. A2433.1.3. Place to live given as patent right to dog. Dh IV 117.

A2433.2. A2433.2. Various haunts of animals.

A2433.2.1. A2433.2.1. Animals that live in woods. Dh III 204ff.

A2433.2.1.1. A2433.2.1.1. Why small ants live in houses while driver ants must live in bush. Africa (Congo): Weeks Jungle 260f.

A2433.2.1.2. A2433.2.1.2. Why gorilla and chimpanzee live in forests: punishment for neglecting their possessions. Bulu: Krug 111f.

A2433.2.2. A2433.2.2. Animals that inhabit water. Dh III 208ff.

A2433.2.3. A2433.2.3. Animals that live alone. Dh III 210ff.

A2433.2.3.1. A2433.2.3.1. Why leopard walks alone. He killed treacherously his saviors and all animals deserted him. Milligan Jungle 99.

A2433.2.4. A2433.2.4. Animals that live with men. Dh III 213ff.

A2433.2.4.1. A2433.2.4.1. Why the chimpanzee lives with men. Africa (Duala): Lederbogen Mдrchen 146ff.

A2433.3. A2433.3. Haunts of various animals--mammals.

A2433.3.1. A2433.3.1. Cat’s characteristic haunt. Jewish: Neuman.

A2433.3.1.1. A2433.3.1.1. Why cat keeps chimney-corner. (See A2223.1.)

A2433.3.2. A2433.3.2. Dog‘s characteristic haunt. (See A2233.2.)--Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 214; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Angola): Chatelain 213 No. 35 (by the fire), (Wute): Sieber 205.

A2433.3.3. A2433.3.3. Why hare lives in bush. (See A2282.)

A2433.3.4. A2433.3.4. Why hyena stays in burrow. (See A2282.)

A2433.3.5. A2433.3.5. Why coney lives among rocks. (See A2241.7.)

A2433.3.6. A2433.3.6. Why hog lives in sty. Angola: Chatelain 215 No. 36; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2433.3.7. A2433.3.7. Why rams live at home. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 143 No. 27; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2433.3.8. A2433.3.8. Why goat lives with men. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 153 No. 29; Benga: Nassau 100 No. 7.

A2433.3.9. A2433.3.9. Why squirrel lives in tree. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 358 No. 11.

A2433.3.9.1. A2433.3.9.1. Why squirrel stays hidden in jungle. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2433.3.10. A2433.3.10. Why muskrats live in water. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 243.

A2433.3.11. A2433.3.11. Why porcupine lives in high places in mountains. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 246.

A2433.3.12. A2433.3.12. Why beaver lives along rivers. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 246.

A2433.3.13. A2433.3.13. Why elk lives in woods. Quileute: Farrand JAFL XXXII 259.

A2433.3.14. A2433.3.14. Why wolf lives in woods. Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 153 No. 29.

A2433.3.15. A2433.3.15. Why elephant does not live in town. Yoruba: Ellis 267 No. 3.

A2433.3.16. A2433.3.16. Why lion stays away from settlement. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 382.

A2433.3.17. A2433.3.17. Why bear lives where he does. Australian: Dixon 298 (trees); Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 444 (mountains).

A2433.3.18. A2433.3.18. Why leopard lives where he does. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 143 (woods), ibid. 153 (desert). India: Thompson-Balys.

A2433.3.19. A2433.3.19. Why monkey lives in tree. Mpongwe: Nassau 68 No. 14.

A2433.3.19.1. A2433.3.19.1. Why monkey has first fruits of harvest in every field. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2433.3.20. A2433.3.20. Why mole lives underground. Spanish: Boggs FFC XC 38 No. 287.

A2433.3.21. A2433.3.21. Why tiger lives in jungle. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2433.4. A2433.4. Haunts of birds.

A2433.4.1. A2433.4.1. Why owl lives where he does. (See A2229.3. steeple.)--Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 196 (away from other birds).

A2433.4.2. A2433.4.2. Why cock lives in town. (See A2250.1.)--Benga: Nassau 199 No. 29.

A2433.4.3. A2433.4.3. Why ptarmigan lives in country. (See A2250.1.)

A2433.4.4. A2433.4.4. Why parrot lives in tree. Congo: Weeks 220 No. 15.

A2433.4.5. A2433.4.5. Why kingfisher lives in the air. Africa (Togo): Einstein 7.

A2433.4.6. A2433.4.6. Why fowls never shut their doors at night. Africa (Congo): Weeks Jungle 379ff.

A2433.5. A2433.5. Haunts of insects.

A2433.5.1. A2433.5.1. Why nit lives at edge of hair. (See A2236.6.)

A2433.5.2. A2433.5.2. Why fly lives amid filth. (See A2239.2.)

A2433.5.3. A2433.5.3. Haunts of spider. (See A2211.6, large stones, A2261.2, dusty corners.) India: Thompson-Balys.

A2433.5.3.1. A2433.5.3.1. Why spider lives under stones. Africa: Meinhof 209.

A2433.5.4. A2433.5.4. Why beetles live in manure. Pueblo: Parsons JAFL XXXI 245.

A2433.5.5. A2433.5.5. Why ants are lords of the bush. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 400.

A2433.5.6. A2433.5.6. Why butterflies haunt urine-impregnated places. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2433.5.7. A2433.5.7. Why cockroaches live in houses. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2433.6. A2433.6. Haunts of reptiles, etc.

A2433.6.1. A2433.6.1. Haunts of tortoise (turtle).

A2433.6.1.1. A2433.6.1.1. Why tortoise lives in logs in stream. (See A2282.)--Benga Nassau 139, 207 Nos. 15, 32.

A2433.6.1.2. A2433.6.1.2. Why turtle lays eggs on beach. (Cf. A2486.)--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 22.

A2433.6.2. A2433.6.2. Why oyster lives in salt water. Mpongwe: Nassau 62 No. 11.

A2433.6.3. A2433.6.3. Haunts of crab.

A2433.6.3.1. A2433.6.3.1. Why crabs live in water. Kaffir Kidd 249 No. 11; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2433.6.3.2. A2433.6.3.2. Why crabs burrow in sand. New Guinea: Kerr 86.

A2433.6.3.3. A2433.6.3.3. Why common crab lives underground. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 224.

A2433.6.4. A2433.6.4. Why iguana lives in stream. Benga: Nassau 106 No. 8.

A2433.6.5. A2433.6.5. Why leeches live in water. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2433.6.6. A2433.6.6. Habitation of frog. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Togo): Einstein 7.

A2433.6.7. A2433.6.7. Why toad lives in cold place. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2433.6.8. A2433.6.8. Habitat of snake. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2433.6.9. A2433.6.9. Why thousand-legged worm avoids sun. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 61.

A2434. A2434. Habitat of animal. The country or locality in which animal is found.

A2434.1. A2434.1. Why certain animals are found everywhere. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2434.1.1. A2434.1.1. Why birds are everywhere. India: Thompson-Balys; Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 209.

A2434.1.2. A2434.1.2. Why bluebirds are everywhere. Pueblo: Parsons JAFL XXXI 219.

A2434.1.3. A2434.1.3. Why snowbirds are everywhere. Pueblo: Parsons JAFL XXXI 218.

A2434.1.4. A2434.1.4. Why black ants are everywhere. Zuсi: Handy JAFL XXXI 468.

A2434.1.5. A2434.1.5. Why jackal may go everywhere. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2434.2. A2434.2. Why certain animals are absent from countries. *Dh III 217ff.

A2434.2.1. A2434.2.1. Why porcupines and skunks do not live on Cape Breton Island. Micmac: Speck JAFL XXVIII 69.

A2434.2.2. A2434.2.2. Why foxes do not live on a certain island: driven out by a god. Japanese: Anesaki Japanese Myth. 252.

A2434.2.3. A2434.2.3. Why there are no snakes in Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.

A2434.3. A2434.3. Why animals live in certain countries. *Dh III 217ff.

A2434.3.1. A2434.3.1. Why locusts live in certain Pueblo towns. Pueblo: Parsons JAFL XXXI 225.

A2434.3.2. A2434.3.2. Why there are wild turkeys in a certain Pueblo town. Pueblo: Parsons JAFL XXXI 235.

A2434.3.3. A2434.3.3. Why elephant lives in Nigeria. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 153 No. 29.

A2435. A2435. Food of animal. *Dh III 295ff., 308ff.

A2435.1. A2435.1. Assignment of food to animal. Circassian: Nicolaides and Carnoy RTP I 80.

A2435.1.1. A2435.1.1. Why certain birds may not drink out of river. (See A2233.1.1.)

A2435.1.2. A2435.1.2. How tiger formerly cooked its food and why it changed. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.2. A2435.2. Nature of animal’s food.

A2435.2.1. A2435.2.1. Why animals eat everything without salt. Zuсi: Handy JAFL XXXI 461.

A2435.2.2. A2435.2.2. Why certain animals are carnivorous. Jewish: Neuman.

A2435.3. A2435.3. Food of various animals--mammals. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.3.1. A2435.3.1. Food of dog. (See A2247, exchanged with cat.)--Dh III 124, IV 112ff., 121ff.

A2435.3.2. A2435.3.2. Food of cat. (See A2247, exchanged with dog.)--Dh III 124, IV 121ff., 128 (to eat before dog).

A2435.3.3. A2435.3.3. Food of bear. (See A2251.1.) India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.3.4. A2435.3.4. Food of wolf. Man.--Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 53. No. 75*; Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 144 No. 37.

A2435.3.5. A2435.3.5. Food of wolverine. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 247 (corpses).

A2435.3.6. A2435.3.6. Why moose eat willows. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 231.

A2435.3.7. A2435.3.7. Food of mouse.

A2435.3.7.1. A2435.3.7.1. Why mice eat grease and salmon. Joshua: Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 231.

A2435.3.8. A2435.3.8. Why ant-bear eats insects. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 366 No. 16.

A2435.3.9. A2435.3.9. Food of tiger.

A2435.3.9.1. A2435.3.9.1. Why tigers eat dogs. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.3.9.2. A2435.3.9.2. Why tigers eat uncooked food. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.3.9.3. A2435.3.9.3. Why tigers eat human flesh. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.3.9.4. A2435.3.9.4. Why tiger eats buffalo. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.3.10. A2435.3.10. Food of rat.

A2435.3.10.1. A2435.3.10.1. Why rat may eat rice. Brings original rice-plant from pond. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2435.3.11. A2435.3.11. Food of reindeer. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

A2435.3.12. A2435.3.12. Food of hare. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

A2435.3.12.1. A2435.3.12.1. Why hare never drinks from rivers or streams. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.3.13. A2435.3.13. Food of squirrel. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

A2435.3.14. A2435.3.14. Food of pig. Jewish: Neuman.

A2435.3.14.1. A2435.3.14.1. Why pigs feed on excreta. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.3.15. A2435.3.15. Why wildcats come and eat chickens. Chinese: Graham.

A2435.3.16. A2435.3.16. Food of jaguar.

A2435.3.16.1. A2435.3.16.1. Why jaguars eat men. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 83.

A2435.3.17. A2435.3.17. Food of leopard.

A2435.3.17.1. A2435.3.17.1. Why leopards eat men. Africa (Cameroon): Rosenhuber 79.

A2435.4. A2435.4. Food of birds. Joshua: Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 232 (corpses).--India: Thompson-Balys; Japanese: Ikeda.

A2435.4.1. A2435.4.1. Food of cuckoo. (See A2241.4.)--Dh III 133.

A2435.4.2. A2435.4.2. Why crane suffers thirst. (See A2231.2.1.)

A2435.4.3. A2435.4.3. Why raven suffers thirst. (See A2234.1.)

A2435.4.4. A2435.4.4. Food of eagle. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 242 (fish).--Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 372 No. 21.

A2435.4.5. A2435.4.5. Food of buzzard. Ojibwa: Skinner JAFL XXXII 282.

A2435.4.5.1. A2435.4.5.1. Carrion as food of vultures. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2435.4.6. A2435.4.6. Food of hawks. Ibo (Nigeria): Basden 140; Angola: Chatelain 111 No. 7.

A2435.4.7. A2435.4.7. Food of crow. Why crows peck at flesh of men. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.4.7.1. A2435.4.7.1. Why crow eats excrement. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.4.8. A2435.4.8. Food of cock.

A2435.4.8.1. A2435.4.8.1. Why cock scratches for food. Am. Negro: (Georgia) Harris Nights 56 No. 11.

A2435.4.9. A2435.4.9. Food of owl. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

A2435.4.9.1. A2435.4.9.1. Why owl eats no grain. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.4.9.2. A2435.4.9.2. Why owl drinks no water. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.4.10. A2435.4.10. Food of jackdaw. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

A2435.4.11. A2435.4.11. Food of wren.

A2435.4.11.1. A2435.4.11.1. Why wren eats no berries. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 69f.

A2435.5. A2435.5. Food of insects. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.5.1. A2435.5.1. Why bees may not get honey from red clover. (See A2231.3.2.)

A2435.5.1.1. A2435.5.1.1. Why bees eat their own children. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.5.2. A2435.5.2. Insect fries human blood and eats it. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.6. A2435.6. Food of fish, reptiles, etc.

A2435.6.1. A2435.6.1. Food of tortoise. Jewish: Neuman; Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 370 No. 21.

A2435.6.2. A2435.6.2. Food of snake. Jewish: Neuman; Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 386; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.6.2.1. A2435.6.2.1. Snake sucks milk from woman‘s breast. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.6.3. A2435.6.3. Why leech feeds on human blood. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2435.6.6. A2435.6.6. Food of hawks. Chinese: Graham.

A2436. A2436. Why animals lack fire. Sent to steal fire but are lazy and fail. African (Fang): Tessman 18.

A2440. A2440. Animal characteristics: carriage. Dh III 219ff.

A2441. A2441. Animal’s gait or walk.

A2441.1. A2441.1. Animal‘s gait or walk--mammals.

A2441.1.0.1. A2441.1.0.1. Animals (and men) hop because ground is often so dry that it cracks: they have to jump over the cracks. Canada: Baughman.

A2441.1.1. A2441.1.1. Cause of monkey’s walk. Dh III 223, 229.--Africa (Fang): Trilles 179.

A2441.1.2. A2441.1.2. Why baboon walks on all fours. Hottentot: Bleek 36 No. 17.

A2441.1.3. A2441.1.3. Cause of dog‘s walk. Dh III 221.

A2441.1.4. A2441.1.4. Cause of hyena’s walk. Dh III 223.

A2441.1.5. A2441.1.5. Cause of wolverine‘s walk. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 248.

A2441.1.6. A2441.1.6. Cause of skunk’s walk. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 360 No. 12.

A2441.1.7. A2441.1.7. Cause of elephant‘s walk. Dh III 226.--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2441.1.8. A2441.1.8. Cause of ox’s walk. Dh III 227.

A2441.1.9. A2441.1.9. Cause of leopard‘s walk. Dh III 228.

A2441.1.10. A2441.1.10. Cause of cat’s walk. Dh III 229.

A2441.1.11. A2441.1.11. Cause of hare‘s hopping gait. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2441.1.12. A2441.1.12. Cause of sheep’s walk. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2441.2. A2441.2. Cause of bird‘s walk.

A2441.2.1. A2441.2.1. Why raven hops. Jewish. Neuman.

A2441.2.2. A2441.2.2. Graceful step of dove. Jewish: Neuman.

A2441.3. A2441.3. Cause of insect’s walk.

A2441.3.1. A2441.3.1. Why beetle creeps on ground. (See A2232.3.)--Dh III 227.

A2441.3.2. A2441.3.2. Cause of flea‘s movement. Dh III 222f.

A2441.3.3. A2441.3.3. Cause of fly’s movement. Dh III 227.

A2441.4. A2441.4. Cause of movement of reptile, etc.

A2441.4.1. A2441.4.1. Why snake does not go on the road. (See A2233.1.2.)

A2441.4.2. A2441.4.2. Cause of crab‘s walk. Dh III 219ff.

A2441.4.3. A2441.4.3. Cause of toad’s hop. Dh III 222.

A2441.4.4. A2441.4.4. Cause of chameleon‘s movement. Dh III 222.--Jewish: Neuman.

A2442. A2442. Method and position of bird’s flight. Jewish: Neuman.

A2442.1. A2442.1. High and low flight of birds.

A2442.1.1. A2442.1.1. Why some birds cannot fly high. Dh III 230.

A2442.1.2. A2442.1.2. Why parrots fly high. Africa (Congo): Weeks 221.

A2442.2. A2442.2. Flight of various birds.

A2442.2.1. A2442.2.1. Why raven claps wings in flying. (See A2218.6.)

A2442.2.2. A2442.2.2. Why cuckoo flies with difficulty, and sings with wings spread. Sйbillot RTP III 265.

A2442.2.3. A2442.2.3. Why lapwing flies in curves. Sйbillot RTP III 160.

A2442.2.4. A2442.2.4. Bluejay‘s flight. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 348 No. 2.

A2442.2.5. A2442.2.5. Hawk’s flight. Africa (Ekoi): Talbot 189.

A2442.2.6. A2442.2.6. Water-birds‘ flight and diving. Dh III 224ff.

A2442.2.7. A2442.2.7. Wild-goose’s flight. Dh III 223.

A2442.2.8. A2442.2.8. Eagle‘s flight. Jewish: Neuman.

A2442.3. A2442.3. How birds began to fly. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2444. A2444. Animal’s method of swimming.

A2444.1. A2444.1. Why some fish swim deep; others shallow. (See A2238.3.)

A2444.2. A2444.2. Why dolphins swim up and down. (See A2275.5.4.)

A2444.3. A2444.3. How salmon swims. Dh III 222.--Irish: Beal XXI 327.

A2450. A2450. Animal‘s daily work.

A2451. A2451. Animal’s occupation: carrying.

A2451.1. A2451.1. Why ants carry large bundles. (See A2221.4.)

A2452. A2452. Animal‘s occupation: hunting. *Dh III 272ff. (For animal’s favorite prey, see A2494, Why certain animals are enemies.)

A2452.1. A2452.1. Why dogs hunt. Sйbillot RTP II 437.

A2452.2. A2452.2. Why stork must hunt for living. Dh III 284ff.

A2452.3. A2452.3. Why hawks put heads of mice, etc. on pile of stones. Zuсi: Handy JAFL XXXI 455.

A2453. A2453. Animal‘s occupation: collecting.

A2453.1. A2453.1. Why ant collects resin. (See A2221.4.)

A2455. A2455. Animal’s occupation: stealing. Dh III 255.

A2455.1. A2455.1. Why wolf is thief. Dh III 295.

A2455.2. A2455.2. Why swallow is thief. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 87 No. 84b.

A2455.3. A2455.3. Why raven is thief. Because he has none of ten commandments and carries a black stamp on his breast.--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 90 No. 84.

A2455.4. A2455.4. Why hen does not know how to steal. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 88 No. 98a.

A2455.5. A2455.5. Why wolverine is a thief. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 470f.

A2456. A2456. Animal‘s occupation: boring.

A2456.1. A2456.1. Why woodpecker bores in wood. Am. Negro (North Carolina): Brown Collection I 633; Jamaica Negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 259 No. 53.

A2456.2. A2456.2. Why wood-worm bores wood. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 243.

A2457. A2457. Animal’s occupation: rolling.

A2457.1. A2457.1. Why tumble-bug rolls in dung. Jamaica Negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 258 No. 46.

A2460. A2460. Animal characteristics: attack and defense.

A2461. A2461. Animal‘s means of defense. Dh III 234ff.

A2461.1. A2461.1. Hare sleeps with open eyes as defense. Dh III 234.

A2461.2. A2461.2. Toad remains still when he hears footsteps (defense). Dh III 235.

A2461.3. A2461.3. Killer-whale uses dorsal fin as weapon. Joshua: Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 236.

A2461.4. A2461.4. Why deer run, stop, and run on again (defense). Quileute: Farrand JAFL XXXII 251.

A2462. A2462. Animal’s habits when attacked.

A2462.1. A2462.1. Why squirrel barks when attacked. Dh III 237.

A2462.2. A2462.2. Why beaver splashes his tail in water and dives when attacked. Quileute: Farrand JAFL XXXII 251.

A2462.3. A2462.3. Why mouse does not defend self against cat. Jewish: Neuman.

A2463. A2463. Animal‘s means of attack.

A2463.1. A2463.1. Why leopard cannot capture animal who passes him on right side. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 146 No. 28.

A2464. A2464. Why animal does not attack.

A2464.1. A2464.1. Why lion does not attack dog. Jewish: Neuman.

A2465. A2465. Means of capturing animal.

A2465.1. A2465.1. Why fish are caught in nets. (Cf. Type 253.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 21 No. 118, XXXIII 55 No. 118.

A2466. A2466. Animal’s habits when caught.

A2466.1. A2466.1. Why opossum plays dead when caught. Dh III 236f.--Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Remus 11 No. 3.

A2466.2. A2466.2. Why turtle beats with forelegs when caught. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 87 No. 15.

A2468. A2468. Animal‘s behavior at death.

A2468.1. A2468.1. Why shrew dies on road. (See A2233.1.3.)

A2468.2. A2468.2. Why toad dries up when dead. (See A2231.8.)--Jewish: Neuman.

A2468.3. A2468.3. Why dragon dies by means of fire. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 379 No. 4.

A2470. A2470. Animal’s habitual bodily movements.

A2471. A2471. Why animals continually seek something. (See A2275.5.)

A2471.1. A2471.1. Why dogs look at one another under tail. (See A2275.5.5, A2232.8; also *Dh IV 129ff.)--Sйbillot RTP ii 433; England, U.S.: Baughman.

A2471.1.1. A2471.1.1. Why dogs sniff at one another. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *202; Prussian: Plenzat 10.

A2471.2. A2471.2. Why hogs inspect one another: seek pancake. (See A2275.5.1.)

A2471.3. A2471.3. Why hawk (vulture) hovers over camp-fire: seeks grandmother. (See A2275.5.2.)

A2471.4. A2471.4. Why diver always looks at sea. (See A2275.5.3.).

A2471.5. A2471.5. Why lynx squints: is looking afar at view. Ojibwa: Jones JAFL XXIX 378.

A2471.6. A2471.6. Why dog is always looking. Jamaica negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 259 No. 48.

A2471.6.1. A2471.6.1. Why dog looks back at person who has beaten him. Liberian: Bundy JAFL XXXII 421.

A2471.6.2. A2471.6.2. Why dogs howl, looking at sky. Joshua: Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 225.

A2471.7. A2471.7. What hawks are looking for. Gold Coast: Barker and Sinclair 128 No. 22.

A2471.8. A2471.8. Why mason-wasp looks for fireplace. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 346 No. 1.

A2471.9. A2471.9. Why animals always look down. Jewish: Neuman.

A2472. A2472. Why animals ruminate.

A2472.1. A2472.1. Why cows ruminate. (See A2231.1.1.)--Chinese: Graham.

A2473. A2473. Why animals lift their legs.

A2473.1. A2473.1. Why dogs lift their legs. Dh III 261.--Sйbillot RTP II 436; Japanese: Ikeda.

A2473.1.1. A2473.1.1. Why dogs leave droppings at crossroads. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2473.2. A2473.2. Why pigs in mud lift their legs. Jewish: Neuman.

A2474. A2474. Why some animals continually shake head.

A2474.1. A2474.1. Why lizard bobs head up and down. (See A2255.2, A2211.9.)

A2474.2. A2474.2. Why hare shakes head. Bushman: Bleek and Lloyd 65.

A2474.3. A2474.3. Why owl shakes head. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2475. A2475. Why animals scent from distance.

A2475.1. A2475.1. Why deer scent people from distance. Sinkyone: Kroeber JAFL XXXII 346.

A2476. A2476. Why animals move mouth, nose, etc.

A2476.1. A2476.1. Why rabbit continually moves mouth. Zanzibar: Bateman 22 No. 1.

A2477. A2477. Why animals root in ground.

A2477.1. A2477.1. Why hog roots in ground. (See A2236.3, A2275.5.1.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2477.2. A2477.2. Why hen scratches in ground. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 233.

A2478. A2478. Why certain animals are continually eating. (See A2231.1.1.)

A2478.1. A2478.1. Why zebra is continually eating. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 369 No. 19.

A2479. A2479. Other habitual bodily movements of animals.

A2479.1. A2479.1. Why wagtail moves tail up and down. Dh III 226.

A2479.2. A2479.2. Why hare skips about like a leaf. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2479.3. A2479.3. Why jackals make noise at night when seeking food. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2479.4. A2479.4. Why the hedgehog draws himself up: shame at sight of a good man. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

A2479.6. A2479.6. Why caterpillars climb trees. Marquesas: Handy 115.

A2479.7. A2479.7. Why ants fall upon every man. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 231.

A2479.8. A2479.8. Why dog snaps every fly. Fly laughed at dog’s (feigned) death. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 227.

A2479.9. A2479.9. Why flies fly around ox‘s eyes. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield 230.

A2480. A2480. Periodic habits of animals.

A2481. A2481. Why animals hibernate.

A2481.1. A2481.1. Why bears hibernate. Dh III 257.--Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 53 No. 78**.

A2482. A2482. Why animals migrate. Dh III 257ff.

A2482.1. A2482.1. Why swallows migrate. Dh III 258.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 16 No. 86; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 87 No. 86.

A2482.2. A2482.2. Why caribou migrate. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 232.

A2482.3. A2482.3. Why wren does not migrate. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 87 No. 86a.

A2483. A2483. Why animals shed periodically.

A2483.1. A2483.1. Why snake sheds skin. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 88 No. 110a; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2484. A2484. Why animals crowd together seasonally.

A2484.1. A2484.1. Why fish come in seasonally. New Guinea: Ker 25; Tonga: Gifford.

A2486. A2486. Why animals lay eggs as they do. (Cf. A2431, A2433.6.1.2.)

A2486.1. A2486.1. Why raven lays eggs in March. (See A2251.1.)

A2486.2. A2486.2. Why bustard hatches but two eggs. (See A2284.2.)

A2486.3. A2486.3. Why dove lays but two eggs. (See A2247.4.)

A2486.4. A2486.4. How birds began to lay eggs. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2489. A2489. Animal’s periodic habits--miscellaneous.

A2489.1. A2489.1. Why cock wakes man in morning. India: Thompson-Balys; Mpongwe: Nassau 58 No. 9.

A2489.1.1. A2489.1.1. Why cock crows to greet sunrise. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2490. A2490. Other habits of animals.

A2491. A2491. Why certain animals avoid light. Dh III 266ff.

A2491.1. A2491.1. Why bat flies by night. (See A2275.5.3.)--Dh III 267.--Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3170; Legends No. 271; Japanese: Ikeda.

A2491.1.1. A2491.1.1. Why bat sleeps by day. (See A2236.3.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2491.2. A2491.2. Why owl avoids daylight. Dh III 270.--Ibo (Nigeria): Thomas 162; (Wakweli): Bender 39, 46.

A2491.3. A2491.3. Why mole burrows underground. Dh III 267.--Cherokee: Alexander N. Am. 64.

A2491.4. A2491.4. Tiger cursed with short sight in day time: good sight only at night. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2491.5. A2491.5. Why grasshoppers and locusts hide in day. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2492. A2492. Why certain animals go in herds.

A2492.1. A2492.1. Why jackals do not go in herds. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 368 No. 18.

A2492.2. A2492.2. Why birds do not live in societies. New Guinea: Ker 77.

A2493. A2493. Friendships between the animals. Dh III 324ff.--Bцdker Exempler 290 No. 45--46.--Indonesian: De Vries‘s list No. 86.

A2493.0.1. A2493.0.1. Former friendship between domestic and wild animals. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.1. A2493.1. Friendship of prairie-dog and owl. Dh III 352.

A2493.2. A2493.2. Friendship of bat and owl. Dh III 355.

A2493.3. A2493.3. Friendship of tiger and buffalo. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.4. A2493.4. Friendship between man and dog. India: Thompson-Balys; Africa (Kweli): Sieber 92f.

A2493.5. A2493.5. Friendship between deer and fish. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.6. A2493.6. Friendship between squirrel and quail. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.7. A2493.7. Friendship between leopard-cat and squirrel. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.7.1. A2493.7.1. Friendship between leopard-cat and night-jar. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.8. A2493.8. Friendship between leopard and goat. Africa (Congo): Weeks Jungle 433ff.

A2493.9. A2493.9. Friendship of cat and mouse. Grimm No. 2.

A2493.9.1. A2493.9.1. Oath of friendship between cat and rat. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.10. A2493.10. Friendship of fox and titmouse. Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

A2493.11. A2493.11. Friendship between jackal and crocodile. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.11.1. A2493.11.1. Friendship between jackal and alligator. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.11.2. A2493.11.2. Friendship between jackal and elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.11.3. A2493.11.3. Friendship between jackal and tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.11.3.1. A2493.11.3.1. Jackal and tiger as business partners. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.11.4. A2493.11.4. Friendship between jackal and partridge. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.12. A2493.12. Friendship between turtle and heron. New Hebrides: Codrington I 1.

A2493.12.1. A2493.12.1. Friendship between turtle and wallaby. Papua: Ker I.

A2493.13. A2493.13. Friendship between hare and parrot. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.14. A2493.14. Friendship between monkey and elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.14.1. A2493.14.1. Friendship between monkey and tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.14.2. A2493.14.2. Friendship between monkey and lion. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.14.3. A2493.14.3. Friendship between monkey and stork. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.14.4. A2493.14.4. Friendship between monkey and rabbit. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.14.5. A2493.14.5. Friendship between partridge, monkey and elephant. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 1008.

A2493.15. A2493.15. Friendship between wolf and ass. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.16. A2493.16. Friendship between cock and dog. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.17. A2493.17. Friendship between tiger and deer (fawn). India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.18. A2493.18. Friendship between cat and tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.19. A2493.19. Friendship between crab and cobra. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.20. A2493.20. Friendship between frog and cricket. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.21. A2493.21. Friendship between grasshopper and dungbeetle. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.22. A2493.22. Friendship between goat and hog. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.23. A2493.23. Friendship between louse and crow. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.24. A2493.24. Friendship between cow and tiger, calf and cub. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.25. A2493.25. Friendship between snake and crow. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2493.26. A2493.26. Friendship between parrot and maina. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2493.27. A2493.27. Friendship between bird and crab. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2493.28. A2493.28. Friendship between mouse and butterfly. Papua: Ker 100.

A2493.29. A2493.29. Friendship between ant and pheasant. Papua: Ker 118.

A2493.30. A2493.30. Friendship between tiger and lion. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 623, 823.

A2493.30.1. A2493.30.1. Friendship between lion and jackal. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 775, II 895.

A2493.30.2. A2493.30.2. Friendship between cow and lioness. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 1028.

A2493.31. A2493.31. Friendship between dog and elephant. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 137.

A2493.32. A2493.32. Friendship between antelope, woodpecker and tortoise. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 642.

A2493.33. A2493.33. Friendship between pike and crawfish. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 41.

A2493.34. A2493.34. Friendship of hen and duck. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 81f.

A2493.34.1. A2493.34.1. Friendship between hen and sparrow. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 51.

A2493.35. A2493.35. Why we know that the parrot comforts and helps man. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 70.

A2494. A2494. Why certain animals are enemies. *Dh III 324ff.--(See A2286.0.1.)--India: Thompson-Balys; Africa: Stanley 78, (Wakweli): Bender 88f.

A2494.1. A2494.1. The cat‘s enemies.

A2494.1.1. A2494.1.1. Enmity between cat and mouse. (See A2281.)--Dh IV 112ff., 144ff.

A2494.1.2. A2494.1.2. Enmity between cat and dog. (See A2281.1.)--Dh IV 117ff., 142ff.

A2494.1.3. A2494.1.3. Enmity between cat and hare. (See A2281.)--Dh III 332.

A2494.1.4. A2494.1.4. Enmity between cat and rat. Dh III 328 (wildcat).--India: Thompson-Balys; Liberian: Bundy JAFL XXXII 419f.

A2494.1.5. A2494.1.5. Enmity between cat and hen. Dh III 329ff.

A2494.1.6. A2494.1.6. Enmity between cat and tiger. Dh III 333f.--India: *Thompson-Balys; Indonesian: De Vries’s list No. 93.

A2494.1.7. A2494.1.7. Enmity between cat and spider. Dh III 331.

A2494.1.8. A2494.1.8. Enmity between civet cat and chicken. Africa (Wakweli): Bender 65ff., 71f.

A2494.2. A2494.2. The leopard‘s enemies. Benga: Nassau 163, 226 Nos. 20, 33; Congo: Weeks 211 No. 7.

A2494.2.1. A2494.2.1. Enmity between leopard and antelope. Dh III 335.--India: Thompson-Balys; Fjort: Dennett 73 No. 15.

A2494.2.2. A2494.2.2. Enmity between leopard and lion. Dh III 338.--Spanish Exempla: Keller.

A2494.2.3. A2494.2.3. Enmity between leopard and goat. (See A2281.)--Africa (Benga): Nassau 99 No. 6, (Angola): Chatelain 195 No. 24, (Vai): Ellis 240 No. 47, (Wakweli): Bender 54.

A2494.2.4. A2494.2.4. Enmity between leopard and deer. Liberia: Bundy JAFL XXXII 417.

A2494.2.5. A2494.2.5. Enmity between dog and leopard. Africa: Stanley 196, (Benga): Nassau 189 No. 25.

A2494.2.6. A2494.2.6. Enmity between leopard and sheep. Ibo (Nigeria): Thomas 72.

A2494.2.7. A2494.2.7. Enmity between leopard and monkey. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.3. A2494.3. The hyena’s enemies.

A2494.3.1. A2494.3.1. Enmity between hyena and ass. Dh III 337.

A2494.3.2. A2494.3.2. Enmity between hyena and jackal. Dh III 338.

A2494.3.3. A2494.3.3. Enmity between hyena and weasel. Dh III 338.

A2494.3.4. A2494.3.4. Enmity between hyena and cow. Dh III 338.

A2494.3.5. A2494.3.5. Enmity between hyena and wildcat. Dh III 329.

A2494.4. A2494.4. The dog‘s enemies.

A2494.4.0.1. A2494.4.0.1. Dog driven away from other animals because of his barking. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.4.1. A2494.4.1. Enmity between dog and squirrel. (See A2281.2.)

A2494.4.2. A2494.4.2. Enmity between dog and crocodile. Dh III 327.

A2494.4.3. A2494.4.3. Enmity between dog and mouse. Dh IV 112ff.

A2494.4.4. A2494.4.4. Enmity between dog and rabbit. Dh III 328; Am. Negro (Georgia): Harris Nights 349 No. 61.

A2494.4.5. A2494.4.5. Enmity between dog and fox. Dh III 328.

A2494.4.6. A2494.4.6. Enmity between dog and cat. (See A2494.1.2, A2281.1.)

A2494.4.7. A2494.4.7. Enmity between dog and lion. Dh III 338.

A2494.4.8. A2494.4.8. Enmity between dog and bull. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.4.9. A2494.4.9. Enmity between dog and tiger. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.4.10. A2494.4.10. Enmity between dog and cow. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.4.11. A2494.4.11. Enmity between dog and rooster. Duala: Lederbogen Mдrchen V 128.

A2494.4.12. A2494.4.12. Enmity between fowl and dog. Africa: Weeks Cannibals 209.

A2494.4.13. A2494.4.13. Enmity between palm rat and dog. Africa: Weeks Jungle 382f.

A2494.5. A2494.5. The jackal’s enemies.

A2494.5.1. A2494.5.1. Enmity between jackal and wild hen. Dh III 341.

A2494.5.2. A2494.5.2. Enmity between jackal and kite. Dh III 341.

A2494.5.3. A2494.5.3. Enmity between jackal and crab. Dh III 349; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.5.4. A2494.5.4. Enmity between jackal and alligator. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.6. A2494.6. The rabbit‘s enemies.

A2494.6.1. A2494.6.1. Enmity between lynx and rabbit. Penobscot: Speck JAFL XXVIII 54.

A2494.6.2. A2494.6.2. Enmity between rabbit and coyote. Chuh: Kunst JAFL XXVIII 356.

A2494.6.3. A2494.6.3. Enmity between fisher and rabbit. Penobscot: Speck JAFL XXVIII 53.

A2494.7. A2494.7. The lion’s enemies.

A2494.7.1. A2494.7.1. Enmity between monkey and lion. Vai: Ellis 231 No. 40.

A2494.7.2. A2494.7.2. Enmity between lion and wolf. Dh III 339.--Africa (Angola): Chatelain 201 No. 27.

A2494.7.3. A2494.7.3. Enmity between lion and man. Wute: Sieber 182f.

A2494.8. A2494.8. The bear‘s enemies. (Cf. A2494.10.3.)

A2494.8.1. A2494.8.1. Enmity between bears and goats. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.8.2. A2494.8.2. Enmity between bear and ant. Dh III 143.

A2494.9. A2494.9. Enemies of fox. (Cf. A2494.4.5.)

A2494.9.1. A2494.9.1. Enmity between baboon and fox. Dh III 332.

A2494.9.2. A2494.9.2. Enmity between fox and chicken. Liberian: Bundy JAFL XXXII 424.

A2494.10. A2494.10. The tiger’s enemies.

A2494.10.1. A2494.10.1. Enmity between tiger and man. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.10.2. A2494.10.2. Enmity between tiger and boar. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.10.3. A2494.10.3. Enmity between tiger and bear. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.11. A2494.11. The elephant‘s enemies.

A2494.11.1. A2494.11.1. Enmity between elephant and thousand-leg. Dh III 339.

A2494.11.2. A2494.11.2. Enmity between crocodile and elephant. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.11.3. A2494.11.3. Enmity between elephant and ant. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.12. A2494.12. Miscellaneous enmities of mammals. (Cf.A2494.13.3, A2494.13.5.)

A2494.12.1. A2494.12.1. Enmity between panther, antelope, and tortoise. Dh III 335.

A2494.12.2. A2494.12.2. Enmity between mongoose and snake. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 2, 854.

A2494.12.3. A2494.12.3. Enmity between ox and antelope. Africa (Mpongwe): Nassau 58 No. 10.

A2494.12.3.1. A2494.12.3.1. Enmity between cattle and snails. China: Eberhard FFC CXX No. 79.

A2494.12.4. A2494.12.4. Enmity between coyote and meadowlark. Pueblo: Parsons JAFL XXXI 227.

A2494.12.5. A2494.12.5. Enmity between raven and mink. Dh. III 351.

A2494.12.6. A2494.12.6. Enmity between marten and squirrel. Dh III 339.

A2494.12.7. A2494.12.7. Enmity between deer and terrapin. North Carolina: Brown Coll. I 103.

A2494.12.8. A2494.12.8. Enmity between rat and spider. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.12.9. A2494.12.9. Enmity between chimpanzee and man. Nyang: Ittman 65ff.

A2494.12.10. A2494.12.10. Enmity between porcupine and snail. Wakweli: Bender 78.

A2494.13. A2494.13. Enmities of birds. (Cf. A2494.12.4, A2494.16.4.)

A2494.13.1. A2494.13.1. Enmity between crow and owl. Spanish Exempla: Keller; India: Thompson-Balys; Panchatantra III introduction (transl. Ryder); Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 437; Japanese: Ikeda.

A2494.13.2. A2494.13.2. Enmity between kite and crow. Japanese: Ikeda; Zanzibar: Bateman 57 No. 4.

A2494.13.3. A2494.13.3. Enmity between fowl and cockroach. Antigua: Johnson JAFL XXXIV 66.

A2494.13.4. A2494.13.4. Enmity between owl and mouse. Dh III 343.

A2494.13.4.1. A2494.13.4.1. Enmity between owl and fowl. Africa: Weeks Jungle 436ff.

A2494.13.5. A2494.13.5. Enmity between crow and prairie-dog. Dh III 341.

A2494.13.6. A2494.13.6. Enmity between raven and marshsnipe. Dh III 348.

A2494.13.7. A2494.13.7. Enmity between raven and mink. Dh III 351.

A2494.13.8. A2494.13.8. Enmity between woodpecker and weaver-bird. Wakweli: Bender 50.

A2494.13.9. A2494.13.9. Enmity between bird and rat. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.13.10. A2494.13.10. The hen’s enemies.

A2494.13.10.1. A2494.13.10.1. Enmity between hen and all other animals. Dh III 344.

A2494.13.10.2. A2494.13.10.2. Enmity between hen, beetle, and duck. Dh III 347.

A2494.13.10.3. A2494.13.10.3. Enmity between hawk and hen. Dh III 343.--Africa (Cameroon): Rosenhuber 69f.

A2494.13.10.4. A2494.13.10.4. Enmity between falcon and hen. Dh III 348.

A2494.13.10.5. A2494.13.10.5. Enmity between hen and tiger. Fang: Trilles 246.

A2494.13.10.6. A2494.13.10.6. Enmity between birds of prey and chickens. Africa (Cameroon): Meinhof 42.

A2494.13.11. A2494.13.11. The starling‘s enemies.

A2494.13.11.1. A2494.13.11.1. Enmity between grasshopper and starling. Dh III 349.

A2494.13.11.2. A2494.13.11.2. Enmity between starling and locust. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.13.11.3. A2494.13.11.3. Enmity between parrot and starling. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.13.12. A2494.13.12. Enmity between fowl and falcon. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera I 613.

A2494.14. A2494.14. The insects’ enemies. (Cf. A2494.13.3, A2494.13.10.2, A2494.13.11.1.)

A2494.14.1. A2494.14.1. Enmity between spider and fly. Dh III 349.--Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 150 No. 67.

A2494.14.2. A2494.14.2. Enmity between spider and wasp. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.14.3. A2494.14.3. Why stinging flies sit on eyes of cattle. Wakweli: Bender 64.

A2494.15. A2494.15. The fish‘s enemies.

A2494.16. A2494.16. Enemies of reptiles and other animal forms. (Cf. A2494.11.2, A2494.12.7.)

A2494.16.1. A2494.16.1. Enmity between frog and snake. Dh III 349f.

A2494.16.2. A2494.16.2. Enmity between chameleon and lizard. Dh III 349.

A2494.16.3. A2494.16.3. Enmity between cobra and viper. Dh III 350.

A2494.16.4. A2494.16.4. Enmity between bird and lizard. Latter muddies water. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.16.5. A2494.16.5. Enmity between crab and spider. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2494.16.6. A2494.16.6. Enmity between earthworm and rattlesnake. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 67.

A2494.16.7. A2494.16.7. Enmity between octopus and rat. Tonga: Gifford 206.

A2495. A2495. Animal’s treatment of its excrements (urine).

A2495.1. A2495.1. Why cat buries its excrements. Cyprus: Hadjioannou No. 9; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2495.2. A2495.2. Why ass smells his own excrements. Jewish: Neuman.

A2495.3. A2495.3. Why donkeys always urinate when others begin. Jewish: Neuman.

A2496. A2496. Sexual intercourse of animals. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2496.1. A2496.1. Why dogs get stuck in copulation. (Cf. A2236.3, A2236.5.)--Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2496.2. A2496.2. Copulation of serpents. Jewish: Neuman.

A2496.3. A2496.3. Why men, fish and serpents face each other in copulation. Jewish: Neuman.

A2497. A2497. Monogamy among animals.

A2497.1. A2497.1. Monogamous life of dove. Jewish: Neuman.

A2499. A2499. Other habits of animals: miscellaneous.

A2499.1. A2499.1. Why tigers do not kill women who run away after quarreling with their husbands. India: Thompson-Balys.


A2500--A2599. Animal characteristics--miscellaneous.

A2500. A2500. Animal characteristics--miscellaneous.

A2510. A2510. Utility of animals.

A2510.1. A2510.1. Why reindeer has so many qualities. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 86 No. 58e.

A2511. A2511. Why flesh of animal is good.

A2511.1. A2511.1. Why black bears are better eating than grizzly bears. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 448.

A2512. A2512. Animal useful because of power of scenting.

A2512.1. A2512.1. Why dog can follow animal‘s scent. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2513. A2513. Why certain animals serve men. Dh III 249ff.--Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3108.

A2513.0.1. A2513.0.1. Existence of animals depends upon existence of man. Jewish: Neuman.

A2513.1. A2513.1. Origin of dog’s service. Dog must serve and obey man for meager recompense. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3109; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2513.1.1. A2513.1.1. Dog looks for the most powerful master. Stays for good in man‘s service, since man fears no one. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. *205.

A2513.2. A2513.2. How cat was domesticated. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2513.3. A2513.3. How pig was domesticated. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2513.4. A2513.4. Why goat lives with man. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2513.5. A2513.5. Why ox serves man. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2515. A2515. Animal useful for bearing burdens.

A2515.1. A2515.1. Why ox is draft animal. (See A2252.2.)

A2520. A2520. Disposition of animals.

A2521. A2521. Why animal is sad.

A2521.1. A2521.1. Why turtle-dove is sad. Sйbillot RTP III 159.

A2522. A2522. Why animal is disliked.

A2522.1. A2522.1. Why sparrow is disliked. Sйbillot RTP III 159.

A2522.2. A2522.2. Why shrike is disliked. Sйbillot RTP III 159.

A2522.3. A2522.3. Why white ants are a pest. Africa (Gold Coast): Barker and Sinclair 67 No. 7.

A2522.4. A2522.4. Why skunk is disliked. Inca: Krickeberg Mдrchen der Azteken und Inkaperuaner 254.

A2522.5. A2522.5. Why crow is disliked. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2522.6. A2522.6. Why wren is disliked. Irish myth: Cross.

A2522.7. A2522.7. Why fly is hated. Africa (Fang): Tressman 79ff.

A2523. A2523. Why animal is evil. Jewish: Neuman.

A2523.1. A2523.1. Why hog has evil spirit. (See A2287.1.)

A2523.2. A2523.2. Why snakes are proud. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2523.2.1. A2523.2.1. Why rattlesnake is dangerous. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 69.

A2524. A2524. Why animal is pugnacious (brave, bold).

A2524.1. A2524.1. Why grizzly bears are pugnacious. Kaska: Teit JAFL XXX 448.

A2524.2. A2524.2. Why sandpiper (machetis pugnax) fights. Finnish: Aarne FFC XXXIII 54 No. 104**.

A2524.3. A2524.3. Why bears attack men. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2524.4. A2524.4. Why fish attack anything they find. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2524.5. A2524.5. Why lion is brave. Jewish: Neuman.

A2524.6. A2524.6. Why dog is bold. Jewish: Neuman.

A2525. A2525. Why animals are deceptive.

A2525.1. A2525.1. Why hare is deceptive. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 375 No. 1.

A2525.2. A2525.2. Why crab is cunning. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2525.3. A2525.3. Why fox is sly. Jewish: Neuman.

A2526. A2526. Why animals are unrestrained.

A2526.1. A2526.1. Why dog lacks restraint. Ojibwa: Jones JAFL XXIX 369.

A2527. A2527. Why animal is vain.

A2527.1. A2527.1. Why cock is vain and selfish. Jewish: Neuman.

A2527.2. A2527.2. Why peacock is vain. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 8.

A2528. A2528. Why animal is strong.

A2528.1. A2528.1. Why leopard is strong. Jewish: Neuman.

A2531. A2531. Why animal is harmless.

A2531.0.1. A2531.0.1. Wild animals lose their ferocity. Jewish: Neuman. (Cf. A2295.)

A2531.1. A2531.1. Why water serpents are not venomous. (Cf. A2532.1.)--India: Thompson-Balys; Pueblo: Parsons JAFL XXXI 250; Congo: Weeks 213 No. 9.

A2531.2. A2531.2. Why grizzly bear is peaceable. Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 95, (Joshua): Frachtenberg JAFL XXVIII 241.

A2531.3. A2531.3. Why elephant is peaceable. Congo: Weeks 214 No. 10.

A2531.3.1. A2531.3.1. Why elephant flees when cock crows. Africa (Dinka): Casati I 49.

A2532. A2532. Why animals are venomous.

A2532.1. A2532.1. Why snakes are venomous. (Cf. A2235.)--Choctaw: Alexander N. Am. 64; India: Thompson-Balys; Jewish: Neuman.

A2532.2. A2532.2. Why hairy caterpillar is venomous. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2534. A2534. Why animal is timorous.

A2534.1. A2534.1. Why crab is afraid in dark. Jamaica Negro: Beckwith MAFLS XVII 259 No. 54.

A2536. A2536. Animals of good omen.

A2536.1. A2536.1. Why swallow brings good luck. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 86 No. 84a.

A2536.2. A2536.2. Why ring-dove brings good luck. Ila (Rhodesia): Smith and Dale 353 No. 7.

A2536.3. A2536.3. Why spider brings good luck. Africa (Fang): Einstein 99. (Cf. A523.1.)

A2537. A2537. Why animal is stupid.

A2537.1. A2537.1. Why fish is stupid. Jewish: Neuman.

A2537.2. A2537.2. Why ass is stupid. Jewish: Neuman.

A2540. A2540. Other animal characteristics.

A2541. A2541. Why animal is sacred.

A2541.1. A2541.1. Why bee is sacred. Dh I 215; Sйbillot RTP III 158.

A2541.2. A2541.2. Why stork is holy. (See A2221.5.)--Dh III 286; Sйbillot RTP III 128.

A2542. A2542. Why animal is cursed.

A2542.1. A2542.1. Why magpie is cursed. (See A2231.)--Sйbillot RTP III 159.

A2542.1.1. A2542.1.1. Magpie refuses to get into ark, sits around outside, jabbering over drowned world, is unlucky. (cf. A2232.4.) England: Baughman.

A2542.2. A2542.2. Why spider is cursed. (See A2231.5.)

A2545. A2545. Animal given certain privilege.

A2545.1. A2545.1. Why flies may eat anywhere. (See A2221.2.1, A2229.4.)

A2545.2. A2545.2. Why cat eats first. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 225; S. Carolina negro: Davis JAFL XXVII 244 (eats before washing).

A2545.3. A2545.3. Why dog eats first.

A2545.4. A2545.4. Dog granted proper food. Dh IV 112.

A2545.5. A2545.5. Why wild pigs ravage rice-fields. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2546. A2546. Animal granted patent of nobility.

A2546.1. A2546.1. Dog granted patent of nobility. Dh IV 117ff.

A2546.2. A2546.2. Wolf granted patent of nobility. Dh IV 125.

A2547. A2547. Why certain animal is king.

A2547.1. A2547.1. Why certain bird is king of birds. India: Thompson-Balys; Ibo (Nigeria): Basden 281.

A2551. A2551. Why game is easy to hunt. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 218.

A2552. A2552. Why game animals are elusive. S. Am. Indian (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 59, (Cavina, Tumapasa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 448.

A2555. A2555. Why certain animals are swift.

A2555.1. A2555.1. Why sheep is a good runner. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 231.

A2561. A2561. Why certain animals are sterile.

A2561.1. A2561.1. Why mule is sterile. Sйbillot RTP II 492.--Laguna and Zuсi: Parsons JAFL XXXI 259.

A2571. A2571. How animals received their names. *Dh III 186ff.--Marshall Islands: Davenport 222.

A2571.0.1. A2571.0.1. Adam gives name to all animals. Jewish: Neuman.

A2571.0.2. A2571.0.2. Adam names male animals, Eve, female. Jewish: Neuman.

A2571.0.3. A2571.0.3. God gives animals their name on first Sabbath. Jewish: Neuman.

A2571.0.4. A2571.0.4. Names of animals explained by their characteristics. Jewish: Neuman.

A2571.1. A2571.1. How the blackbird (merulus) received its name. Irish myth: Cross.

A2575. A2575. Quarrels introduced among animals. Africa (Congo): Weeks 205 No. 2.

A2576. A2576. Why monkeys do not fall from trees. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2577. A2577. Why tiger cannot come down a tree head foremost. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2578. A2578. Why animal has long life. Jewish: Neuman.

A2578.1. A2578.1. Why daddy-long-legs has long life. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2578.2. A2578.2. Why eagle has long life. Jewish: Neuman.

A2581. A2581. Why tiger lacks some qualities of cats: cat, his teacher, omitted to teach him all he knew. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2582. A2582. Why certain animals are plentiful.

A2582.1. A2582.1. Why pigs are plentiful. New Guinea: Ker 13.

A2584. A2584. Why particular animals are not found in certain place.

A2584.1. A2584.1. Why certain district is free of mosquitoes. Korean: Zong in-Sob 58, No. 32.

A2584.2. A2584.2. Why ants no longer live on the back of the hare. Korean: Zong in-Sob 33 No. 16.

A2585. A2585. Why there is enmity between certain animals and man. Jewish: Neuman.

A2585.1. A2585.1. Origin of enmity between serpent and man. Jewish: Neuman.


A2600--A2699. Origin of trees and plants.



A2600. A2600. Origin of plants. Dh I 170f.--**Wьnsche Die Pflanzenfabel in der Weltliteratur (Leipzig 1905).--Persian: Carnoy 281; Hawaiian: Dixon 38; Maori: Clark 15.

A2601. A2601. Origin of plants: creator sends down the insects, who plant them. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2602. A2602. Planting the earth. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2610. A2610. Creation of plants by transformation.

A2611. A2611. Plants from body of slain person or animal. Dh I 79.--India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 23, 129; S. Am. Indian (Mataco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 128, (Caingang): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 473.

A2611.0.1. A2611.0.1. Plants from grave of dead person or animal. India: Thompson-Balys; Mono-Alu: Wheeler 67; S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 109, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 38, (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 359f., (Cashinawa): Mйtraux ibid. 686.

A2611.0.2. A2611.0.2. Plants from foetus or body of stillborn child. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2611.0.3. A2611.0.3. Human placenta transformed into plant. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2611.0.4. A2611.0.4. Parts of body of god transformed into plants. India: Thompson-Balys; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 188.

A2611.0.4.1. A2611.0.4.1. Women transformed into flowers. Marquesas: Handy 135.

A2611.0.5. A2611.0.5. Parts of human or animal body transformed into plants. India: Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 130f. Nos. 85, 89; S. Am. Indian (Mataco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 128.

A2611.1. A2611.1. Corn from body of slain person. (Cf. A2685.1.)--Babylonian: Spence 140; India: Thompson-Balys; N. A. Indian: *Thompson Tales 293 n. 77; S. Am. Indian (Amazon): Alexander Lat. Am. 292; Yunca (Peru): ibid. 225, (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 360, (Brazil): Oberg 108; (Caingang): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 473.

A2611.2. A2611.2. Tobacco from grave of bad woman. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 23 No. 128. XXXIII 56 No. 128; Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 152 No. 76; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 96 No. 125; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3240, Legends Nos. 326--337; S. Am. Indian (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 359, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 62.

A2611.2.1. A2611.2.1. Tobacco from grave of virgin. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2611.3. A2611.3. Coconut tree from head of slain monster. Oceanic (Samoa, Union Group, Mangaia, Tahiti): Dixon 55; (Cook Is.): Beckwith Myth 104, (Solomon Is.): ibid. 104, (Papua): Ker 92, (Tuamotu): Beckwith Myth 103.

A2611.4. A2611.4. Pepper plant from body of slain person. (Cf. A2686.3.)--Zuсi: Cushing 183.

A2611.5. A2611.5. Mandrake from blood of person hanged on gallows. (Cf. A2664.)--**Starck Der Alraun; *Taylor JAFL XXXI 561f.; Penzer III 153.; *Fb “alrunerod” IV 10a.

A2611.6. A2611.6. Hair transformed into plants. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2611.6.1. A2611.6.1. Grass from hair of slain person. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2611.7. A2611.7. Origin of rue: from drops of Christ‘s blood. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3218, Legends No. 304.

A2612. A2612. Plants from tears.

A2612.1. A2612.1. Tears of Adam and Eve leaving paradise become trees. (Cf. A2681.)--Dh I 223ff.

A2612.2. A2612.2. Tears of Mary at Annunciation become daisies. (Cf. A2651.)---- Dh II 7.

A2612.3. A2612.3. God’s tears become peas. (Cf. A2686.2.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 23 No. 126.

A2613. A2613. Plant from spittle.

A2613.1. A2613.1. Mushroom from spittle of deity. (Cf. A2686.1.)--Dh II 107; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3230, Legends No. 325.

A2615. A2615. Object transformed to plant. Jewish: Neuman.

A2615.1. A2615.1. Mary hides in ground nail to be used for cross: origin of thistles. (Cf. A2688.1.)--Dh II 216.

A2615.2. A2615.2. Plant from mother‘s milk. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2615.3. A2615.3. Canoe transformed into coconut tree. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 232.

A2615.4. A2615.4. Seaweed becomes vegetation. Eskimo (Labrador): Hawkes GSCan XIV 152.

A2616. A2616. One plant transformed into another. India: Thompson-Balys; Eskimo (Labrador): Hawks GSCan XIV 152.

A2617. A2617. Plants from transformed person (animal).

A2617.1. A2617.1. Living boys or girls transformed into plants. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2617.2. A2617.2. Living animals transformed into plants. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2620. A2620. Plants originate from experience of holy person.

A2621. A2621. Plants from tread of holy person. Dh II 7.--Japanese: Anesaki 240.

A2621.1. A2621.1. Flowers from under the feet of Virgin Mary. (Cf. A2650.)--*Dh II 258; BP I 100 n. 1.

A2621.2. A2621.2. Plants from tread of goddess. Greek myth: Grote I 5 (Aphrodite).

A2622. A2622. Peter lets key of heaven fall: origin of “Heaven Key” (primrose). Peter hears that duplicate key to heaven has been made. In his excitement he lets his key drop to earth. It is returned by an angel. Where it dropped are the “Heaven Keys”. (Cf. A2653.)--*Dh II 190.

A2623. A2623. St. Peter’s grass. Created by the saint as medicine for snakebite. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 301.

A2624. A2624. Origin of plant from staff of holy person.

A2624.1. A2624.1. Origin of thorn tree from staff of Joseph of Arimathea. England: Baughman.

A2625. A2625. Plants from clothing of deity. (Cf. A2615.)--Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 282; Tahiti: Henry 338.

A2630. A2630. Other types of plant origins.

A2631. A2631. Origin of plant as punishment. (Cf. A2230.)

A2631.1. A2631.1. Punishment for first murder: thistles, etc. Until murder was committed, only useful plants grew on earth; since then, thistles. (Cf. A2688.1.)--Dh I 248.

A2631.1.1. A2631.1.1. Punishment for Fall of Man: thistles, etc. Jewish: Neuman.

A2632. A2632. Origin of plant as reward.

A2632.1. A2632.1. Willow shelters Holy Family: becomes weeping willow. (Cf. A2681.1.)--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 91 No. 132c.

A2632.2. A2632.2. Origin of tree for crucifixion of Christ. Planted by Adam‘s son on the grave of primeval father. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 66.

A2634. A2634. Plants created by direct divine agency. India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Viracocha): Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 550, (Toba): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 41.



A2650. A2650. Origin of flowers. (See A2617.1, A2621.1.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2651. A2651. Origin of daisy. (See A2612.2.)--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 92 No. 253*.

A2653. A2653. Origin of primrose. (Cf. A2622.)--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 91 No. 250.

A2654. A2654. Origin of “Mary’s bed straw” (thymus serpyllum). Flemish: De Meyer FFC XXXVII 91 No. 251*.

A2655. A2655. Origin of bindweed (convolvulus sepium). Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 91 No. 252*.

A2656. A2656. Origin of rose.

A2656.1. A2656.1. Origin of mossrose. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 92 No. 254*

A2656.2. A2656.2. Origin of York and Lancaster rose. From dust and blood of slain of War of the Roses--a variety of rose unknown before that time. England: Baughman.

A2657. A2657. Origin of forget-me-not. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 92 No. 255*.

A2658. A2658. Origin of lady-slipper (calceolaria hybrida). Flemish: DeMeyer XXXVII 92 No. 256*.

A2661. A2661. Origin of snowdrop (galanthus nivatis). Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 92 No. 257*.

A2662. A2662. Origin of hellebore. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 92 No. 259*.

A2663. A2663. Origin of clove. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 92 No. 261*.

A2664. A2664. Origin of mandrake. (See A2611.5.)

A2665. A2665. Origin of wild morning glory. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 282.

A2665.1. A2665.1. Origin of narcissus. Chinese: Eberhard 131 No. 87.

A2666. A2666. Origin of rue. (See A2611.0.4.1.)

A2680. A2680. Origin of other plant forms.

A2681. A2681. Origin of trees. (See A2612.1.)--Finnish: Kalevala rune 2; Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 325--26; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2681.1. A2681.1. Origin of weeping willow. (See A2632.1.)

A2681.2. A2681.2. Origin of oak. Finnish: Kalevala rune 2.

A2681.3. A2681.3. Poplars from weeping maidens transformed by god. *Frazer Pausanias II 72.

A2681.4. A2681.4. Origin of birch trees.

A2681.4.1. A2681.4.1. First birch trees in Ireland. Irish myth: Cross.

A2681.5. A2681.5. Origin of palms. Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2681.5.1. A2681.5.1. Origin of coconut tree. (See A2611.3.)--Oceanic (Cove Is.): Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 104, (Tahiti): ibid. 101, (New Guinea): ibid. 102, (Marshall Is.): Davenport 223, (Marquesas): Handy 30.

A2681.6. A2681.6. Origin of bamboo. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2681.7. A2681.7. Origin of sandalwood tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2681.8. A2681.8. Origin of dammar tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2681.9. A2681.9. Origin of mulberry tree. Marquesas: Handy 123.

A2681.10. A2681.10. Origin of banyan tree. Marquesas: Handy 123.

A2681.11. A2681.11. Origin of breadfruit tree. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 68, 971, 101.

A2681.12. A2681.12. Origin of palm-wine tree. Africa (Bushonga): Torday 236.

A2681.13. A2681.13. Origin of cedar tree. Jewish: Neuman.

A2682. A2682. Origin of creepers. India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Mataco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 128.

A2683. A2683. Origin of grass. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2684. A2684. Origin of cultivated plants. (Cf. A2685, A2691.2.)--Jibaro: Karsten, cf. JAFL XXXII 446; Tonga: Gifford 17f.; Japanese: Beckwith Myth 102.

A2684.1. A2684.1. Origin of flax. Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 112.

A2684.2. A2684.2. Origin of hemp. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2684.2.1. A2684.2.1. Origin of sorghum. Africa (Wute): Sieber 204.

A2684.3. A2684.3. Origin of cotton plant. S. Am. Indian (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 359.

A2685. A2685. Origin of cereals.

A2685.1. A2685.1. Origin of corn. (See A2611.1.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2685.1.1. A2685.1.1. Origin of maize. India: Thompson-Balys; S. A. Indian (Chiriguano): Mйtraux RMLP XXXIII 172, (Tembй): Mйtraux ibid. 140, (Kaigua, Apapocuva-Guarani): Mйtraux ibid. 136, (Tenetehara): Wagley-Galvao BBAE CXLIII (3) 148.

A2685.2. A2685.2. Origin of straw. Formerly whole blade became grain. Straw left for dog. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 10. No. 49, XXXIII 53 No. 49; Estonian: Aarne FFC XXV 143 No. 28; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2685.3. A2685.3. Origin of rye. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 23 No. 129; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2685.4. A2685.4. Origin of barley. Finnish: Kalevala rune 2; Jewish: Neuman.

A2685.5. A2685.5. Origin of manioc. S. Am. Indian (Paressi): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 360, (Mataco): Mйtraux MAFLS XL 128.

A2686. A2686. Origin of vegetables. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2686.1. A2686.1. Origin of mushroom. (Cf. A2613.1.)--Dh II 107; India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2686.2. A2686.2. Origin of peas. (See A2612.3.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2686.3. A2686.3. Origin of pepper plant. (See A2611.4.)--S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 109.

A2686.3.1. A2686.3.1. Origin of kava plant. Tonga: Beckwith Myth 101, Gifford 72, 75.

A2686.4. A2686.4. Origin of edible roots. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2686.4.1. A2686.4.1. Origin of sweet potato. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 242; S. Am. Indian (Brazil): Oberg 109.

A2686.4.2. A2686.4.2. Origin of taro. Mono-Alu: Wheeler 67; Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 98.

A2686.4.3. A2686.4.3. Origin of yams. Tonga: Gifford 17.

A2686.5. A2686.5. Origin of turmeric. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2686.6. A2686.6. Origin of beans. S. Am. Indian (Caingang): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 473.

A2686.7. A2686.7. Origin of gourds. S. Am. Indian (Caingang): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (1) 473.

A2686.8. A2686.8. Origin of cinnamon. Jewish: Neuman.

A2687. A2687. Origin of fruits.

A2687.1. A2687.1. Origin of blood-oranges. Sйbillot RTP III 25.

A2687.2. A2687.2. Origin of melons. S. Am. Indian (Mataco): MAFLS XL 128.

A2687.3. A2687.3. Origin of berries. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 188, 282.

A2687.4. A2687.4. Origin of pumpkin. S. Am. Indian (Jivaro): Steward-Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 627.

A2687.5. A2687.5. Origin of banana. Tonga: Gifford 17.

A2688. A2688. Origin of weeds. India: Thompson-Balys; Tonga: Gifford 22.

A2688.1. A2688.1. Origin of thistles. (See A2615.1, A2631.1.)--Irish myth: Cross; Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 23 No. 130; Jewish: Neuman.

A2688.1.1. A2688.1.1. Origin of thorn-bush. Fb “torn” III 827a; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2691. A2691. Origin of narcotic plants.

A2691.1. A2691.1. Origin of coffee. Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 23 No. 127.

A2691.2. A2691.2. Origin of tobacco. (See A2611.2, A2611.2.1.)--Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 131 No. 88; India: *Thompson-Balys; Calif. Indian: Gayton and Newman 58; S. Am. Indian (Cariri): Lowie BBAE CXLIII (1) 559.

A2691.3. A2691.3. Origin of ganja. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2691.4. A2691.4. Origin of opium. India: *Thompson-Balys; Chinese: Eberhard 131 No. 88.

A2691.5. A2691.5. Origin of betel. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2692. A2692. Origin of poisonous plants. India: Thompson-Balys; S. Am. Indian (Cashinawa): Mйtraux BBAE CXLIII (3) 686; Africa (Tonga): Gifford 27.


A2700--A2799. Origin of plant characteristics.



A2700. A2700. Origin of plant characteristics. Jewish: Neuman.

A2710. A2710. Plant characteristics as reward.

A2711. A2711. Plant blessed for pious act. (Cf. A2221.)

A2711.1. A2711.1. Plant blessed for help at Jesus‘ birth. Dh II 19f.

A2711.2. A2711.2. Trees blessed that made the cross. Dh II 207.

A2711.2.1. A2711.2.1. Elder tree is never struck by lightning because it was used in making the cross. England: Baughman.

A2711.3. A2711.3. Plant blessed for helping holy fugitive. Dh II 58ff.--Spanish Exempla: Keller; Lithuanian: Balys Legends Nos. 197f., 202ff.; Irish: Beal XXI 306.

A2711.4. A2711.4. Tree protects Jesus from rain: is green all year. (Cf. A2765.1.)--Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 152 No. 80 (fig); Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 94 No. 113 (pine).

A2711.4.1. A2711.4.1. Hazel gives Virgin Mary shelter. Blessed. *BP III 477; Lithuanian: Balys Legends No. 198f., 204.

A2711.4.2. A2711.4.2. Thistle serves as milk-cup for Virgin Mary: white spots on leaves. England: Baughman.

A2711.4.3. A2711.4.3. Plant receives name because of service to Virgin Mary. German: Grimm No. 207.

A2711.5. A2711.5. Rowan helps Thor out of river. Icel.: MacCulloch Eddic 84.

A2711.6. A2711.6. How the plum tree came to be so hardy: blessed by Ram. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2711.7. A2711.7. Fig tree stays with the angels: rewarded with sap of all other trees. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2720. A2720. Plant characteristics as punishment.

A2721. A2721. Plant cursed for impious act.

A2721.1. A2721.1. Plant cursed for disservice to child Jesus. (Cf. A2772.2.)--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 90 No. 130a (rush).

A2721.2. A2721.2. Plant cursed for disservice at crucifixion. (Cf. A2711.2.)--Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3222, Legends No. 323.

A2721.2.1. A2721.2.1. Tree cursed for serving as cross. (Cf. A2751.3.1, A2751.3.2, A2755.2, A2762.1, A2775.)--Dh II 207ff.--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 23 No. 131, XXXIII 56 No. 131; Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 152 No. 77; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 94 No. 108; North Carolina: Brown Collection I 636.

A2721.2.1.1. A2721.2.1.1. Aspen cursed for serving as cross. (Cf. A2762.1.)--England, Scotland: Baughman.*

A2721.2.1.2. A2721.2.1.2. Poplar cursed for serving as cross. (Cf. A2762.2.)--U.S.: Baughman.

A2721.2.1.3. A2721.2.1.3. Cottonwood cursed for serving as cross. U.S.: Baughman.

A2721.2.1.4. A2721.2.1.4. Elder cursed for serving as cross. (Cf. A2766.1.)--England: Baughman.

A2721.2.2. A2721.2.2. Indentations on plants from Christ‘s biting them at crucifixion. (cf. A2751.3.1.)--Dh II 198.

A2721.3. A2721.3. Plant punished for ungracious answer to holy person.

A2721.3.1. A2721.3.1. Man tells Jesus he is sowing stones. “You shall get stones.” Why peas do not soften in boiling. Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 152 No. 78; cf. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 96 No. 124; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3016.

A2721.3.2. A2721.3.2. Farmer tells begging monk that potatoes are hard as stones: why potatoes are hard. Japanese: Anesaki Japanese Myth 252.

A2721.4. A2721.4. Plant cursed for betraying holy fugitive. Dh II 58ff.

A2721.5. A2721.5. Tree on which Judas hanged himself cursed. Dh II 236ff.; **Taylor “The Gallows of Judas Iscariot” Washington University Studies (Humanistic series) IX (1922) 135ff.

A2721.6. A2721.6. Why the mogli flower and the lime are cursed by gods. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2721.7. A2721.7. Trees fail to come at god’s leavetaking, now bear bitter fruit. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2721.8. A2721.8. Barren trees as punishment of earth for disobedience at man‘s fall. Jewish: Neuman.

A2722. A2722. Plant punished for disobedience.

A2722.1. A2722.1. Plantain disobeys mother: hence bears but one stalk. (Cf. A2771.2.)--Mpongwe: Nassau 76 No. 16.

A2723. A2723. Plant punished for discontent. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 134 No. 91.

A2723.1. A2723.1. Discontented pine-tree: cause of pine needles. Pine tree given silk leaves, glass leaves, etc. Always discontented. Finally has needles again. (Cf. A2767.1.)--*Dh III 337.--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 94 No. 114.

A2723.2. A2723.2. God changes nature of plant to punish wastefulness of man: yield of plant is decreased. German: Grimm No. 194.

A2725. A2725. Plant punished for tardiness.

A2725.1. A2725.1. Ash-tree late at distribution of qualities at creation: therefore buds last. (Cf. A2771.1.)--Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 95 No. 115.

A2726. A2726. Plant punished for tale-telling.

A2726.1. A2726.1. Curse of tale-telling banana affects all others. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2730. A2730. Miscellaneous reasons for plant characteristics.

A2731. A2731. Plant characteristics from transformation.

A2731.1. A2731.1. Trickster’s burnt flesh becomes gum on trees. N. A. Indian: Thompson Tales 304 n. 1091.

A2731.2. A2731.2. Plant characteristics from tears. (Cf. A2755.3.1, A2755.3.2.)--Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 82 n. 2, 86 n. 2.

A2731.2.1. A2731.2.1. Plant characteristics from Virgin Mary‘s tears. *Dh II 255ff.

A2731.2.1.1. A2731.2.1.1. Plant characteristics from Virgin Mary’s milk. England: Baughman.

A2731.3. A2731.3. Blood from wizard becomes red grain of cedar. Bleeding head of wizard who tries to kill the sun placed on top of a tree. (Cf. A2755.1.)--Yuchi: Alexander N. Am. 64.

A2731.4. A2731.4. Why agar-tree has magic properties. A transformed magician. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2733. A2733. Poppy characteristics from series of reincarnations. Opium produces each of the appropriate qualities. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2734. A2734. Plant characteristics from object thrown by devil.

A2734.1. A2734.1. Devil throws sand at aspen: hence rough bark. Angered because aspens will not cease quivering. (Cf. A2751.2.1.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 23 No. 132.

A2734.2. A2734.2. Devil throws tar at tree: hence tar in tree-heart. (Cf. A2755.3.)--Finnish: Aarne FFC VIII 4 No. 10. Cf. Type 153.

A2736. A2736. Evil spirit in spite puts bark and thorns on tree. (A2751.1, A2752.)--Persian: Carnoy 283.

A2738. A2738. Christ puts knots in wood. Peter, angry at carpenters wants Christ to have iron knots in wood. Christ does make hard knots but not iron. (Cf. A2755.4.)--Dh II 174ff.

A2741. A2741. Plant characteristics from accident to original plant.

A2741.1. A2741.1. Bean laughs till it splits: cause of black stripe. (Cf. A2793.1, F1025.1.)--Type 295.--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 90 No. 126a; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 95 No. 121.

A2741.2. A2741.2. Yams dropped by bird and split: why some are good and some bad. (Cf. A2793.3.)--New Hebrides (Leper‘s Island): Dixon 144.

A2741.3. A2741.3. Sky rests on top of trees: hence flat leaves. (Cf. A2761.3.)--Polynesian: Dixon 51 n. 55.

A2741.4. A2741.4. Bush loses clothes in shipwreck: hence catches passerby looking for clothes. (Cf. A2792.1.)--See A2275.5.3.

A2741.5. A2741.5. Why khijur leaves are long and narrow: split with an arrow. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2742. A2742. Plant characteristics from exchange of qualities. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2743. A2743. Plant characteristic because plant belongs to the devil.

A2743.1. A2743.1. Fuschia belongs to devil: hence ball and red petals. North Carolina: Brown Coll. I 635.



A2750. A2750. Interior and bark of plant.

A2751. A2751. Bark of plant.

A2751.1. A2751.1. Origin of bark on plants. (See A2736.)

A2751.2. A2751.2. Texture of bark of plant.

A2751.2.1. A2751.2.1. Why aspen’s bark is rough. (See A2734.1.)

A2751.2.2. A2751.2.2. Why bark of red willow is thin. Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 223.

A2751.2.3. A2751.2.3. Why tinsa tree has no bark at bottom of trunk. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2751.3. A2751.3. Markings on bark of plant.

A2751.3.1. A2751.3.1. Indentions in stem of reed. (See A2721.2.1, A2721.2.2, A2732.)--Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 90 No. 130b.

A2751.3.2. A2751.3.2. Crosses on certain trees. (See A2721.2.1.)

A2751.4. A2751.4. Color of bark of plant.

A2751.4.1. A2751.4.1. Why birch has white bark. Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 94 No. 110; Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 91 No. 132f.

A2751.4.2. A2751.4.2. Why ebony tree is black. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2751.4.3. A2751.4.3. Why tamarind bark is black. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2751.4.4. A2751.4.4. Why bark of saja and tinsa is white. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2751.4.5. A2751.4.5. Why broom-corn is covered with blood-red spots. Korean: Zong in-Sob 10 No. 3.

A2751.4.6. A2751.4.6. Why kava plant is grey. Tonga: Gifford 72.

A2752. A2752. Thorns on plants. (See A2736).--Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2752.1. A2752.1. Why bombax tree has thorns. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2755. A2755. Internal parts of plant.

A2755.1. A2755.1. Origin of red grain of cedar. (See A2731.3.)

A2755.2. A2755.2. Origin of blood-colored sap in trees. (See A2721.2.1.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2755.2.1. A2755.2.1. Why the saja tree has no sap. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2755.3. A2755.3. Origin of tar in heart of trees. (See A2734.2.)--Tahltan: Teit JAFL XXXII 210.

A2755.3.1. A2755.3.1. Origin of amber in poplar trees. (Cf. A2731.2.)--Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 82 n. 2.

A2755.3.2. A2755.3.2. Origin of gum in myrrh tree. (Cf. A2731.2.)--Greek: Frazer Apollodorus II 86 n. 2.

A2755.4. A2755.4. Origin of knots in wood. (See A2738.)--Irish myth: Cross.

A2755.4.1. A2755.4.1. Why there are knots on the saja tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2756. A2756. Why the bamboo has nodes. India: *Thompson-Balys.

A2757. A2757. Why certain reeds are hollow. Buddhist myth: Malalasekera II 36.

A2760. A2760. Leaves of plant.

A2760.1. A2760.1. Why all trees have leaves. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2761. A2761. Shape of leaves of plant.

A2761.1. A2761.1. Why oak-leaves are indented. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 91 No. 132b.

A2761.2. A2761.2. Why vine-leaves are hand-shaped. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 91 No. 132b.

A2761.3. A2761.3. Why plant-leaves are flat. (See A2741.3.)

A2762. A2762. Movement of leaves.

A2762.1. A2762.1. Why aspen-leaves tremble.--*Fb “asp” IV 18a; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3105, Legends Nos. 203--213.

A2762.2. A2762.2. Why poplar-leaves tremble. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 90 No. 131.

A2762.3. A2762.3. Why pipal leaves tremble. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2763. A2763. Why certain leaves have holes in them. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2764. A2764. Why certain leaves are hollow.

A2764.1. A2764.1. Why taro leaves are hollow. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 229.

A2765. A2765. Why leaves are evergreen. (See A2711.4.)

A2766. A2766. Why certain tree bleeds.

A2766.1. A2766.1. Why elder tree bleeds when cut. (A2721.2.1.4.)--England: Baughman.

A2767. A2767. Origin of tree‘s needles.

A2767.1. A2767.1. Origin of pine-needles. (See A2723.1.)

A2768. A2768. Why leaves hang head downward. Maori: Clark 96.

A2769. A2769. Leaves of plant--miscellaneous.

A2769.1. A2769.1. Why tamarind leaves are small. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2770. A2770. Other plant characteristics.

A2771. A2771. Budding and bearing of plant.

A2771.1. A2771.1. Why ash-tree buds last. (See A2725.1.)--Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3222, Legends No. 324.

A2771.2. A2771.2. Why plantain bears but one stalk. (See A2722.1.)--India: Thompson-Balys.

A2771.3. A2771.3. Why sago bears fruit from the stem. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2771.4. A2771.4. Why banana bears fruit from crown of tree. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2771.4.1. A2771.4.1. Why rice has ears only at top. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 130 No. 86.

A2771.5. A2771.5. Trees bear first buds to commemorate reign of primitive hero. Irish myth: Cross.

A2771.6. A2771.6. Why certain willow tree bears fruit when fruit trees bear. Irish myth: Cross.

A2771.7. A2771.7. Why sorrel grows on certain rock every winter. Irish myth: Cross.

A2771.8. A2771.8. Why tree has bitter fruit.

A2771.8.1. A2771.8.1. Why olive is bitter. Jewish: Neuman.

A2771.8.2. A2771.8.2. Why laurel tree is bitter. Jewish: Neuman.

A2771.9. A2771.9. Why big trees have small fruit. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2771.10. A2771.10. Why willow flowers do not bear fruit. Chinese: Graham.

A2772. A2772. Color of plants.

A2772.1. A2772.1. Origin of rose‘s color. Sйbillot RTP II 549.

A2772.2. A2772.2. Why end of rush is black. (See A2721.1.)

A2772.3. A2772.3. Why the heartsease (polygonum persicaria) has red stripes. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 90 No. 129a.

A2772.4. A2772.4. Why ebony tree has black wood and smoke-colored leaves. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2774. A2774. Why trees remain fixed. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2774.1. A2774.1. Why ayikha-bush is firmly rooted. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2775. A2775. Why certain trees are dwarfed. (See A2721.2.1.)

A2775.0.1. A2775.0.1. Why plants no longer reach sky. Chinese: Eberhard FFC CXX 134 No. 90.

A2776. A2776. Why certain plants are cursed.

A2776.1. A2776.1. Why birch is cursed. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 91 No. 132d.

A2776.2. A2776.2. Why weeping-willow is cursed. Flemish: DeMeyer XXXVII 91 No. 132d.

A2777. A2777. Why certain plants (trees) are blessed.

A2777.1. A2777.1. Why fig tree is chief priest of the trees. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2777.2. A2777.2. King of trees. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2778. A2778. Why certain tree is tall.

A2778.1. A2778.1. Why coconut tree is tall. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 98.

A2778.2. A2778.2. Why palm is tall. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2781. A2781. Origin of plant names. Jewish: Neuman.

A2782. A2782. Origin of combustible property of wood. Tonga: Gifford 23.

A2783. A2783. Medicinal properties of trees. Jewish: Neuman.

A2785. A2785. Origin of shape of particular tree.

A2785.1. A2785.1. Origin of shape of wiliwili tree. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 495.

A2788. A2788. Why certain tree is hardy.

A2791. A2791. Sundry characteristics of trees.

A2791.1. A2791.1. Why trees do not talk. All ask to be spared when man begins cutting them. Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 151 No. 75; Livonian: Loorits FFC LXVI 94 No. 107; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3215, Legends No. 302f.; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2791.2. A2791.2. Why lightning spares the nut-tree. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII 91 No. 132e.

A2791.3. A2791.3. How banyan got its milk. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2791.4. A2791.4. Why no one can find flower of wild fig. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2791.5. A2791.5. Why tamarind fruit is sour. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2791.7. A2791.7. Why some trees have no fruit. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2791.8. A2791.8. Why sap comes from top of palm. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2791.9. A2791.9. Why fruit of sago palm looks like an eye. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2791.10. A2791.10. Why sago palm gives abundant sap. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2791.11. A2791.11. Why fruit of date palm looks like breasts of old woman. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2791.12. A2791.12. Why the bija tree is often struck by lightning. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2791.13. A2791.13. Why the roots of the banyan hang down. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2792. A2792. Sundry characteristics of shrubs.

A2792.1. A2792.1. Why bush holds on to passer-by. (See A2275.5.3, A2741.4.)

A2793. A2793. Sundry characteristics of grains and vegetables.

A2793.1. A2793.1. Why bean has black stripe. (See A2741.1.)

A2793.1.1. A2793.1.1. Why beans bear everywhere. Chinese: Graham.

A2793.2. A2793.2. Why grain of wheat is divided. Flemish: DeMeyer FFC XXXVII. 90 No. 126b.

A2793.2.1. A2793.2.1. Why wheat must be planted in one year and harvested in the next. Chinese: Graham.

A2793.3. A2793.3. Why some yams are good, some bad. (See A2741.2.)

A2793.4. A2793.4. Why potatoes are hard. (See A2721.3.2.)

A2793.5. A2793.5. Why grain grows only at top of stalk (punishment for men’s sinfulness). Grimm No. 194; BP III 417ff.; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3220, Legends Nos. 305--313; Cheremis: Sebeok-Nyerges.

A2793.5.1. A2793.5.1. Why corn does not yield in the middle. Chinese: Graham.

A2793.6. A2793.6. Origin of shapes of grain. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3221, Legends Nos. 315--322.

A2793.7. A2793.7. Why rice is so abundant. Chinese: Graham.

A2793.8. A2793.8. Why millet is red on top. Chinese: Graham.

A2793.9. A2793.9. Why buckwheat produces twice a year. Chinese: Graham.

A2794. A2794. Sundry characteristics of vegetables.

A2794.1. A2794.1. Why mushrooms are slimy. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2794.2. A2794.2. Why yams are small but plentiful in certain place. New Hebrides: Codrington No. II 3.

A2795. A2795. Sundry characteristics of flowers.

A2795.1. A2795.1. Why some flowers have no scent. India: Thompson-Balys.


A2800--A2899. Miscellaneous explanations.



A2811. A2811. Origin of silk. Chauvin VII 59 No. 77 n. 1.

A2812. A2812. Origin of musk. Chauvin VII 59 No. 77 n. 1.

A2813. A2813. Origin of honey. Chauvin VII 59 No. 77 n. 1.; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys; Icel.: Boberg.

A2814. A2814. Origin of spices. Chauvin VII 59 No. 77 n. 1.

A2815. A2815. Origin of floating webs in summer. *Dh II 254.

A2816. A2816. Origin of smoke. Esthonian: Aarne FFC XXV 152 No. 81.

A2817. A2817. Origin of the will-o‘-the-wisp (jack-o’-lantern). Type 330.--Africa (Fang): Trilles 138.

A2817.1. A2817.1. Smith outwits devil, is admitted to neither heaven nor hell. The devil gives him a light to find his way back in the dark; he is known as the will-o’-the-wisp or jack-o‘-lantern. England, Ireland, Scotland, U.S.: *Baughman.

A2817.2. A2817.2. Will-o’-the-wisp is girl cursed by her mother for gathering plants for dyestuffs on Sunday. Will-o‘-the-wisp is seen where girl disappeared. Scotland: Baughman.

A2823. A2823. Origin of churning stick. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2824. A2824. Origin of drum. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2825. A2825. Origin of canes: from whip thrust into ground. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2826. A2826. Origin of shells. Eskimo (East Greenland): Rasmussen I 114.

A2827. A2827. Origin of pearls. Jewish: Neuman.

A2828. A2828. Origin of particular kinds of basket. Tonga: Gifford 140.

A2831. A2831. Origin of demons. Jewish: Neuman.

A2834. A2834. Origin of fish drug. S. Am. Indian: Wagley-Galvao BBAE CXLIII (3) 253.

A2847. A2847. Origin of scum on stagnant water. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2849. A2849. Miscellaneous origins.

A2849.1. A2849.1. Miscellaneous Jewish origins. Jewish: **Neuman.



A2851. A2851. The four characteristics of wine. Devil helps Noah plant vineyard and kills various animals over it. These illustrate the four qualities of wine. peacock: brilliant colors; ape: jokes; lion: boldness; hog: drunkenness.--*Dh I 298ff.; *Pauli (ed. Bolte) No. 244; *Kцhler-Bolte I 577; Basset III 31; *Krappe Bull. Hispanique XXXIX 48; Spanish Exempla: Keller; Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3242; Jewish: Neuman; India: Thompson-Balys.

A2853. A2853. Why sexes differ in form and temperament. Jewish: Neuman.

A2854. A2854. Why men like tobacco, but spit when smoking. Adam in paradise spat upon the tobacco plant. Lithuanian: Balys Index No. 3242, Legends No. 338f.

A2855. A2855. Trees classified as “pleasant trees, herb trees, shrub trees.” Irish myth: Cross.

A2861. A2861. Why men become old. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2862. A2862. Why spirits are invisible. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2871. A2871. Why soil in certain country is poor. India: Thompson-Balys.

A2872. A2872. Why coral is soft. Africa (Tonga): Gifford 136.

A2875. A2875. Why babies have soft spots in head. Hawaii: Beckwith Myth 507.

A2877. A2877. Why palm oil is red. Africa (Cameroon): Mansfield.